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【二轮精品】2013届高三英语二轮复习精品教学案:【专题八】定语从句


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【专题八】定语从句
【考情分析】
1.关系词的使用,特别是 which,that,when,where 等; 2.介词和关系代词连用时,介词的选用; 3.以 as 引导的定语从句; 4.只用 that 的情况; 5.只用 which 的情况; 6.关系代词与关系副词的

选用; 7.定语从句与其他句型的区别。

【知识归纳】 考点一:关系词的选用:
1.关系词的选择主要依据先行词在从句中所作的成分,先行词在从句中作主语、定语、宾 语时,选择关系代词(who,whom,that,which,whose);先行词在从句中作状语时,应选 择关系副词(where,when,why)。 2.who,whom,that 这些词代替的先行词是表示人的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾 语等。 Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他就是想见你的那个人吗?(who/that 在从句中作主语) He is the man whom/that I am waiting for. 他就是我正在等待的那个人。(whom/that 在从句中作宾语) which,that 所代替的先行词是表示事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等。 He failed in the exam,which made his father angry. 他考试不及格,这使他父亲很生气。 3.关系副词 when,where,why 的先行词是表示时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状 语。具体用法如下:when 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;where 指地点,在定语从句 中作地点状语;why 指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。 The reason why I don’t trust him is that he often tells lies. 我不信任他的原因是他常常撒谎。 【专家提醒】 先行词是时间名词或地点名词时,如果在从句中不作状语,则不能用 when 或 where 引导定语从句,而要用 which/that。 I still remember the day which/that we spent together in the city. 我仍然记得我们一起在那座城市度过的那一天。(这里 which/that 指代 the day 作 spent 的宾 语)。

考点二:关系代词 whose 的用法:whose 用来指人或物,在定语从

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句中只作定语
I know the girl whose father is our headmaster.我认识那个女孩,她的父亲是我们的校长。 The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired.门破了的那间教室很快就会被维修。

考点三:.that 引导的定语从句
1.不用 that 的情况 (1)引导非限定性定语从句时 (2)介词后不能用。 2.只能用 that 作为定语从句的关系代词的情况 (1)在 there be 句型中,只用 that,不用 which。This is the best dictionary (that) there is in the library. (2)在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little 等作先行词时,只用 that,不用 which。 (3)先行词有 the only, the very 修饰时,只用 that。 (4)先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用 that。 (5)先行词既有人,又有物时。例如: All that is needed is a supply of oil.所需的只是供油问题。 Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 那贼最终把偷的全部东西 交给了警察。

考点四:介词+关系代词
1.介词+关系代词中介词的宾语只能是 which 或 whom The gentleman about whom you told me yesterday proved to be a thief. 你昨天告诉我的那位绅士证实是小偷。 In the dark street,there wasn’t a single person to whom she could turn for help. 在漆黑的大街上没有一个人能为她提供帮助。 2.当复合介词短语+which 引导定语从句时,这种定语从句常与先行词用逗号隔开,从句 用倒装语序 He lived in a big house,in front of which stood a big tall tree. 他住在一所大房子里,房前有一棵大树。 3.介词+which/whom+不定式结构 The poor man has no house in which to live.那个可怜的人没有房子住。 4.of+which/whom 表示所属关系。(表所属关系也可用 whose) Recently I bought an ancient vase,the price of which(=whose price) was very reasonable. 最近我买了个古代的花瓶,它的价钱很合理。

考点五:As,which 引导的定语从句:
1.关系代词 as 引导的定语从句 关系代词 as 既可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句,as 在从句中作主 语、宾语或表语。引导限制性定语从句常用于下列句式:

