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【名师导学系列】2013年高考英语人教版第一轮精品配套练习 必修3 Unit 4 Astronomy


Unit 4

Astronomy:the science of the stars 科学

——天文学:恒星

核心词汇
1.Do you think our education____________(制度)needs improving? 2.The____________(气候)of southern Florida attracts thousands of tourists each winter. 3.Without practice there would be no____________(理论). 4.The hen was old and it stopped____________(下蛋)eggs. 5. The idea____________(存在)only in the minds of us young people. 6.Professor Li has solved the____________(难题)and everyone is cheering. 7.Mars’__________(万有引力)is only about 38% of Earth’s. 8.Raising your child to tell the difference between right and wrong is one of the f____________tasks of parenthood. 9.用 harm 的适当形式填空 (1)Air pollution will get worse and this will be____to people,for example,it can cause cancer. (2)Rubbish can be changed into____________things. (3)Don’t____________your eyes by reading in the dim light. 10 . Last night we had a discussion , which became more and more____________.Finally we reached an agreement that we will never use____________whatever happens.(violent)

高频短语
1.________________ 2.________________ 3.________________ 4.________________ 5.________________ 6.________________ 7.________________ 8.________________ 9.________________ 10.________________ 及时,终于 下蛋 产生;分娩 轮到某人;接着 阻止;制止 挡住(光线) 感到高兴;感到振奋 既然 突发;爆发 密切注视;当心;提防

重点句式
1.________________was uncertain until between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago when the dust settled into a solid globe. 随后它会变成什么没有人知道,直到 38~45 亿年前,这团尘埃才慢慢地形成一 个固体的球状物。 2.The earth became ____________ it was not clear whether the shape would last or not.
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地球变得如此猛烈,以至于它的形状能否持久还不清楚。 3.This produced a chain reaction,which __________________. 这就产生了一系列的反应,使得生命有可能发展了。 4.We watched,________________ on the outside of the spaceship as the earth’s gravity increased. 我们惊奇地看着,随着地球引力的增加,宇宙飞船的外层燃烧起火。 5.But when I tried to step forward,I found I was carried _________ on the earth and fell over. 而当我试着向前迈步时, 我发觉我被送出很远, 步子的跨度竟是在地球上的两倍, 因而我摔倒了。 6.“...walking does need a bit of practice ________________ gravity has changed.” “……既然重力改变了,走路也确实需要练一练了。”

