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TOYOTA

TOYOTA’s Quality Problem Prevention Method

Mizen Boushi
MB Promotion Dept.,TMC MB Promotion Dept.,TMEM

0

TOYOTA

Key Words

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MB: Mizen Boushi (Japanese) = Quality Problem Prevention

GD3(GD cubed): Fundamental Principles of Mizen Boushi Good Design Good Discussion Good Design Review DRBFM: Design Review Based on Failure Mode

TOYOTA

Introduction

1

GD3 Activity & DRBFM Techniques for Concern Prevention (Mizen Boushi) TMC-Engineering divisions are now promoting prevention activity of quality problems under the leadership of Dr. Saito, Executive Vice President. Our division has placed a special emphasis on quality. This is reflected by DRBFM, overseas Mizen Boushi, and early problem resolution tools.

TOYOTA

Introduction

2

Roots of Toyota’s Quality Control
? Sakichi Toyoda’s Teachings
? Develop yourself for research and creation, always stay ahead of the times. ? Unless you have conducted full product testing, do not put it out in the world

? Kiichiro Toyoda’s Philosophy of
inspection and improvement
? Capture firsthand what the consumers want,

and incorporate this into the product. ? Audit the quality of products and the management of operations, and carry out improvement.

TOYOTA

Introduction

3

Quality is Toyota’s No.1 Identity
Chairman Mr.Okuda:
? A corporate identity of Toyota is high quality. There is no advantage without high quality.

?

President Mr.Cho
? Toyota’s high quality has made our company very successful the US. Quality is the most important item for manufacturers

?

TOYOTA

Background
increasing

4

(incidents of field issues)
number of incidents

Production related issue Design related issue

‘93 ‘94 ‘95 ‘96 ‘97 ‘98 ‘99 ‘00 ‘01

TOYOTA

Background

5

Characteristics of Recent Design Issues
(Combined Toyota and Supplier Responsibility) Prevention is impossible But detection before customers is possible

Prevention (MB) possible (48%)

Prevention is impossible chronic & complex technical problems

TOYOTA

Mizen Boushi

6

Toyota’s Problem Prevention Method ? Definition:
– Proactive Problem Prevention

? Concepts:
– Prevent occurrence of problems – Find hidden problems quickly

? Characteristics
– Proactive - identify and resolve new problems that have not surfaced – Requires “creative problem solving techniques” through coordinated and cooperative efforts

TOYOTA

Mizen Boushi

7

Why Mizen Boushi? ? Prevent Field Issues
– Many field issues are avoidable through:
? ? ? ? Robust design Thorough audit testing Early detection and early Kaizen Chronic/difficult issues special activity

? Reduced Development Times ? Reduction/Elimination of Prototypes

TOYOTA

Mizen Boushi –

GD3

8

Fundamental Principles of Mizen Boushi GD3) ? Robust & conservative design, build-in quality in the design process (don’t modify a good design)

Good Design
? Identify problems via active discussions

Good Discussion

? Design Review Based on Failure Mode with examinations of the drawing & parts

Good Design Review

To find potential problems in the early development process and to complete the design(drawing) quality

TOYOTA

DRBFM Overview

9

?
? ? ?

Design Review Based on Failure Mode
Emphasizes good Design Review(DR) using key elements of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis(FMEA) Focus on “changed points” Active discussions and comparisons with similar or previous models to detect as many potential problems as possible Complete prior to production drawing release Results of DRBFM should be reflected in Pre-Production stage (Ex. Manufacturing Quality Chart)

? ?

TOYOTA ? ? ?

DRBFM Overview

10

Toyota designer leads the DRBFM Supplier will be requested to conduct DRBFM Relevant departments must participate, agree, and signoff during the DR activity
– Design, Evaluation, Material Engineering, QC/Manufacturing, Supplier, etc.

?

TMEM-EZ/MB lead the overall project DRBFM activity and work with Toyota MB group to apply the process

TOYOTA

DRBFM Benefit

11

? DRBFM expanded for all new and full model change projects from Oct. 2001 ? Conducted DRBFM on anywhere from 6 to 60 parts per project ? Now, expanding DRBFM rapidly to all new parts
No. of cases

Strong promotion during TMC project

Major Quality Issues (Design)
Previous Model Decrease

Large reduction in major quality issues

New Model w/ DRBFM

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Months After SOP

TOYOTA

DRBFM Benefit
Supplier Parts

12

? DRBFM is being implemented on a full-scale project basis, even at the Supplier Mizen Boushi level
68% Reduction
Warranty Claims

56% Reduction
Warranty Claims

Conventional

New

Conventional

New

Example: Door Mirror

Example: Door Lock

Suppliers are recognizing concrete benefit!

13

TOYOTA
? ?