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(1)such...as...像??那样的??。当先行词被 such 修饰或本身是 such 时,as 作为关系代词, 引导定语从句,修饰这个先行词。如: We hope to get such a tool as he is using. 我们希望弄到像他使用的一样的工具。 They are such warm hearted men as I’ll never forget.他们是那样热心的,我永远不会忘记的人 们。 That was such terrible weather as destroyed our whole trip plan. 那是一个那样可怕的天气,毁坏了我们的整个旅游计划。 【专家提醒】 such...as...与 such...that...的区别 as 引导定语从句,as 要在从句中作主语、宾语或表语。that 引导结果状语从句,that 在从 句中不作成分。如: He is such a good student as all the teachers like. 他是那样一个老师们都喜欢的好学生。 He is such a good student that all the teachers like him. 他是那样一个好学生,以致于老师们都喜欢他 (2)the same...as...像??一样的??。 这是一个习惯句式, 当先行词是 the same 或被 the same 修饰时,后面的定语从句常用 as 引导,这时 as 是关系代词,常在定语从句中作主语、宾语 或表语。这样的定语从句常用省略形式。如: I live in the same house as he(lives in). 我的房子与他的房子相同。 She got the same salary as a man(got). 她的薪金与男的相同。 【专家提醒】 as 引导的这种从句有时用 that 或 where 引导。that 表示“同一个人或物” ;as 表示“相同中 的另一个” 。如: I lived in the same house that he lives in.我与他住在同一房子中。 I lived in the same house where he lives. 比较:the same...that...像??一样的??。that 引导定语从句,表示“同一个” 。如: She gave him the same answer as before:“No”. 她回答他跟以前一样: “不。 ” This is the same dictionary that I lost last week. 这部词典同我上星期丢失的那一本一样。 2.关系代词 as,which 的区别 (1)as 引导的非限制性定语从句,既可在主句前,又可在主句后,有时还可插入主句中,而 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只能置于主句之后。 相同的是两者都可替代主句的整个内容, 而不是主句中的某一个词。 The weather turned out to be very good,which was more than we could expect. (2)当非限制性定语从句放在主句前面时,只能用 as。 As is known to everybody,the moon travels round the earth once every month. =The moon travels round the earth once every month,as/which is known to everybody.

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=It is known to everybody that the moon travels round the earth once every month. =What is known to everybody is that the moon travels round the earth once every month. 后两句属名词性从句范畴。 (3)as 意为“正如??” ,后面的谓语动词多是 see,know,expect,say,mention,report, announce 等;which 意为“这一点” 。 As is known to all,Bell invented the telephone. =Bell invented the telephone,as is known to all. As is often the case,Mike was late again and made up an excuse to fool the boss.

考点六:定语从句和其他从句的区别
1.定语从句与并列句 1). a. I saw some trees, and the leaves of them were black with disease. b. I saw some trees, the leaves of which were black with disease. 2). a. The professor is a little man, on the nose of whom there is a pair of glasses b. The professor is a little man, and on the nose of him there is a pair of glasses 解题点拨 : 是否有连词是区分定语从句和并列句的关键

2. 定语从句与同位语从句
定语从句与前面的名词是修饰与被修饰的关系“??的(名词)” 。而同位语从句是用来说 明前面名词的内容。与 that 从句同位的名词必须是一些表事实或概念的抽象名词,如 fact, news, belief, truth, reply 等。that 在定语从句中作成分,可用 which 或 who/whom 代替;而 that 在同位语从句中不充当任何句子成分,只起连接作用。试比较: We all have heard the news that our team won. 我们都听到了我们球队胜利的消息。 (同位语从句,that 从句表示 news 的内容,that 在从 句中不作任何成分) We don’t believe the news that/which he told us yesterday. 我们不相信他昨天告诉我们的那个 消息。(定语从句,that 作 told 的宾语).请看例题: 1). a. The news that our volleyball team won the match made us excited. b. The news that /which he told me yesterday is exciting. 2) a. I made a promise that if anyone set me free, I would make him very rich. b. The mother made a promise that /whichpleased all her children. 解题点拨:that 引导的定语从句是对其先行词的修饰或限制;在句中作成份(作宾语省略), 指物时可用 which 代替;而同位语从句是对前面名词的说明和解释。that 在从句中仅起连接 作用,不充当成份,不能省略,不能用 which 代替。

3.定语从句与强调句型
1) a. It is in this room that I lived last year. b. It is the room where I lived last year. 2) a. It was at seven o’clock that he went to school this morning. b. It was seven o’clock when he went to school this morning. 解 题 点 拨 : 强 调 句 型 : It is/was+ 被 强 调 的 成 份 +that/who+ 其 它 部 分 ; 去 掉 It is/was….that/who… ,句子照样成立;而定语从句的引导词在句中要作成份。

