Parts of Speach
?I bought a book . 1. （n.） 表示人或事 ?She is a student. 名 词 物的名称。 2. ?This is my friend. 代替名词、
(pron.） ?He likes that book because 数词等。 it is very useful to him. 代词
?He is small but he is clever. 表示人 ?The red pen is useful for 3. （adj.） 或事物 the teacher. 形容词 的特征 或性状。 ?He painted the wall white yesterday.
4. 表示数 (num.） 目或顺 数词 序。
?There are ten apples on the table and I will take the first one.
表示动 5. （v.） 作或状 动 词 态。
?We are working hard at English. ?I want to become an engineer.
?I like English very much. 表示动 ?The teacher treats us 作的特 kindly . 6. （adv.） 征或性 副 词 状特征; ?The train goes fast. ?He seldom comes to see us. 也修饰 adj和adv。
表示名 词、代 7. (prep.） 词和其 介 词 他词之 间的关 系。
?He usually stay at home on Sundays.
8. ?He and I are in the same class 连接词与词 and we are good friends. （conj.） 或句与句的 ?Two or three of us can dance well 连词 作用。 but I can’t .
9. 表示强烈的 ?Oh ! How beautiful the scene is! (interj.） ?What a good idea! Goodness ! 感情 感叹词
10. ?I have a pet dog . 用来限制名 ?The dog is very lovely. （art.） 词的意义 ?He is an old man but very strong. 冠词
? 在句子中，词与词之间根据语义关系组合 在一起，表达一定的语法功能，这种语法 功能被称为句子成分。
? 英语的基本成分有七种：主语（subject）、 谓语（predicate）、表语（predicative）、 宾语（object）、定语（attribute）、状 语(adverbial) 和补语（complement）。 另有同位语（appositive）和独立成分。
一、主语 主语（subject）：谓语动作的发出者，或 句首 ， 谓语描述的对象。主语一般位于______ 谓语前。
1.Lucy likes her new bike.
2.We work hard.
3.To learn a foreign language is not easy.
4.Playing football after school is great fun.
一、主语 主语可以用下面这些东西表示： 1. The sun rises in the east. （ 名词 ） 2. He likes dancing. （ 代词 ） 3. Two will be enough.( 数词 ) 4. Seeing is believing. （ 动名词 ） 6. To see is to believe. （不定式 ） 7. When to hold the meeting has not been decided yet. ( 疑问词+不定式) 8. What he needs is a book. （ 从句 ） 9. It is very clear that the elephant is round and tall like a tree. （It作形式主语，that从句是真正的主语）
当不定式、动名词或从句在某个句子中作主语 时，为保持句子结构前后平衡，避免头重脚轻， 因此常用it作形式主语置于句首，而将真正的 主语放在句尾。此时it只起先行引导作用，本 身无词义。
你能划出下列句子的真正的主语吗?你懂得翻 译下列句子吗？ 1) It is wrong to tell a lie. ( 说谎是错误的。) 2) It is no use arguing about it. (争吵是没用的。) 3) It is uncertain who will come. (谁要来还不确定。 )
系动词 情态动词 助动词
谓语:说明主语做什么或怎么样。通常由 动词 充当.动词常分为实义动词,系动词, ______ 情态动词和助动词.
? ? ? ? 1. 2. 3. 4.
We love China. She seems tired. He can speak English We have finished reading this book.
They can speak English well. They are playing over there.
1）状态系动词，用来表示主语状态，只有be （am,is ,are,was,were,been,being）一词 He is a teacher. 2）感官系动词，主要有feel, smell, sound, taste This flower smells very sweet.
3）持续系动词，用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况 或态度，主要有keep, remain, stay
He always kept silent at meeting.
他开会时总保持沉默。 4）表“像…”系动词,主要有seem, appear, look, 例如： He looks tired.
He seems (to be) very sad.
become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come
He became mad after that.
prove, turn out
The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。 His plan turned out a success. 他的计划终于成功了。
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
(二) 选出句中谓语的中心词 ① I don't like the picture on the wall. A. don't B. like C. picture D. wall ② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. A. get B. longer C. days D. summer ③ Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually C.go D. bus ④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon ⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? A.Did B. twins C. have D. breakfast
宾语：动作行为的对象，说明主语做什么。一 及物动词 或_______ 介词 后面,有时也在形容 般放在_________ 词后.
1.He is looking at the dog.
2.Our teacher said it.
3.Our teacher said that he would go there. 4.I’m sure that he will come.
He gave me two books.