DRBFM parts Selection

Consider All New Parts for DRBFM. Categorize all new parts based on effect of the changed point
Categorize all new parts by Design Engineer

Parts selection instruction

Approved by Dept.GM

Approved by Z#

Big impact to the Reliability,Quality

S,A Rank

Current DRBFM
B Rank

ALL parts
(New or Revision)

Consider effectiveness of the change

Small effect No effect

Simple DRBFM Not Necessary

New tools : DRBFM Parts Sorting Sheet, B-Rank DRBFM Sheet

TOYOTA
Rank

DRBFM Parts Selection
Definition DRBFM SE stage Pre-Prod stage

14

S

?First priority parts for DRBFM → QCMS candidate parts ?New parts related to major performance (drive, turn, stop, RQA, OR, regulations) ?Newly developed parts other than S-rank ? New mechanism, new structure, new material, changed(*) material, new supplier
(*) Material change is drastic such as iron to aluminum or plastic.

A

S&A rank Worksheet

Goshi Worksheet

B

Changed parts other than S- or A-ranked items

B rank Worksheet

In the past, not all parts were considered!

TOYOTA

DRBFM Implementation
Basic Preparation Clarify design changes and changes in the environment DRBFM Worksheet (LEFT) Continue “digging” until hidden problems are discovered and their true root causes are stated specifically. Design Review (RIGHT) Clarify responsibility assignments and decide countermeasures to eliminate potential problems

15

DR

FMEA

Reflect Results in DWG, Evaluation, and Manufacturing Conduct DR with related parties prior to drawing release stage. Worksheet Revision Hold follow-up meetings with responsible parties.

TOYOTA

DRBFM Completeness Inspection

16

DRBFM Worksheet Level Check Sheet
No.
1

Check Item

Check Point
Is the compared model made clear? 0 , 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1

Point

Changed Portions Are changed points written concretely?
Is the function written in quantity?

Full Marks:6.0 Target Level: 4.0 and over Achieve by the Prod. drawing release

2

Function

ex. input load, environment, time, frequency, etc.

0 , 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1

3

Concern Points and Root Cause

Are all of the concern points for the function written? Is the root cause made clear? Are the recommended actions reflected to

0 , 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1

4

Result of DR

not only evaluation but design and production?

0 , 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1

Are the DR members from many dep. ? 5

DR Member

ex. QA, QC, Product Eng., Evaluation, Material, AE, Z, EQ, Purchasing, MBP, etc. Are the deadline and the responsibility

0 , 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1

6

Management

for the recommended actions written?

0 , 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1

TOYOTA

DRBFM Timing
Product Planning Basic Design Concept Design study Production Drawing SE stage DRBFM (DR of Prototype DWG)

17

SE Activity
Pre-Production DRBFM (DRBFM of off-tool, off-process parts) PCV Evaluation Production Preparation

TOYOTA

DRBFM Tools

18

? Tools for a successful DRBFM:
– Block Diagrams – break it down to the simplest level – Fault Tree Analysis – detailed and sequential analysis to identify failure modes on the most basic level – Change Point List – clearly identify and organize what has changed – Function x Change Point Matrix – clarify failure modes by identifying which function is affected by which CP – DRBFM Worksheet – document the process and capture the ideas and C/Ms of the team

TOYOTA

Tools – Functional Block Diagram

19

? Mechanical energy within the Retractable Power Door Mirror
2. Motor 3. Gear A 4. Gear B 7. Gear C 8. Gear D 9. Gear E

6. Plate End

6. Plate End

15. Seal Cap

1. Plate Outer

5. Frame

15.Seal Cap 17.Wiring Harness 2.Motor 16.Circuit Plate 18.Screw 14.Plate 13.Washer 8.Gear D 12.Spring 7.Gear C 11.Plate Clutch 1.Plate Outer 3.Gear A 4.Gear B 6.Plate End

9.Gear E 5.Frame 10.Shaft

TOYOTA

Tools: Fault Tree Analysis

20

?Failure modes represented as top-level events ?Use logic “gates” to systematically determine causes or factors
Faulty Operation

Increase Friction Torque at Shaft (10)

Decrease Driving Power

Mismatch between Control Circuit and Mechanism Increase Internal Resistance of Circuit

Decrease Gear Efficiency Decrease Motor Torque
Increase Friction at Tooth Flank Tooth Surface Abrasion Deterioration of Plastic Gear Friction Property (1) Control Molding Conditions (ex.Temp.) Decrease Center Distance Misalignment between Frame ( 5 ) and Outer Plate ( 1 ) (2) Bearing Housing Structure Insufficient Gear Backlash (3) Temp. Dependence of Gear Material Decrease Gear Backlash Increase Friction at Bearing Housing Abrasion of Bearing Housing Increase Abrasion due to Filler Materials (4) Abrasion Resistance of Plastic Material

Deterioration of Grease Properties Increase Viscosity at Low Temp (5) Grease Property at Low Temp.