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【定语从句】定语从句顺口溜
1.定从分类有奥妙, 限与非限看逗号; 定前必有先行词,名代两类最适宜; 定从先行很紧密,代副两词拉关系; 2.关系代词有六个,听我逐一来说破; which 表物人用 who,人物都有 that 顾; which 用在逗号后,意表前句你要 know; who 做主语很称职,whom 用到宾语里; 3.that 用法真有趣, 两个地方它不去; 逗号后边它不去, 介词之后不考虑; 4.That which 代表物,区别听我来叙述; 先行若是不定代,that 就把 which 踹; 先行词前有两数, 就用 that 定无误; 先行词前最高级, 还用 that 必无疑; 句中若有 there be, that 应把 which 替; 先行主中做表语, 避免重复从句里; (Just the only very same last, 其后也要用 that;) 5.指人可用 that who, 以下情况多用 who; Those people 做先行,There be 的结构中; 先行指人不定代,从中做主 who 要在; 两个定从一起来,不要重复你有才; 6.定从之中少定语,whose 为你唱一曲; Whose 指人又指物,所属关系要记住。 7.As/which 在句末,若有否定 as 错; 句首只能用 as,还有认知猜想词; 固定结构用 as, the same /such/so/as; So /such …that 宾不离,so/such…as 宾要弃; 8.关系代词到这里,主宾表定作用起; 关系代词做宾语,省与不省全靠你; 9.关系副词 when/where/why, 从中做状莫懈怠; 时间用 when 原因 why,地点 where 经常在;

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关系副词可替换,介词加上关系代; 关系代,关系代,that 与 who 要除外; 挑选介词要聪明,必看动词和先行; 聪明反被聪明误,只因乱用关系副; 关系副,关系副,定缺主宾它不住; 它不住,它不住,关系代词来玩酷; 10.只记上边不可以,特殊情况告诉你; 先行用 way 做状语, in which/ that /略可以; one of +复做先行,从中谓语复数明, one 前若有 only/very, 从中谓语定用单 ; 定从名从可转换,all that 被 what 换

【考点例析】
1. Maria has written two novels, both of ___ have been made into television series. 【2012 山东】 A. them B. that C. which D. what 1.C 考查非限制性定语从句。句意:Maria 写了两部小说,两部都被拍成了电视剧。此处先 行词为 two novels,后面是一个非限制性定语从句且介词在前面,因此用使用 both of which 来引导,故正确答案为 C。 2. The air quality in the city, _____ is shown in the report, has improved over the past two months. 【2012 福建】 A. that B. it C. as D. what 2. C 本题考查定语从句引导词。句意:正如报道的那样,这个城市的空气质量在过去的两个 月里已经得到了改善。应为 as 引导的非限制性定语从句,故正确答案为 C。

3. Ellen was a painter of birds and of nature, _____, for some reason, had withdrawn from all human society. 【2012 浙江卷】 A. which B. who C. where D. whom 3.B 考查定语从句。通过分析可以看出,本句先行词为 ellen,指人,空格处应做主语。 Which 修行先行词是物的定语从句;whom 修饰先行词为人,且在从句中做宾语;where 修 饰先行词是地点名词,且在从句中地点状语,均不符合语境,故排除。who 引导非限定性定 语从句,在从句中做主语,故正确答案为 B。 4.We live in an age _____more information is available with greater ease than ever before. 【2012 浙江卷】 A. why B. when C. to whom D. on which 4. B 考查定语从句。 when 引导定义从句, 在从句中做时间状语, 修饰先行词 an age (时代) . 此处的 when=at which。故正确答案为 B。 5.After the flooding, people were suffering in that area,_______ urgently needed clean water,

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medicine and shelter to survive. 【2012 江苏卷】 A. which B. who C. where D. what 5. B 考查定语从句中关系代词的使用。指人的先行词 people 在非限制性定语从句中充当主 语,所以用关系代词 who 引导。故选 B 项。 6. Sales director is a position ______ communication ability is just as important as sales【2012 重 庆卷】 A. which B. that C. when D. where 6.D 考查定语从句。 “position”为先行词,后面是其定语从句,关系词在从句中作的是地点 状语,因此,应该使用关系副词“where”来引导定语从句。因此,正确答案为 D 选项。 7. In our class there are 46 students, _____ half wear glasses. 【2012 四川卷】 A. in whom B. in them C. of whom D. of them 7.C 本题考查定语从句。 前后两句话之间无连词, 故不能用人称代词 them 而应用关系代词 whom 引导定语从句;在 46 个学生当中,表所属,应用 of。故答案选 C。 8. It is the third time that she has won the race, ______ has surprised us all. 【2012 陕西卷】 A. that B. where C. which D. what 8.C 考查定语从句。所填词前有逗号,是非限制性定语从句,先行词是整个主句,关系词在 从句中做主语,选 C。 9. When deeply absorbed in work, ______ he often was,he would forget all about eating or sleeping. 【2012 北京卷】 A. that B. which C. where D. when 9. B 本题考查非限制性定语从句。句意:当沉下心工作后,他经常这样,他会忘了吃饭和睡 觉。这里也是一个定语从句,不过这里的定语从句修饰的是前面整个句子,故使用 which 表 示前面整个句子,所以答案为 B。 10 That evening, _____ I will tell you more about later, I ended up working very late. 【2012 全国 II】 A. that B. which C. what D. when 10.B 考查定语从句。 句意: 以后我将和你谈起的那个晚上, 我工作到了很晚。 这里 that evening 是先行词,其在定语从句中作介词 about 的宾语,所以用 which。 11.I wish to thank Professor Smith, without_______help I would never have got this far. 【2012 天津卷】 who B. whose C. whom D. which 11.B 本题考查定语从句。句意:我想感谢史密斯教授,没有他的帮助我从来不会发展到这 个地步。本句为非限制性定语从句,且句子缺少定语,故正确答案为 B。

