重庆市潼南第一中学校 2015 级 26 班陈浩
人教版高一英语必修 1 UNIT1 Friendship 课堂笔记知识点 直接引语和间接引语 Direct and Indirect Speech
1. 2. 3.
转述他人的陈述→陈述句 → He said
that he was going to Beijing. → He asked me if /whether I was a doctor.
Eg. 1) He said , “I’m going to Beijing.” 转述他人的疑问→一般疑问句 Eg. 2) He asked, “Are you a teacher?” 转述他人的问题→特殊疑问句
Eg. 3) She said , “What are you doing?” → She asked me what I was doing. 二、直接引语变成间接引语，句子结构的变化 1. 陈述句
用连词 that 引导，that 在口语中常省略。主句的谓语动词可直接用引语中的 said, 也可用 told 来代替，注意，可 以说 said that, said to sb. that, told sb. that，不可直接说 told that Eg. 1)He said, “I have been to the Great Wall. ” --------He said to us that he had been to the Great Wall. 2)He said, “I'll give you an examination next Monday. ” ------------He 2. told us that he would give us an examination the next Monday.
间接引语用连词 whether 或 if 引导，原主句中谓语动词 said 要改为 asked(me/him/us 等)，语序是陈述句的语序 Eg. 1)He said, “Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?” -------He asked (me) whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation. 2)He said, “You are interested in English, aren't you?” -------He asked whether I was interested in English. 3. 特殊疑问句 原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连词，主句的谓语动词用 ask(sb. )来表达，语序改为陈述句语序 Eg. 1) He said to me， “What's your name?” -------He asked me what my name was. 2)He asked us, “How many car factories have been built in your country?” -------He asked us how many car factories had been built in our country. 4. 选择疑问句 用 whether…or…表达，而不用 if…or…，也不用 either…or… Eg. 1)He asked, “Do you speak English or French?” -------He asked me whether I spoke English or French. 2)I asked, “Will you take bus or take train?” -------I asked him whether he would take bus or take train. 三、在直接引语变为间接引语时需要注意的变化 1. 注意时态的变化 2. 注意人称变化。 3. 注意指示代词的变化 4. 注意时间的变化
重庆市潼南第一中学校 2015 级 26 班陈浩
5. 注意地点的变化 6. 注意个别趋向动词的变化 四、谓语动词时态变化需要注意几点： 1.直接引语表述的是客观真理，变为间接引语时，时态不变 Eg.
The geography teacher said, “The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.”
-----The geography teacher told us that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 2. 如果直接引语所表述的内容在目前和说话时同样有效，变间接引语时，时态可不变 Eg. The children said, “We love this game.”
------They told us that they love that game. 3.主句谓语动词的时态是现在时态，在引述时，时态不变。 Eg. She says, “I’ll never forget the days in the country.”
------She says that she’ll never forget the days in the country. 五、 从句时态无须改变的还有以下情况: 1.当主句的谓语动词是将来时的时候 Eg. He will say, “I’ll try my best to help you.”
----- He will say that he will try his best to help me. 2. 当直接引语部分带有具体的过去时间状语时 Eg. Mary said, “I was born in 1998.”
----- Mary said that she was born in 1998. 3. 当直接引语中有以 when, while 引导的从句，表示过去的时间时，如， Eg. He said， “When I was a child, I usually played football after school.”
----- He said that when he was a child, he usually played football after school. 4. 当引语是谚语、格言时 Eg. He said， “Practice makes perfect.”
----- He said that practice makes perfect. 5. 当直接引语是客观真理或自然现象时，如： Eg. Our teacher said to us, “Light travels faster than sound.”
-----Our teacher told us that light travels faster than sound. 6. 当直接引语中有情态动词 should, would, could, had better, would rather, might, must, ought to, used to, need 时例如： eg. The doctor said, “You'd better drink plenty of water.” ——> The doctor said I'd better drink plenty of water. He said, “She must be a teacher.”——> He said that she must be a teacher. He said, “She ought to have arrived her office by now.”——> He said that she ought to have arrived her office by then. The teacher said, “You needn't hand in your compositions today.”——> The teacher said we needn't/didn't need to/didn't have to hand in our compositions. She asked, “Must I take the medicine?”——> She asked if she had to take the medicine. 〔注〕 ：此处用 had to 代替 must 更好。