TOYOTA

Tools – Change Point List

21

? ?

Break down to the sub-components and identify changed points Focus on Changes
– Intentional – “Changes Made” – Incidental – “Changes that Occurred”

?

Examine changes to
– – – – – Structure Material Surface Treatment Manufacturing Process Stress / Load (Environment, usage, etc)

TOYOTA

Tools – Changed Points List

22

?

Use the Changed Points List to help define and make clear what has changed
Major Part Change Category Material Process Coating Structure Stress / Load Material Process Coating Structure Stress / Load Material Process Coating Structure Stress / Load Material Process Coating Structure Stress / Load Current Model - (Bulb) Crimped Terminal PC Injection Molding Clip PP-GF 40 Injection Molding AL Length of chip (long) New Benchmark Model Model Assy w/ Surge Protector Assy w/out Surge Solder ? Heat stake only to Housing Heat stake & screw to hsg Crimped & Soldered ? Length PC PC ? Clip PC PC ? Length of chip (short) -

No.

1

LED Board

2

Wire

3

Lens

4

Housing

TOYOTA ? ?

Example of Structure Change

23

Power Seat Vertical Adjuster Change: Elimination of Rubber Damper
Power Seat Adjuster

Rubber Damper

Worm Gear (Steel)

Gear Unit

Connected Power Motor

Helical Gear (Plastic)

TOYOTA ? ?

Example of Material Change

24

Door Glass Holder Change: Adhesive Material Change
Material Current Adhesive Property Viscosity Pot Life Time (minute) Volume Change (%) Hardness (Hs) Strength after Water Aging (N) New Adhesive

262 42 2.2 51 6880

292 67 1.6 54 6630

Applied Process Condition Adhesive Storage Control Small Shrinkage (Advantage Condition) Decrease Elongation

Effected with Water

TOYOTA ? ?

Example of Usage/Environment Change

25

Audio Deck / CD Changer Change: Position of Disc Insertion Slot

CD Insertion Slot

TOYOTA

Tools – DRBFM Worksheet

26

(1) FMEA by Designer (Failure Mode & Effects Analysis) ?Designers lead ?Active discussion about Changed Points

(2) Discussion Result in Design Review ?Good DR by engineers from design, evaluation, supplier, materials, etc

27

TOYOTA
? ? ?

Tools: Function x Change Point Matrix

Use a “Function x Change Point Matrix” (Relational Matrix) to focus on potential concerns Indicate “ “ if there is an interaction or relationship between the subject change point and function If there no relationship, no potential failure mode need be considered
Function Change Point Change Point 1 Change Point 2 Change Point 3 Change Point 4 Function Function Function Function 1 2 3 4

TOYOTA ?

DRBFM - Preparation

DRBFM can be completed more efficiently if the following material is prepared beforehand
1. Requirements/Specifications – performance and reliability targets, usage environment, sales market, etc 2. Part construction and function of each component 3. Block Diagrams, FTA, Change Points List, Function x CP Matrix 4. Drawings - Planning, Assembly, Part, Old, etc. 5. Parts – development, similar, previous, plastic model, competitor 6. DRBFM Worksheet (large “blow-up” copy) and Post-It Notes?

TOYOTA
? ?

DRBFM - Preparation

1

The “Left Side”, or FMEA portion of the DRBFM worksheet should be completed prior to the Design Review (DR portion) Left Side (FMEA) can be completed by an individual or a group

TOYOTA

DRBFM Worksheet: S&A Rank

2

?Fill out the appropriate information about the author (designer), program, system, and component. ?All relevant groups should be represented including: Design, Evaluation, Quality, Manufacturing, Supplier, Materials Engineering ?Version and date records are important for tracking latest level information ?Relevant departments must participate, agree, and signoff during the DR activity

TOYOTA

DRBFM Worksheet: S&A Rank

3

?List “Component Name” and “Changed Point” ?Changes to the part or its environment should be easily understood by the reviewer. ?Avoid using vague language like “Basically the same.” Instead, list specific changes and quantify whenever possible ?Include the reason(s) for the change.

TOYOTA

DRBFM Worksheet: S&A Rank

4

? Enter the system or part function(s) as fully as possible. ? Whenever possible, use ACTIVE VERBS and MEASUREABLE NOUN combinations ? Include information on environment in which part is used (e.g. temp., pressure, vibration, voltage, humidity). ? When there are two or more functions, enter each one separately.

