Module 5 Great peole and Great inventions of Ancient China
Grammar 1 & 2
Explanation to Attributive clause
定语从句: 是指在复合句中, 修饰名词或
所修饰的名词或代 词叫做 “先行词”。引导定语从句的词叫 “关系词”。
The Restrictive Attributive Clause 限制性定语从句 The Non-Restrictive Attributive Clause 非限制性定语从句
定 语 从 句
指代人 who, whom, that 关 系 代 词
指代事物 which, that 所属关系 whose, of which 指地点
关 系 副 词
Join the following sentences:
1. A plane is a machine. The machine can fly.
A plane is a machine _____________can fly. that /which 2. The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday. ________ The girl we saw yesterday is Mary.
3. The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday. The girl that/who/whom ______________________we saw
yesterday is Mary.
1. Nothing ____ that can be done hasn’t been done. 2. Do you have anything ____ that you don’t understand? 先行词是 everything, nothing, anything, something, much, little, none等不定代词, 引 导定语从句用that。
3. This is the best TV that ___ is made in China.
4. The first museum that ___ he visited in China was the History Museum. 先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰时, 引导定语从句用that。
that you lent me. 5. I’ve read all the books ____
先行词被any, some, no, much, few, little,
every, all, very, only, last 修饰时,引导定语
6. The famous writer and his works that ___ the
radio broadcast have aroused great interest
among the students.
7. A victim is a person, animal or thing ___ that
suffers pain, death, harm, etc. 先行词中既有人又有事物时, 引导定语从 句用that。
8. Who ____ that you have ever seen can do it
Who 做先行词时, 引导定语从句用that。
9. Her bag, in which _____ she put all her money, has
10. This is the ring on which _____ she spent 1000
11. Xiao Wang, with whom _____ I went to the concert,
enjoyed it very much. 在介词后面, 指事物用which, 指人用whom。
whose 引导的定语从句表示所属关系 1. The river whose _____ banks are covered with trees flows to the sea.
2. There are 20 students, ____ are different
in this class.
A. whose backgrounds B. The backgrounds of whom C. of whom the backgrounds D. the backgrounds of whose
3. as 的用法
1. The earth is round, __ as we all know. As is known to all, the earth is round. ___ It is known to all that the earth is round. __ 定语从句在句首时只能用as, as 具有正 如之意，与之搭配的动词一般是固定 的。
2. This is the same book as I lost. 这本书和我丢的那本一模一样。 This is the same book that I lost.
as we 3. This is such an interesting book __ all like. as we all like. This is so interesting a book __
4. This is such an interesting book ____ that we all like it. This is so interesting a book that ____we all like it. 这两句话是结果状语从句。意为这本书
5. It is very useful to master a foreign language, which _____ has been said before.
6. As __ everyone hoped, Mary has won the first prize. as引导定语从句可放在句首、句中、句 末, 而which 引导定语从句不能放在句首。 as译为正如, 好像。which 则没有此义。
4. when, where, why与that, which的区别
(1) I’ll never forget the day when _____ we first met in the park. (2) I’ll never forget the time __________ (which\that)I spent with you. (3) I’ll never forget the time which\that _________ was spent with you. (4) This is the museum ____________ (which\that) I visited last year.
指时间, 地点或原因的先行词在定语从 句中作主语或宾语, 用which或that引导 定语从句。
This is the reason ____ why (= for which) I didn’t come here. The reason _________ which/that she gave was not true.
He is the only one in his class who ___ has (have) got the teacher’s praise. He is one of the students in his class who have ____ (have) got the teacher’s praise. 关系词在定语从句中做主语时，谓语
6.如何判断介词 (1) 看定语从句中动词与介词的搭配
This is the book ___ for which you asked.
注意: 动词短语不能拆开即介词不提前 The old man whom I am looking after is better.
(2) 看定语从句中形容词与介词的搭配。 He referred me to some reference books ____ with which I am not very familiar. (3) 根据先行词判断, 所用的介词与先行 词搭配。 This is our classroom, ____________ in the front of which there is a teacher’s desk.
Read the sentences below and underline the relative clauses. 1. Ancient China was a place where states were often at war with each other. 2. But it was also a time when there were many great philosophers. 3. Confucius is the philosopher whose influence has been the greatest.
4. Mozi was another teacher who was
5. He came from a family which was very poor.
Read the sentences above again and choose the right answer
1.Who follows a word referring to ________. (a) a person (b) a thing 2. Which follows a word referring to ______. (a) a thing (b) a person
3. Instead of which you can say __________. (a) who (b) that 4. Where follows a word that refers to _____. (a) place (b) time
5. When follows word that refers to ______. (a) place (b) time 6. whose means ______________. (a) of whom (b) who
Match the two parts of the sentences.
