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人教版高一英语必修四Unit2


一、动名词的形式
动词的ing形式相当于名词、形容词等,也 保留了动词的某些特征。
主动形式 一般式 doing 被动形式 being done

完成式

having done

having been done

指出-ing形式在下面句中的成分。 ? Finding w

ays to grow more rice has been his life goal. 主语 ? He enjoys listening to violin music. 宾语 ? China is a developing country. 定语 ? The music is exciting. 表语 宾语补足语 ? We heard her singing in her room. ? Being ill, she went back home. 状语

一、动词-ing形式作主语 1. 表示经常的、习惯性的动作或状态, 谓语动词通常用单数。如:
1)Walking is a good form of exercise for both young and old. 2)Watching news on TV has become a routine for me. 3)Going to Hangzhou by train takes about 16 hours. 4)Asking a woman’s age is impolite in our country.

二、功能及用法(作主语)

动名词直接置于句首主语的位置上。
1) 捉弄别人是我们万万不能干的.
Playing tricks on others is something we should ______________________ never do. 2)学习新单词对我来说非常重要。 ___________________ Learning new words is very important for me. 3)说比做容易。__________ is easier than doing. Saying

2. -ing形式作主语时常后置, 此时须用it作形式主 语, 用形容词或名词作表语。
常见的名词或名词短语有: no use, no good, fun, a pleasure,hard work, a hard / difficult job, a waste of time 等; 形容词有: worth,worthwhile, useless,useful等。

归纳: 常用-ing形式作主语的句型有: ? It +be +a waste of time doing ? 做…是浪费时间的 ? It is/was no good/use doing ? 做……是没用处的
? It is/was worth/worthwhile doing

? 做…是值得的
? It is/was hardly/scarcely worth doing ? 做……不值得

1) It’s worth making the effort. 做出努力是值得的。 2) 和夏洛克争辩是没有什么用的。 It is useless trying to argue _____________________________ with Shylock. 3) 跟你在一起工作是令人愉快的。 It is a pleasure working with you. ________________________________________ 4)玩电子游戏是浪费时间。 It's a waste of time playing ____________________. computer games.

3. 在there be no...结构中作主语, 这种结构的意思 相当于“It is impossible to do… ”。 ? ? ? ? There is no sense in doing 做……没有道理 There is/was no use /good (in)doing 做……无意义 There is/was nothing worse than doing 没有比……更糟的 ? There is/was no point (in) doing 做……无意义 ? There is/was no way doing 无法做------

1.There's no use/good complaining.
怨天尤人是没有用的

2.There is no point in doing so. 那样做毫无意义。

【完成句子】 learning without practice 1)It is no good________________. 学习而不实践是没有好处的。
2) 这种事开不得玩笑。 no joking There is ________________ about such matter. 3) 无法知道他什么时候离开。 There was ____________ no knowing when he would leave.

二、功能及用法(作主语)

注意:There is no need to do sth 干……没必要 在此句式中to do 不可换为doing 没有必要告诉她。 There is no need to tell her. __________________________________

【注意】

动名词作主语与不定式作主语的区别:
动词- ing形式作主语表示泛指的行为,不定式 作主语往往表示具体的或一次性的动作。作宾 语时的情况也是如此。 Playing with fire is dangerous.玩火危险。 (泛指) Be careful!To play with fire will be dangerous. 小心点!玩火会带来危险。(指一具体动作)

二、功能及用法(作主语) 1)还是个孩子的时侯,她就觉得探视病人是一种责 任,也是一种愉悦。 visiting sick people was As a child,she felt that _________________ a duty and a pleasure.

2)到美国人家里做客对我来说将是一个极好的经历。 To be a guest in an American home will be a ____________ good experience for me.

在实际运用中,一般两者可以互换,差异不大, 但下列情况不能互换.

1)There/It be … doing sth. 句型不能换为 不定式 2) 而在It’s important … / It’s necessary … / It’s advisable … / It’s essential … / It’s fitting … 这类句型中,只能用不定式 如: It’s important to learn foreign languages. It’s quite necessary to read it many times.