知识详解
1.exist vi. 存在,生存 (回归课本 P26)They laid eggs too and existed on the earth for more than 140 million years. 它们也生蛋,在地球上生存了一亿四千多万年。 [归纳拓展] ① (牛津 P697)They can’t exist on the money he’s earning. 他们靠他挣的那点钱无法维持生活。 ② There exists a good way to solve the existing problem in geography.有一个解决现 存地理问题的好办法。 ③ one knows how this world came into existence. No 没有人知道这个世界是怎样形成的。 [例句探源] [即境活用] 1.完成句子 (1)巴基斯坦在战后就以一个独立的国家存在了。 Pakistan ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________country after the war. 答案: (2)就我所知,他们收入微薄,几乎无法维持生活。 As far as I know,they are paid hardly enough________ ________ ________. 答案: 2.puzzle n. 谜;难题 vt. & vi. (使)迷惑;(使)为难 (回归课本 P27)How life began on earth is one of the biggest puzzles that scientists found hard to solve.地球生命如何起源是科学家们觉得很难解决的最大的难题之 一。 [归纳拓展] ① (牛津 P1616)What puzzles me is why he left the country without telling anyone. 令我不解的是,他为什么悄悄地离开了这个国家。 ② The police are still puzzling about/over how the accident could have happened. 警察仍然正在苦思这起事故是怎么发生的。
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[例句探源] ③ Scientists have been trying to solve this puzzle for years. 多年来科学家们一直试图解开这一谜团。 ④ (牛津 P1616)He looked puzzled so I repeated the question. 他好像没听懂,于是我又把问题重复了一遍。 2.She lost heart since she failed in the exam.She felt________about her future. A.puzzle B.puzzling C.puzzled D.puzzles 解析: [即境活用] 3.pull n. & vt. 拉(力);拖;牵引力 (回归课本 P30)As the rocket rose into the air,we were pushed back into our seats because we were trying to escape the pull of the earth’s gravity. 随着火箭的升空,由于我们在努力挣脱地球的引力,我们被向后推在座位上。 [归纳拓展] ① pulled the door open and rushed out. He 他拉开门,冲了出去。 ② (牛津 P1604)The police car signalled to us to pull in. 警车发出信号,要我们驶向路边停靠。 ③ waved as the train pulled out of the station. We 火车驶出车站时我们挥手告别。 ④ The doctor told me that I would pull through. 医生告诉我,我会康复的。 [例句探源] 【高效记忆】 3.用 pull down;pull in;pull out;pull through 填空: (1)Houses were________to make way for a new highway. 答案: (2)Cheer up!Take more exercise every day and you will________. 答案: [即境活用] (3)John________behind me and parked. 答案: (4)Be careful when you ________of the driveway. 答案: 4.in time 及时;终于,总有一天 (回归课本 P25)They were in time to produce carbon,nitrogen,water vapour and other gases,which were to make the earth’s atmosphere. 最终产生了碳、氮气、水蒸气和其他多种气体,从而形成了地球的大气层。 [归纳拓展] ① The kids will be leaving home in no time. 孩子们很快就要离开家了。 ② (朗文 P2162)Will you be back in time for dinner? 你会及时赶回来吃晚饭吗?
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③ (朗文 P2162)I should be back in time to watch the show. 我应该及时赶回来看那场演出。 ④ The company fired him for not coming to work on time. 那家公司因他不按时上班而解雇了他。 [例句探源] 4.Will you be home________to see the children before they go to bed? A.on time B.in time C.at a time D.at one time 解析: [即境活用] 5. ________, I lost heart in English learning, my teacher often said to me, but “Keep on studying hard,and you’ll succeed________.” A.At a time;in time B.At a time;on time C.At one time;in time D.At one time;on time 解析: 6.(江西景德镇模拟)—Does he often ask you for help? —Oh,no,only________. A.all the time B.at one time C.at a time D.at times 解析: 7.—I am afraid I can’t return the book to you before Friday. —________. A.Don’t be afraid B.Be careful C.Not at all D.Take your time 解析: 5.in one’s turn 轮到某人;接着 (回归课本 P26)Thus they have,in their turn, become the most important animals on the planet. 于是,他们接着成为了这个行星上最重要的动物 。 [归纳拓展] ① When it is in my turn,I am too excited to speak. 当轮到我时,我激动得都说不出话来了。 ② The customer praised the manager,who in turn praised his staff. 顾客表扬了经理,经理转而表扬了员工。 ③ theories are derived from practice and in turn serve practice. All 所有的理论都来源于实践,并反过来为实践服务。 ④ Now it is your turn to look after the children. 现在轮到你照看孩子了。 [例句探源] 8.People try to avoid public transportation delays by using their own cars,and this________creates further problems. A.in short B.in case