1. Confucius lived in a century 2. Ancient China was a country 3. Some rulers followed the advice 4. Philosophers were people 5. Mozi was a man
? where there were
lots of new ideas. ? which Mencius gave. ? whose ideas were very influential. ? who lived an unusual life. ? when there was a lot of war.
Complete each sentence with one of these words.
who which when where whose
1. Mencius wrote a book ______ which many people have read. 2. Mencius came form a part of the world where _____ change was happening fast.
3. This was a period when ____ many people
became interested in Confucius’s
4. Mozi was a man _____ whose behavior was often unusual. 5. Mozi was a teacher _____ whose principles were different from those of Confucius.
6. It was a time when ____ philosophers could have positions in governments.
7. He came from an area where _____ people
were very poor.
Match sentences 1-4 with sentences A-D
1. For example, it is the country in which silk was first invented. 2. He is a man of whom China can be proud. 3. The book in which printing was first used was called The Diamond Sutra. 4. Su song was an eleventh-centry monk about whom very little is known.
A Su song was an eleventhcentry monk who(m) very little is known about. B The book which printing first appeared in was called The Diamond Sutra. C For exmple, it is the country which silk was first invented in. D He is a man who(m ) China can be proud of.
Rewrite these sentences as in the examples in activity 1 on page 47. Answers: 1. The man of whom I am thinking invented the first real clock. 2. These are the leaves from which silk is made. 3. He is a person of whom everyone has heard. 4. This is the house in which the inventor lived.
Connect these sentences using the given phrases.
of which whom at which in which to whom of
1. We’re in the region. Printing was first invented in this region. We’re in the region in which printing was first invented.
2. It is an invention. He is very proud of this invention. It is an invention of which he is very proud. 3. He is a man. I am afraid of this man because he has invented something dangerous. He is a man of whom I’m afraid because he has invented something dangerous.
4. The machine is very old. You are looking at that machine. The machine at which you’re looking is very old. 5. Is that the inventor? You were talking to him. Is that the inventor to whom you were talking?
Complete the following setences
1.This is the car __which / I bought last year.
2.This is the car ____which I paid 100$. for
3.This is the car ____which I spent 100$. on
by 4.This is the car ____which I go to work every
without which I can’t go to 5.This is the car _________
6. This is the car ____which the old man was by knocked down 7. This is the car ____which a boy threw a stone. at about 8. This is the car _________which we talked. 9. This is the car ____which the window was of broken.
1. (10, 全国I 24). As a child, Jack studied in a A is named after his grandfather. village school, ___ A. which B. Where C. What D. that 2. (10,全国II 16). I refuse to accept the blame for A something _____ was someone else’s fault. A.who B. that C. as D. what 3. (10, 北京卷27). Children who are not active or_____ diet is high in fat will gain weight B quickly. A. what B. whose C. which D. that
4. (10, 福建卷24). Stephen Hawking believes that the earth is unlikely to be the only planets ____ B life has developed gradually. A. that B. where C. which D. whose 5. (10, 湖南卷28) I’ve become good friend with A several of the students in my school _______ I meet in the English speech contest last year. A.who B. where C. when D. which 6. (10, 江苏卷32). The newly built café , the walls of _______ are painted light green, is really a D peaceful place for us, specially after hard work. A. that B. it C. what D. which
7. (10, 江西卷31) The girl arranged to have piano lessons at the training centre with her A she would stay for an hour. sister_____ A. where B. who C. which D. what 8. (10, 山东卷24). That’s the new machine ______ parts are too small to be seen. C A. that B. which C. whose D. what D 9. (10, 陕西卷11). The old temple _______ roof was damaged in storm is now under repair. A. where B. which C. its D. whose
10. (10, 四川卷10). After graduating from college, I took some time off to go travelling, ____ B turned out to be a wise decision. A. that B. which C. when D. where 11. (10, 天津卷8). —Can you believe I had to pay 30 dollars for a haircut? C —You should try the barber’s ______ I go. It’s only 15. A. as B. which C. where D. that
12. (10, 重庆卷28). In China, the number of cities ______ C increasing development is recognized across the world. A. where B. which C. whose D. that 13. (10, 浙江卷3). The settlement is home to A left their village nearly 1,000 people, many of __ homes for a better life in the city. A. whom B. which C. them D. those
14. (10, 上海卷38). Wind power is an ancient source of energy _______ we may return in the C near future. A.on which B. by which C. to which D. from which 15. (09全国1) She brought with her three C I had ever met before. friends, none of ____ A. them B. who C. whom D. these
16. (09全国2) My friend showed me round the A was vey kind of him. town, ______ A. which B. that C. where D. it 17. (09, 北京)-----What do you think of teaching, Bob? -----I find it fun and challenging. It is a job ____ B you are doing something serious but interesting. A. where B. which C. when D. that
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? Revise What you have learned during this period of class. ? Get ready for the next period of class.