二、功能及用法 (用作宾语) ▲动名词作宾语有两种情况:
1)有些动词只能后接动名词作宾语; 2)有些动词既可后接动名词也可后接不定式作 宾语。 (1)只能后接动名词作宾语的动词,常见的有 avoid, admit, appreciate(欣赏), consider,deny(否定), dislike, delay(延期), enjoy, escape, excuse, keep, finish, fancy, feel like(想要), suggest, cannot help(不得不/禁不住), imagine, mind, miss, practise, risk(冒险), cannot stand (受不了)等。

可接动名词作宾语的常见动词口诀: 避免错过少延期 (avoid, miss, postpone) 建议完成多练习 (advise, finish, practise)

喜欢想象禁不住 (enjoy, imagine, can’t help) 承认否定与嫉妒 (admit, deny, envy)
逃避冒险莫原谅 (escape, risk, excuse)

忍受保持不介意 (stand, keep, mind)

He finished reading the book yesterday. 他昨天把这本书读完了。 Would you mind opening the window? 你介意打开窗户吗? I tried to avoid making the same mistake. 我尽力避免犯同样的错误。 I can't stand being treated like that. 我受不了被那样对待。 The bird escaped being shot.

1)我们必须设法避免犯同样的错误。 avoid repeating the same We must try to ______________ mistake. 2)人们忍不住嘲笑那个愚蠢的人。 People ___________________________ couldn’t help laughing at that foolish man.

C meeting on what to do 3) Bill suggested________a for the Shanghai Expo during the vacation. (2009· 上海,35) A.having held B.to hold C.holding D.hold
解析:suggest后面要接动名词作宾语,A项是动 名词的完成时,表示发生在谓语动词suggested 之前的一个动作。因此,不合题意,故被排除。

(2)英语中有一些动词短语也常跟v.ing形式作宾语, 如:insist on(坚持),object to(反对),be good at, lead to,leave off(停止),put off,give up, look forward to,feel like(想要),devote to (把……奉献给),get used to(习惯于),pay attention to,be worth等。

Do you feel like having a walk with me after supper? 晚饭后你想和我一起散步吗? I'm looking forward to hearing from you. 我盼望收到你的来信。 He has got used to living in the countryside.

(3)既可接动名词又可接不定式作宾语 的动词,常见的有:begin,start, continue,like,love,prefer,by, mean,forget,hate, remember, go on (继续)等。

A. 在 like, love, hate, prefer等动词之后, 用-ing或不定式意义上没有什么不同, 只是侧重 点有些不同, ing表示泛指的动作, to do表示具体的一次性动作。
B. 在 begin/start, continue之后, 用动名词和

不定式, 意义没有什么不同, 尤其是当主语是 人的时候。

C. 在动词forget, remember, regret之后, 用 动名词与不定式意义不同。

-ing 表示动作已经发生,
-to do 表示动作还没发生;

I remember posting the letter.
I’ll remember to post the letter.

I shall never forget seeing the famous writer.
Don’t forget to write to your mother. I regret missing the report. I regret to say I can’t take your advice.

? ?remember doing sth记得做了某事 ? ? ?remember to do sth记住要去做某事 ? ?forget ? ? ?forget ? ?regret ? ? ?regret

doing sth忘记做了某事 to do sth忘记要去做某事 doing sth后悔做了某事 to do sth遗憾要去做某事

D. 意义各不相同 try to do (设法) mean to do (打算, 有意要做) try doing (试试) mean doing (意思是, 意味着) be used to doing 习惯于做某事 be used to do 被用来做某事 can’t help doing 禁不住做某事 can't help to do 不能帮助做某事 E. go on doing 继续做一直在做的事; go on to do 接着做另一件事。 stop doing 停止做某事 stop to do停下正在干的事去干另一件事。

? ?stop ? ? ?stop

to do sth停下来去做某事 doing sth停止做某事 to do sth想要做某事 doing sth意味着做某事

? ?mean ? ? ?mean ? ?try ? ? ?try ? ?be ? ? ?be

to do sth努力/企图做某事 doing sth试着做某事(看会发生什么)

afraid to do sth不敢做某事 afraid of doing sth害怕做某事

1.He stopped _______and have a rest. to smoke (smoke)
smoking 2.He really must stop_______.