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C.in doubt D.in turn 解析: [即境活用] 6.prevent...from... 防止某事发生 (回归课本 P26)They are putting too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which prevents heat from escaping from the earth into space. 他们把过多的二氧化碳释放到大气层中,这使得地球上的热不能释放到太空中 去。 [归纳拓展] ① (朗文 P1612)Guards stood at the doors to prevent anyone from leaving. 守卫站在门口阻止任何人离开。 ② Once he has made up his mind,no one can prevent him from carrying out the plan. 一旦他下定决心,谁也阻止不了他执行这个计划。 ③ advice kept me from making a serious mistake. His 他的忠告使我免于犯一个严重的错误。 [例句探源] 9.All possible means ________.However,nothing can________him dying of lung cancer. A.has tried;stop B.have tried;keep C.has been tried;prevent D.have been tried;stop 解析: [即境活用] 7.cheer up (使)高兴;使振奋;感到振奋 (回归课本 P31)I cheered up immediately and floated weightlessly around in our spaceship cabin watching the earth become smaller and the moon larger. 我立刻感到很高兴,由于失重我在太空舱里飘来飘去,我望着(身后的)地球越来 越小,而(前方的)月球越来越大。 [归纳拓展] ① (牛津 P327)Give Mary a call; she needs cheering up. 给玛丽打个电话,她需要人安慰。 ② The good news cheered (up) everybody who heard it. 喜讯使每一个听到的人感到高兴。 ③ The crowd cheered wildly at the sight of Liu Xiang. 看到刘翔后,人群热烈欢呼起来。 ④ They do this in order to encourage crowds to cheer their sports teams. 她们这样做是为了鼓励人们为她们的球队加油。 [例句探源] 10.—I’m thinking of the test tomorrow.I’m afraid I can’t pass this time. —________!I’m sure you’ll make it. A.Go ahead B.Good luck C.No problem D.Cheer up 解析:
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句型梳理
1【教材原句】 “...walking does need a bit of practice now_that gravity has changed.”(P31) “……既然重力改变了,走路也确实需要练一练了。” 【句法分析】 now that 由于;既然,引导原因状语从句,有时 that 可以省略。 ① Now that you have finished your work,you’d better have a rest. 既然你的工作已经做完了,最好休息一下吧。 ② Now (that) the weather is fine,let’s go for a ride. 既然天气那么好,我们开车去兜风吧。 ③ Now you have grown up,you can make up your mind by yourself.你已长大了,可 以自己做决定了。 [易混辨析] because,since,as,for,now that (1)because 语气最强,一般指事情发生的直接原因,回答提问时,一般放在主句 之后。 (2)since 语气较弱,指双方都明确的原因或众所周知的原因,侧重主句,从句表 示显然的或已知的理由。 (3)as 语气比 because 弱,所引导的从句表示的是显而易见的原因和理由,从句一 般放在主句前。 (4)for 是并列连词,表示推断的原因,或对前一分句补充说明理由。for 表示这一 用法时需放在两句之间。 ① was absent from the meeting because he was ill yesterday. He ② Since you can’t answer the question,I’ll ask someone else. ③ there was no answer,we wrote him again. As ④ must have rained last night,for the ground is wet. It [即境活用] 11.________you’ve got a chance,you might as well make full use of it. A.Now that B.After C.Although D.As soon as 解析: 12.—Did you return Fred’s call? —I didn’t need to________I’ll see him tomorrow. A.though B.unless C.when D.because 解析: 2 【教材原句】 But when I tried to step forward, found I was carried twice as far as I on the earth and fell over.(P31) 而当我试着向前迈步的时候, 我发觉我被送出去很远,步子的跨度竟是在地球上 的两倍,因而我摔倒了。 【句法分析】 倍数的表达方式。 (1)“A+倍数+形容词或副词的比较级+than+B”, 表示“A 比 B 大(长、 宽等) 高、 多少倍”。 (2)“A+倍数+as+形容词或副词的原级+as+B”,表示“A 是 B 的多少倍”。
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(3)“A+倍数+the size/height/length/width, etc.+of+B”, 表示“A 是 B 的多少倍”。 (4)A+倍数+what 从句。 ① There are five times more books in our library than in yours. 我们图书馆里的书比你们图书馆里的书多五倍。 ② Our city has experienced twice as much rain this year as it did last year. 我们的城市今年的降雨量是去年的两倍。 ③ house is twice the size of my parents’. My 我的房子是我父母的两倍大。 ④ The production now is three times what it was ten years ago. 现在的产量是 10 年前的 3 倍。 [即境活用] 13.(高考辽宁卷)Peter’s jacket looked just the same as Jack’s,but it cost________ his. A.as much twice as B.twice as much as C.much as twice as D.as twice much as 解析: 14.Ten years ago the population of our village was ________that of theirs. A.as twice large as B.twice as large as C.twice as much as D.as twice much as 解析:

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