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高中英语 虚拟语气


Grammar
Subjunctive Mood 虚拟语气

一. 语气的分类
英语的动词一般可带三种不同的语气:陈述语气,祈使语气和 虚拟语气.不同的语气用动词的不同形式来表示。 1.陈述语气(The indicative Mood)用来陈述一个事实,或提出 一种看法,有肯定,否定,疑问或感叹等形式。 I am not interested in what you said. Have you ever been to France? What a splendid palace! 2.祈使语气(The Imperative Mood)用来表示请求,邀请, 命令,警告或劝告等. Let’s have a talk. Don’t jump in the queue.

3.虚拟语气表示说话人所说的话不是事实,而是一中假设,
愿望,怀疑或推测.虚拟语气主要用于if条件状语从句,也 可用于名词性从句等.例如:

1)If I were you,I would not leave her alone.
2)If it were to rain tomorrow, the meeting would

be put off.
3)If Jack had scored that goal, we would have won the match. 4)Our teacher suggested that we go to lab this afternoon.

二.虚拟语气的用法:

(一). 用于条件状语从句中:

1. If条件句中的虚拟语气 构 主从 虚拟条件 例 句 主 句 成句 从句 时态 与现 If + 主语 主语 + would/ If I had time, I 在事实 + 动词过 should/could/ would attend the 相反的 去时 (be might + 动词 meeting. 假设 用 were) 原形 与过 If + 主语 去事实 + had + 相反的 过去分词 假设
主语 + would/ If you had taken should/could/ my advice, you’d might + have have passed the exam. + 过去分词

构 主从 虚拟条件 成句 从句 时态 ①If + 主语 + 动词的过 与将 去时 来情况 ② If + 主语 相反的 + were to 假设 + 动词原形 ③ If + 主语 + should + 动词原形

主 句
主语 + would/ should/ could/ might + 动词原形





If you came tomorrow, we would have the meeting. If it were to rain tomorrow, we would put off the sports meeting. If he should not come tomorrow, we would put off the meeting till next week.

? 虚拟语气中的倒装:
? 如果条件句中有were,had,should 等助动词,可 将if省略,而把were,had或should置于句首,来表 达以if引导的条件句的相同意思
1) If you had taken my advice, you’d have passed the exam. Had you taken my advice, you’d have passed the exam. 2) If it were to rain tomorrow, we would put off the sports meeting. Were it to rain tomorrow, we would put off the sports meeting.
3) If he should not come tomorrow, we would put off the meeting till next week Shoule he not come tomorrow, we would put off the sports meeting till next week.

2.含蓄条件句中的虚拟语气

即用without(=but for) “要不是”,or(else) “否则”if it were not for/ if it had not been for(=without/ but for),but代替if从句。 1)Without/But for his help, we wouldn’t have made such great progress.
=If there hadn’t been/we hadn’t got his help, we wouldn’t have made such great progress. 2)She would have come here, but she was too busy with her homework. = She would have come here, if she had not been too busy with her homework.

?3) If it had not been for the captain’s efforts, the ship would have sunk.
虚拟语气高考链接

1.——Alice,why didn’t you come yesterday? ——I _____,but I had an unexpected visitor. (NMET)A.had B.would C.was going to D.did 析:此题A、D明显不合上下文,因为乙方没有去。B选 项若为would have则成立,可以理解为I would have come if I hadn?t had an unexpected visitor.的 简略式。但此处是would,故应排除。只有was going to可得体地表达“我原本打算去的,但是有不速之客 造访”这一意思。

3. 混合虚拟语气/错综虚拟语气
即条件从句中的动作和主句中的动作发生的时间 不一致,多见从句用过去完成时(表示与过去相 反),主句用would/ could / should/ might+ do(表示与现在相反),如: 1)If he had followed the doctor’s advice, he would be quite all right now.
2)He would pass the test if he had taken my advice. 3 ) If we had driven in turns yesterday, you would feel better now.

(二). 虚拟语气用于名词性从句中: 1. 用于主语从句中:

(1) It is suggested / requested / demanded ordered/desired/proposed/advised/insisted + that 从句中, 从句用 (should) + 动词原形: eg: It’s suggested that the meeting (should)be put off till next week. It was ordered that the wounded soldiers be sent to the field hospital at once. 注意:“坚决要命”类动词所接的四种名词性从句(主从、 宾从、表从、同位语从句)中用法都如此。“坚决要 命”:insist, advise,suggest,propose;deside;require, request,desire,demand; order, command

(2)用在 It is necessary / important / strange / natural / surprising / essential / vital/ a pity+从句中, 从句用(should) + 动 词原形 : eg: It is necessary that the customs of all national minorities be respected. It is strange that he should have said so. It is not surprising that Alfred should have married Amy.