3. I once tried _______French. (learn) to learn

4.Let’s try _________at the back door. knocking (knock) 5.I didn’t mean ________your to hurt feeling. (hurt)
setting 6. This word means ________out at

once. (set)

7.I can’t help __________the room, to clean for I am too busy. (clean) 8.After hearing the joke, we can’t help laughing _________.(laugh) water 9.Water is used to _______ flowers. (water) getting up 10.I am used to ________early. (get) 11.Though it rained, they went on working _________.(work) 12.We have finished Part 1.Let’s go on _________P2.(Learn) to learn

【感悟高考】 being taken (take) to I still remember____________ the Famen Temple and what I saw there. (陕西高考) 解析: remember to do sth.记着去做某 事;remember doing sth.记着做过某 事。根据“what I saw there”可知,此 处应用后者;由take sb. to a place “带/ 领某人去某地”可知用被动。

单选:1)Susan wanted to be independent of her parents.She tried _____ alone, but she didn't like it and moved back home. A.living B. to live C. to be living D. having lived

2) As a new driver ,I have to practise ____ the car in my small garage again and again. A. parking B.to park C. parked D.park

(4).

need,demand,want,require在表示 “需要”时,用v.ing的主动形式表被动, 或用不定式的被动形式。 repairing. The car needs to be repaired. 这辆汽车需要修理。 The sick woman required taking good care of / to be taken good care of. 这位生病的妇女需要很好地照顾。

▲动词ing的复合结构:
1.动名词的复合结构可在句中作主语或宾 语。
2.动词ing形式的复合结构由物主代词或 人称代词宾格、名词所有格或普通格加 动名词,即“sb/sb’s+doing”构成。动名 词的复合结构实际上是给动名词加了一 个逻辑主语。

2. 动词ing形式的复合结构有四种形式:
(1)形容词性物主代词+动名词 (2)名词's+动名词 (3)代词宾格+动名词 (4)名词+动名词
作主语时,不能用 这两种形式
无生命名词无论是作 主语还是作宾语都不能 用这种形式

1) Do you mind my / me coming late for the film? 我看电影迟到你介意吗?
当该复合结构作宾语时,名 次所有格可以用普通格代替, 形容词性物主代词可用代词 宾格代替,做主语时不可以。

Tom's winning the first prize last year impressed me a lot. 汤姆去年得了一等奖使我印象深刻。

练习:
1) Do you mind Jack's/ Jack closing the window now? 你介意我/杰克现在关上窗子吗?

2) 我姐姐病了,使我很担心。
My sister's being ill made me worried.

3) 你正确未必就意味着我错了。 Your being right doesn't necessarily mean my being wrong ___________________________.

▲动词-ing形式的否定形式:
动词-ing形式的否定形式通常是在其 前加not,带有逻辑主语时,not应放在 动词-ing形式之前。 Excuse me for my not coming on time. 请原谅我没按时到。 I’m sorry for not having kept my promise. 对不起,我没有兑现我的承诺。

完成句子: 1.你没有理由不去。 not going You have no excuse for _____________.
2.他因未完成作业而受到惩罚。 not having done his homework He was punished for_______________________ 3._____ to the station on time made everyone worried last week. A.Him not getting B.Not his getting C.His not getting D.Not getting

【单句改错】 to work―→working ①I don't feel like to work. __________________ ②If you think that the illness is serious,you seeing should not put off to see the doctor. ________ ③With Sunday coming soon,these children are looking forward to going home and see their seeing parents. ________ ④The teacher asked us to stop talking and listen listening to him. ________ ⑤The light is still on. He must have forgotten to turn turning it off. ________

高考链接

1. ____ such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. ( 2004全国 ) A. Having suffered B.Suffering C. That D. Suffered
精析:根据句意“it may now be too late to …” 和 “already”可知“河流已经被 严重污染”,应用完成时。答案A。

