定语从句 ( The Attributive Clauses) Teaching Aims:（教学目的） To ask the students to master the usage of Attributive Clauses and use it freely when communicatin
g with each other. Difficulties and Emphasis:（难点和重点） ** How to distinguish the Attributive clauses. **How to tell the attributive clause from the appositive clause . Teaching Progress :（教学步骤）
定语从句：修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。 如：The man who lives next to us sells vegetables. You must do everything that I do. 上面两句中 man 和 everything 是被定语从句修饰的词，叫先行词， 其后的划线部分为定语从句，其中 who 和 that 叫做关系代词。 定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词之后。 分为限定性定语从句和 非限定性定语从句。 先行词： 被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 关系词： 引导定语从句的词叫关系词。 分为关系代词和关系副词。 关系代词有 that ,which ,who（whom 宾格,whose 所有格）, as 等；
关系副词有 when ,where ,why 等。 关系词的作用: 处在先行词和定语从句之间，起着连接主从句，指代 先行词和在从句中作句子成分的三重作用。
Step 2. presentation
限制性定语从句 先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语，如果去掉， 主句的意思就不完 整或失去意义。 特点：不用逗号分隔开；作宾语的关系代词常可省略 关系代词 1.指人
Eg:The boy who broke the window is called Tom.（作主语） He is the person whom you should write to .（作宾语） Who is the man that is reading a book over there?(作主语) The girl （that）we saw yesterday was Jim’s sister.（作宾语） 只用 who 不用 that 表示人的三种情况： Anyone who breaks the law will be punished . (先行词为指人的代词，如 anyone ,one ,all,none 等) Those who want to go there raise your hand .(先行词为 those) There is a young man outside who asks for you . (在 there be 结构中) 练习：让学生区分以下两个句子
1. He is no longer the naughty boy ( that ) he was ten years ago . 他不再是 10 年前那个调皮的男孩。 （定语从句，先行词 the naughty boy） 分析：he 主语，was 谓语，缺宾语，ten years ago 时间状语 2. He is no longer what he was ten years ago . 他不再是 10 年前的他了。 （名词性从句，what 在从句中作表语， 含义是 “…..人”） *名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、 表语从句和同位语从句。 2. 指物
They planted some trees which didn’t need much water. (作主语) The fish （which） bought this morning were not fresh. 作宾语） we （ A plane is a machine that can fly.（作主语） The noodles (that) I cooked were delicious.（作宾语）
*只用 that 的 5 种情况 a . 当先行词为 everything,anything,nothing(something 除外) all, none, few, little, some 等代词时，或先行词受 every,all,any, some, no, little,few, much 等代词修饰时。 Eg: All that can be done has been done . There is little that I can do for you . Have you taken down everything (that )Mr. Li said ? b. 当先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时
Eg: The first place that they visited was our school . This is the best film that I have seen . c. 当先行词被 the very ,the only 修饰时 Eg: This is the very book that I want to buy .(the very:正是) After the fire in his house , the old car is the only thing that he owns . d. 当先行词为人和物时 Eg: Look at the man and his donkey that are walking up the street . e . 当先行词前面有 who ,which 等疑问代词时 Eg: Who is the man that is standing by the gate ? Which is the shirt that fits me most ? *只用 which 的情况 a . 介词+ which 表物
The school in which I studied is very small . b. 在非限制性定语从句中 I will study in the school , which is famous for Premier Zhou .
*由关系代词 whose 引导的定语从句 关系代词 Whose 为关系代词 who 的所有格形式，用作名词的限 定语，whose 引导的定语从句既可为限制性的，也可为非限制性 的。先行词既可指人, 也可指物，whose 和它所修饰的名词在定 语从句中可作主语及动词或介词的宾语。
I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country . Iiwent to see my friends, the Smiths, whose children I used to look after when they were small. *注意：指物时， whose=the +名词+of which 的用法 The room whose window faces south is mine. He has written a book whose name I’ve forgotten. =He has written a book the name of which I’ve forgotten. =He has written a book that I’ve forgotten the name of. =He has written a book of which I’ve forgotten the name.
The school in which he once studied is very famous . This is the boy with whom I played tennis yesterday . *介词+关系代词前还可有 some ,any, none ,all ,both,neither,few 等 代词或数词。 He loves his parents deeply , both of whom are very kind to him . In the basket there are many apples , some of which have gone bad . 关系副词 when :在从句中作时间状语 Where：在从句中作地点状语 Why:在从句中作原因状语， 它的先行词只有 reason 一词，why 可转换为 for which, 在口语中可用 that 或省略。
练习：比较以下句子（可让学生分析） 1. I never forget the time when/during which we worked on the farm.(在从句中作时间状语) I never forget the days that / which we spent together. （在从句中作宾语） 2. This is the shop where / in which I worked two years ago . This is the shop that /which I visited two years ago . 3. The reason why /for which / he was late was that he missed his train. The reason that he gave us is that he fell ill .
非限制性定语从句: 从句和主句的关系不十分密切，只是对先行词作些附加的说明， 如果去掉，主句的意思仍然清楚。 特点： 用逗号“， ”与主句隔开 ；译为并列句；关系词不能省 略 ；不用 that 引导；不用 who 代替 whom His mohter , who loves him very much , is strict with him . China, which was founded in 1949 , is becoming more and more powerful. *as /which 引导非限制性定语从句的情况： 相同点：都可以做主语或宾语， 不同点：as 引导的从句可放在主句之前，也可放在主句之后；
which 引导的从句只能放在主句之后，相当于 and this、that、it 。 另外，as 常常有“正如，正像”的含义。 Eg: As is known to all , China is a developing country . He failed in the exam, as we had expected. He studied hard at school when he was young, which leads to his success in his later life. *当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时，关系词往往只 用 which 。 Eg: Tom was late for school again and again, which made his teacher very angry . *当先行词受 the same 或 such 修饰时， 关系词一般用 as This is such a difficult problem as nobody can solve . I have got into the same trouble as he (has). *way 表方式时定语从句用 in which 来引导，也可用 that 或省 略，绝对不能用 how. This is the way (in which/that )I did it.
Step 3 explanation
定语从句与同位语从句的区别 定语从句的先行词通过关系词在从句中担当相应的句子成分， 关 系代词在从句中作宾语时常可省略。 同位语从句修饰的词在从 句中不担当成分，通常用 that 引导，that 不能省略，同位语从
句也由 where ,when ,who , how ,whether ,what 等连词引导 。 Eg: The news (that /which) he told me is true .(定语从句) The news that he has just died is true .(同位语从句) The problem (that/which )we are facing now is how we can collect so much money .(定语从句) The problim where /how/whether we can collect so much money is difficult to solve . (同位语从句) The question (that /which) he raised puzzled all of us .(定语从句) The question whether he is sure to win the game is hard to answer . (同位语从句)
1. This is the school where I visited yesterday . (Where 改为 which) 2. I’ll never forget the days when we spent together. (when 改为 which) 3. Is there anything which I can do for you ? (which 改为 that,因为先行词为 anything)
4. The book , which cover is broken , is not mine . (which 改为 of which/whose)
5. There was nobody to who I could turn for help . (who 改为 whom) 6. The pen with that I wrote to you is on the desk . (that 改为 which) 7. Who is the man who is talkig to you ? ( 第二个 who 改为 that,属先行词前有 who) 8. That’s all what I want to say . (what 改为 that) 9. He didn’t pass the eaxm , it is a pity . (it 改为 which,非限制性定语从句) 10. The man I met him in the street is my boss . (句子改为 The man whom I met in the street is my boss.)
Homework Do some exercises and go over the usage of the Attributive Clauses .