2. 用于宾语从句中:
(1)在wish后的宾从表与现在相反用一般过去时(系词用 were);与过去相反用过去完成时;与将来相反用 would/ could/ might+动词原形: were How I wish ______ a bird and could fly freely in the sky!(be)
Had not made I wish I ___________ so many mistakes in the last exam.( make ) How I wish it Weren’t raining now!(be) ______

(2)在would rather后接从句,用过去时表示与现在或将来相 反;用过去完成时表示与过去相反: eg. I’d rather you came tomorrow. I'd rather you hadn't told him the news. (3)在advise, demand, insist, order, propose, request, require, suggest后用should + 动词原形, should可以省略:

eg. He suggested we (should) start off early the next day. We insisted they not be present at such gathering. He ordered that all (should) take part in the work. They requested that we (should) have lunch with them. 但是: 当suggest表示“暗示,表明” insist表示“坚 持认为”时,不用虚拟语气: eg. The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with our work. The man insisted that he had never stolen the money.

3. 用于表语从句中:
在advice, demand, order, proposal, request, suggestion 等后面的表语从句中: eg. My advice is that he wait till next week.

Her suggestion is that we should learn all
the texts by heart. The general’s order was that all the soldiers reach the border in ten hours.

4. 用于同位语从句中:
在advice, demand, order, proposal, request, suggestion 等后面的同位语从句中, 如:

E.g. We all agree to his suggestion that we go to the Happy Valley for an outing.

Order came that the soldiers be sent to
the border.

Here is the doctor’s advice that you
should take the medicine 4 times a day.

(三). 用于其他句型: 1.在It is (high) time that 句型中, 定语从句的谓
语动词用过去时, 或should + 动词原形(should不能

省略):
eg. It is (high) time that you went to school. It’s time you did something about it. It is (high) time that we should start out.

2. 用于 if only(要是…就好了) 引导的感叹句中,用 法同wish , 如: eg. If only I were a bird!

If only I had known her telephone number /
e-mail address!

If only I hadn’t lost it!
If only the letter had arrived in time!

? 3 用于as if, as though 引导的从句时: ? 以as if 、as though(似乎,仿佛)引出 的方式状语从,如果表示真实情况应该用 陈述语气;如果表示非真实情况则应该用 虚拟语气, 与现在相反用过去时,与过去相 反用过去完成时。如: The little boy knows so many things as if he were an adult. He acted as usual as though nothing had happened. Better take an umbrella with you. It look as if a heven rain is around the corner.

? 4. May + 动词原形,表示祝愿.如: May the friendship between our two peoples last forever! May you succeed! May the plan work!

1.If I had had enough time, I___ my work. C A.would finish B.must have finished C.would have finished D.had finished 2.Ten minutes earlier, they ___ the plane. C A.will catch B.would catch C.would have caught D.will have caught 3.Mr Green requires that the students ___ a A composition every other week. A.write B.writen C.would write D.will write D 4.Had he studied hard, he___ the exam. A.would pass B.could pass C.had passed D.would have passed

5.I wish I ___ what is happening there in his C room. A.know B.known C.knew D.should know 6.It is important that you ___ sports every day. A A.have B.would have C.must have D.will have 7.If there were no water in the world, everything ___. B A.will die B.would die C.would have died D.would have been dead A 8. ___ what was going to happen ,I would never have left her alone. A.Had I known B.If I know C.If I knew D.If had I known

9.He ordered that the work ___ right away. D A.should finish B.finished C.would be finished D.be finished 10.—Shall we go to the movie tonight? A —No, I'd rather ___ at home with our baby. You'd better not leave it to the babysitter at night. A.you stayed B.you stay C.stayed D.stay 11. ___ in your position, I would help him. B A.Was I B.Were I C.If I am D.If I had been C 12.I ___, but I was stopped by the heavy rain. A.mean to come B.meant to come C.had meant to come D.meant coming

13.Mrs Black insists___ in that old hotel. D A.not to stay B.not staying C.staying not D.that she not stay 14.If you had spoken clearly, you would___. D A.understand it B.have understood C.be understood D.have been understood 15.If you ___ that late movie last night, you B wouldn't be so sleepy. A.haven‘t watched B.hadn’t watched C.didn‘t watch D.wouldn't have watched 16.The foreign friend speaks Chinese so well as if he ___ a Chinese. D A.is B.be C.should be D.were

C 17.—If he ___, he___ that food. —Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. A.was warned; would not take B.would be warned; had not taken C.had been warned;would not have taken D.would have been warned; had not taken

1.If you ____ (arrive) ten minutes earlier, you could have seen them off. had arrived 2.It's time that we ___ (go) to the railway station. 3.If they___ (not help) us ,our experiment went/should go would have failed. hadn't helped 4.You're five minutes late.I suggested that you ___ (come )earlier tomorrow. 5.Mather often tells us that it is(should) comethat necessary we ___ (drink) a glass of water after we get up.
(should) drink

6.She insisted that she___ (send) to work in the faraway small town. (should) be sent 7. ___ I not ___ (forget) his telephone number,I would have rung him. Had forgotten 8.He is busy now. If he ___ (be) free, he___ (go) with you. were,would go 9.The manager was in his office then. If he ___ (be) here, everything ___ (settle) in a minute. had been, would haven been settled


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