2. ___the general(一般) state of his health, it may take him a while to recover from the operation. ( 全国2002) A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given
【解析】句意:“考虑到他的健康状况,可能他还 需 要一段时间才能从手术中康复。”本题考查过去分 词 作状语的用法,这里given是“由于,鉴于,考虑到的 意思(=considering)” 。given这里和句子的主语之间 没有任何逻辑关系,所以本称之为“分词的悬垂结

3. The picture ____ on the wall is painted by my niece. ( 2001上海 ) A. having hung B. hanging C. hangs D. being hung 解析:本题考查现在分词作定语的用法。分析题目可
知,主句是The picture is painted by my niece, 谓语是is painted,那么选项部分应是充当定语的。A项是现在 分词的完成式,其一般不作定语,只作时间或原因状 语;C项动词“第三人称单数”显然也不能作定语,只 作谓语;分析 the picture与动作 hang之间的关系, hang表示“悬挂”时不用被动态,D项排除; B项是现 在分词的一般式,相当于定语从句which is hanging。 答案B。

4. David threatened(威胁)___________his C neighbour to the police if the damages were not paid. A.to be reported B.reporting C.to report D.having reported

C a meeting on what to 5.Bill suggested_____ do for the Shanghai Expo during the vacation. A.having held B.to hold C.holding D.hold 答案:suggest后接doing作宾语。

(6)(2008·上海-35) B some Something as simple as_______ cold water may clear your mind and relieve pressure. A.to drink B.drinking C.to be drinking D.drunk 题意:诸如喝凉水这般简单的事物可以 使心境清宁,解除压力。本题考查动名 词短语担任介词as的宾语。

(7)(2008·江西-24) I hear they’ve promoted(提升) Tom, but he didn't mention ________when we talked B on the phone. A. to promote B. having been promoted C. having promoted D. to be promoted 答案:题意为“我听说他们给汤姆升了职。 但是我们通电话的时候,他并未提到被升 职之事。” “提及某事”应在mention后接 动名词,被升职发生在“未提到”之前, 因此应用动名词的被动完成式。

(8)(2010·河南省焦作市高一下期末) —Summer vacation is approaching. Have you decided how to spend it? —Well, I consider ________an English training B centre to improve my spoken English. A.to attend B.attending C.to be attending D.attend 答案:考查非谓语动词。答语句意:我打算参 加英语培训课程以提高我的英语口语水平。 consider作“考虑,打算”讲时,后接doing作 宾语。

B (9)(2010·上海春招)________well in an interview will be an important part of getting a place at university. A.Do B.Doing C.Done D.Being done 答案:考查非谓语动词。题意:面试表 现好将对在大学获得一席之地起重要 作用。v.-ing形式作句子主语。

(10)(2010·江苏镇江高一下期末) —Dad, our teacher suggests ________ widely A to achieve progress in our writing. —It's up to you to________the decision. A.reading; make C.reading; making B.to read; make D.to read; making

答案:考查非谓语动词。第一空suggest后接 doing作宾语;第二空it’s up to sb. to do sth.“该某 人干某事了。”

11. Remember__ the newspaper when you have finished it. A. putting back B. put back C. to put back D. be put back 12. Writing stories and articles__ what I enjoy most. A. is B. are C. was D. were

13. He attended the party without___. A. invited B. inviting C. having invited D. being invited 14. By ____, water can be changed into

gas.
A. heating B. being heated

C. having heated D. heated

15. I remembered ____ this person somewhere before. A. seeing C. seen B. having been seen D. to see

16. I regret ____ that to her.

A. having said
C. to say

B. to have said
D. X

17. He was afraid ___for being late.
A. of seeing B. of being seen

C. to be seen

D. to have seen

Translation 1.出国旅行是很激动人心的。
Travelling abroad is very exciting. 2 在这儿等是没用的, 我们走吧。 It’s no use waiting here. Let’s go. 3 我记得在哪里见过他。 I remember seeing her somewhere.

4 我后悔没听你的劝告。
I regret not following your advice.

5 帮助别人就是帮助你自己。

Helping others means helping yourself.

【完成句子】 learning without practice ①It is no good ____________________________. 学习而不实践是没有好处的。 ②The flowers in your garden want watering / to be watered _____________________________________. 你花园里的花需要浇水。

③We don't allow __________________________. smoking in the office 我们不允许在办公室里吸烟。

【完成句子】
④It's no use apologizing to her __________________________. 向她道歉是没有用的。
not having studied hard at school

⑤I regret ____________________________.