TOYOTA

DRBFM Worksheet: S&A Rank

5

? Consider the environment in which the part will be used (from the perspective of the customer) ? Breakage, deformation, and wear….BUT ALSO customer dissatisfaction, noise, difficulty in operating, etc ? Avoid vague expressions such as “component failure.”
New failure modes uncovered as a result of the design review are entered in the “Other Concerns” section.

? Be specific: “This area is affected this way due to change, and that might lead to this specific issue.”

TOYOTA

DRBFM Worksheet: S&A Rank

6

? Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? ? Countermeasures are impossible unless true root causes are pinpointed ? Avoid using vague phrases such as “insufficient.”
New root causes uncovered as a result of the design review are entered here

? Describe root causes with specific language that allows DR participants to clearly visualize the concern.

TOYOTA

DRBFM Worksheet: S&A Rank

7

?

A “customer” is not only the end user but also… – interfacing parts – system – vehicle – manufacturing process – assembly process – dealer maintenance process, etc. Importance is broken into 3 levels: A, B, C (A being the most important)

?

TOYOTA

DRBFM Worksheet: S&A Rank

8

?

List the C/Ms implemented and engineering studies performed at the design stage to eliminate the causes and factors behind concerns. Avoid abstract expressions like: “Designed to consider …” or “Evaluated and was OK.” Be specific: “Calculated weakest location under worst case conditions and specified hardening depth to be xxx mm. In that location.”

? ?

TOYOTA

DRBFM Worksheet: S&A Rank

9

?

The value added by DRBFM activity depends on the extent that new and specific items are identified and entered into these columns. In the “Responsibility & Deadline” column, enter the person responsible for follow-up and the deadline for action.

?

TOYOTA

DRBFM Worksheet: S&A Rank

10

?

List specific actions design engineering should take, such as engineering changes or studies. Do not use generalized expressions like “Based on design standard.” Be specific: “Secure minimum radius of 0.5 at area __ .” Use DR to thoroughly discuss and decide variability and process capability.

?

?

TOYOTA

DRBFM Worksheet: S&A Rank

11

?

List items the evaluation department should focus on and the specific tests and conditions. Avoid vague items such as “Perform various durability tests.” List specifics like: “Measure xxxx dimension after operational durability test at –20C to 100C” List what types of samples will be made and under what conditions they will be evaluated, etc.

?

?

?

TOYOTA

DRBFM Worksheet: S&A Rank

12

? List items that manufacturing should focus on and the specific actions they should take. ? List any specific factors and conditions for manufacturing processes, process design, and process control. ? Action items should be incorporated into the Process FMEA. ? Due not simply say “Confirm the process.” Be specific about exactly what will be confirmed and how.

TOYOTA

DRBFM Worksheet: S&A Rank

13

?

For each action item decided during the DRBFM, enter what was done, when, and the results of the item. Items that lack an entry even though the deadline has passed become subject to follow-up. The responsible person must periodically follow up on the status of each item.

?

?

TOYOTA

DRBFM Worksheet: S&A Rank

14

? Relevant departments must participate, agree, and signoff during the DR activity

TOYOTA
?

DRBFM Worksheet: B Rank

15

Newly applied “simple” DRBFM (B-rank sheet ) managed within each ED department

?

Technical information exchange between Engineer and Manager via Brank sheet as a technical communication tool

FMEA Designer fills in

“DR”

Direction by Manager
Manager identify and advise further consideration items

TOYOTA

DRBFM Worksheet: B Rank

16

? ? ? ?

B-Rank worksheet is a “simplified DRBFM” with several columns omitted from the S&A Rank sheet Intended for changes or parts that have been identified and prioritized as lower impact or little effect. Do not have the resources to put the same amount of effort as S&A Rank DRBFM for ALL changes and ALL parts Still MUST consider these part changes to some degree so as not to overlook anything!

TOYOTA

Pre-Production DRBFM
Mizen Boushi Work Flow

17

Development

Production
S.O.P

MB Activity

Robust Design

Reliable Evaluation
with careful consideration

Audit Evaluation
[Just before S.O.P]

Early detection for

Unexpected items
Production Vehicle Durability Test

Early Detection Early Respons e

Development DRBFM

Pre-Production DRBFM
Pre-Production Audit Test QCMS Supplier Mizen Boushi

Field Report Analysis

Feedback

Recurrence Prevention Reflection Activity

TOYOTA

Pre-Production DRBFM Overview
(S, A, B Rank)

17

1. Set development and production parts next to each other and find “differences.”
Check the drawing (drawing is the master!) Also check areas not defined on drawing.

2. Discuss detrimental impact that “differences” might have on function. 3. Discuss and decide C/M if difference could lead to performance issue. (Allocate task responsibility for Design Engineering, Evaluation, and Manufacturing. Set deadlines.) 4. Follow-up on implementation status as required.


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