【方法技巧】k.s.5.u.c.o.m
1 了解有关定语从句的所有语法规则,弄清从句中关系代词和关系副词的区别 2.分清及物动词和不及物动词,判断句子结构是否完整,注意句子中逗号的语法作用。 3 注意先行词的特殊性和关系代词的选择,依据先行词来选择/"介词+关系代词/"的结构。 4. 加强有关定语从句的理解和练习 5.注重复习疑问句中或倒装句中考查定语从句的情况。 6.掌握通过拆分词组和固定搭配或者添加插入语或状语来考查定语从句的做题方法。

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【专题训练】
1. Was it in the waiting room ______ only allows mothers-to-be to enter that you lost your wallet? A. / B. where C. that D. when 2 Obama, _______ life was once hard when he was young, were elected President of American. A. for whom B. who C. to whom D. / 3 _______ has been announced, our government will take more measures to make the falling economics recover as soon as possible. A That B As C It D What 4. Lee Yu chun was titled as the top thin beauty in Ansia , _______ caused a lot of disagreements in the field of entertainment. A. that B. which C as D it 5 There were so many attractions in Disney Park. After lunch we came to a place, _______ stood a big tower. A. which B. that C. / D. where 6. A political advisor suggested giving out red pockets to the whole nation directly to encourage economics,_____I believe is of great value. A that B. / C. which D. why 7 Is this the website_______ you want to have ____ into your files to help you learn English? A. who; to add B. that; add C. whom; adding D. that; added 8. We have heard of many cases _______ some citizens ,especially some famous people, have suffered because personal information had been leaked. A. why B. which C. as D. where 9. Tony showed me his new cell phone, _______ was small but it could change colors in different weather. A. the screen of whom B. whom the screen of C. which the screen of D. the screen of which 10.I will never forget the day _______ I came to my university and the day ______ I spent in a new city. A. when; which B. which; when C. what; that D. on which; when 11This article may shock some sensitive readers,________I offer my apologies in advance. A. from whom B. for whom C. to whom D. towards whom 12. We hope the measures to control house prices, ________are taken by the government, will succeed. A.which B.that C.what D.as 13. Is this the reason________at the meeting for his carelessness in his work? A. he explained B. what he explained C. how he explained D. why he explained 14. Luckily, we’d brought a road map without________we would have lost our way.

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A. it B. that C. this D. which 15. When he was working there he caught a serious illness from________efforts he still suffers. A. which B. that C. whose D. what 16. It’s said that he’s looking for a new job, one________he can get more money to support his family. A. when B. where C. that D. which 17. We are living in an age________many things are done on computer. A. which B. that C. whose D. when 18. The little time we have together we’ll try________wisely. A. spending it B. to spend it C. to spend D. spending that 19. The old building, behind________was a famous church, was________we used to work. A. that, the place B. it, the place C. which, where D. what, where 20. We will be shown around the city: schools, museums, and some other places, ________other visitors seldom go. A. what B. which C. where D. when 21. The modern history of Italy dates from 1860, ________the country became united. A. when B. if C. since D. until 22. All of the flowers now raised here have developed from those________in the forest. A. once they grew B. they grew once C. that once grew D. once grew 23. You could see the runners very well from ________we stood. A. which B. where C. that D. when 24. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase,________was very reasonable. A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose 25. What have you got________will help a cold? A. what B. that C. it D. who

【参考答案】
1-5 CABBD 6-10CDDDA 11-15CAADC 16-20BDCCC 21-25ACBBB

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