我后悔上学的时候没有刻苦学习。

三、-ing形式作表语 1.-ing形式作表语时放在系动词之后,表示一般性 的 行为,用来说明主语的内容,与主语是同一 概念,表语和主语可互换。 1) Her hobby is painting. =Painting is her hobby.
2) My job is looking after the children. =Looking after the children is my job.

2.表示主语的某种性质和特征,可看做形容词, 不可与主语互换。 3) His concern for his mother is most touching. 4) She was very pleasing in her appearance. 5)What he said was moving. 6)The film is very interesting. 常见的词有: moving,interesting,encouraging,exciting,inspir ing,boring,surprising,puzzling,amusing,astoni shing(表示令--------的)

四、-ing形式作定语 1. 单个动词的-ing形式作定语位于 被修饰名词的前面, 既可以表示被修饰 者的作用或功能, 也可以表示被修饰者 的动作或状态。 e.g. building materials = materials for building 建筑材料

drinking water = water for drinking a walking stick = a stick for walking a reading room = a room for reading a writing desk = a desk for writing tiring music = music that is tiring a surprising result= a result that is surprising

2. –ing 形式短语作定语时, 放在所修饰的名词之 后, 并且在意思上相当于一个定语从句。
1)They lived in a room facing the street. = They lived in a room that faces the street. 2)The man standing there is Peter’s father. = The man who is standing there is Peter’s father. 3)Anybody swimming in this river will be fined. = Anybody who is swimming in this river will be fined.

3. -ing形式短语也可以用作非限制定语,

相当于一个非限制性定语从句, 这时,
它与句子其他部分用逗号分开。
1) His brother, working as a teacher, lives in Beijing.
= His brother, who is working as a teacher, lives in Beijing.

2) The apple tree, swaying gently in the breeze,
had a good crop of fruit. = The apple tree, which was swaying gently in the breeze, had a good crop of fruit.

The government plans to bring in new laws________parents to take more responsibility for the education of their children. A.forced B.forcing C.to be forced D.having forced

五、-ing形式作宾语补足语

1. 1) 动词-ing形式作宾语补足语常放在宾语
后面, 表示一个正在进行的主动性的动作,

强调一个动作或一种状态。
如: (1)When we returned to the school, we found a stranger standing at the entrance. (2)We found the snake eating the eggs.

2) 当主句转换为被动结构时, 原来作宾语补
足语的动词-ing形式便转换为主语补足语。

如:
They found the result very satisfying. = The result was found very satisfying. They heard him singing in the next room. = He was heard singing in the next room.

2. 能用-ing形式作宾语补足语的几类动词: 1) 表示感觉和心理状态的动词, 常见的有 see, hear, feel, smell, find, notice, observe, look at, listen to等。
a. We saw a light burning in the window. b. I felt somebody patting me on the shoulder. c. Can you smell anything burning? d. As he spoke, he observed everybody looking at him curiously. e. I didn’t notice him waiting.

2) 表示指使意义的动词, 常见的有 have, set,

keep, get, catch, leave等。如:
I won’t have you doing that.

This set me thinking.
I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.

I can’t get the clock going again.
You won’t catch me doing that again.

3. see, hear, feel, watch等动词之后用-ing形式
和动词不带to的不定式作宾语补足语的区别:

① 前者表示动作正在进行, 而后者表示(或强调)
动作从开始到结束的全过程。如:

We passed by the classmates and saw
the teacher making the experiment. 我们走过教室, 看见老师在做实验。 (只在走过教室的刹那间, 看见老师正在做实验)

I saw a boy getting on the bus.(表示动 作正在进行) 我看见一个男孩在上公共汽车。 I saw a boy get on the bus.(表示动作 完成了) 我看见一个男孩上了公共汽车。

1.Listen! Do you hear someone ________for help?

A.calling

B.call

C.to call

D.called

2.They use computers to keep the traffic_____smoothly.
A.being run B.run

C.to run

D.running


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