1.She lived a happy life.( 名词 ) 2.I love you.( 代词) 3.We need two.( 数词) 4.Do you mind my opening the door?(动名词) 5.He began to learn English a year ago.(不定式 ) 6.He did not know what to say.(疑问词+不定式) 7.Did you write down what she said? ( 从句 ) 8. She felt it her duty to take good care of them. ( It作形式宾语，不定式是真正的宾语 )
表语：跟在连系动词后面的词语或从句,用 来说明主语的身份,特征,状态. The trees turn green. The flowers are beautiful . My job is to teach you English. The question is how we can get there.
四、表语 表语可以用下面这些东西表示： 1. He is a teacher. ( 名词 ) 2. My idea is this.( 代词 ) 3. She was the first to arrive.( 数词 ) 4. I feel much better today./I must be off now. adv. 走开, 隔断, 出发 ( 形容词/副词 ) 5. He is out of danger.( 介词短语 ) 6. The news was exciting./They were excited at the news.( 分词 ) 7. What surprised me most was that he spoke Chinese so well.( 从句 )
名词 常为形容词或 定语：用来修饰限定_____. 形容词性短语。
This is a red car. The building is their teaching building. The woman doctor is my wife. I have something to tell you. The man in front of the gate is Mr. Li. Every student has an English book.
五、定语 定语可以用下面这些东西表示： 1.It’s a red car.( 形容词 ) 2.They live in the room above.( 副词 ) 3.My brother is a teacher.( 物主代词) 4.We belong to the third world.( 数词 ) 5.Lucy’s father is a worker.( 名词所有格 ) 6.Mother made a birthday cake for me.( 名词 ) 7.The man under the tree is my teacher.( 介词短语 ) 8.The swimming boy is my brother./The boy swimming in the river is my brother. ( 现在分词 )
五、定语 定语可以用下面这些东西表示： 9.I liked the food cooked by my mother./Retired people have a good time at home.( 过去分词 ) 10.There are two things to be discussed today. （ 不定式 ） 11.Will you tell us about your teaching plan? （ 动名词 ） 12.This is the very book that I need. （
六、状语 状语：修饰动词、形容词、副词或全句， 说明时间、地点、方式、因果、条件、让 步、方向、程度、目的，伴随等。
?状语从句： ?时间状语从句、地点状语从句、条件状语从句、 原因状语从句、结果状语从句、目的状语从句、 方式状语从句、比较状语从句、让步状语从句
John often came to chat with me． (程度 目的) As he was ill, he didn’t come to class yesterday. (原因) She is sitting at the desk, doing her homework. My father worked in this school ten years ago.
Though he is young, he knows a lot. He came running.
1. He is often late for class.( 副词，程度 ) 介词短语，地点 ) 2. We saw that picture at the cinema.(
3. He sat there smoking.( 分词，伴随 )
4. They returned tired and hungry. （ 形容词，状态 ）
5. They did everything they could to save the boy’s life. （ 不定式，目的 ）
6. Although he is young, he knows a lot.让步状语从句 ( ) 结果状语从句 7. The box is so heavy that I can’t lift it. ( )
状语可以用下面这些东西表示： 时间状语从句 ）
9. While my wife was reading the newspaper, I was
watching TV. （
10.He was angry because we were late．( 原因状语从句 ） i t ra i n s t o m o r ro w, we wo n ’ t g o o u t . ( 条件状语从句 )
? 用于补充说明主语或宾语的身份或特征。 Everyone calls him Jack. （宾补）
He is called Jack.（主补）
1. I consider Jim a good friend.( 名词 )
2. I always find her happy.( 形容词
4. I had the TV fixed.( 过去分词 )
3. People praised him as a hero.( 介词短语
5. I saw him entering the building.( 现在分词
6. What made you think so?( 省略掉to的不定式 ) 7. Do you want me to go?( 不定式 )
? 位于名词或代词后面的名词或名词词组，对前者 进行解释说明，省略后不影响句子语法结构。 ? The Great Wall, one of the wonders in the world, attracts a large number of foreign friends. ? We students should study hard. / (students是we的 同位语，都是指同一批‘学生’） ? We all are students. / (all是we的同位语，都指同 样的‘我们’）
? 九、独立成分： ? 有时句子中会有一些与句子没有语法联系的成分， 称为句子独立成分(注意：区别于分词独立结构)。 ? 感叹词：oh,hello,aha,ah,等。 ? 肯定词yes ? 否定词no ? 称呼语：称呼人的用语。 ? 插入语：一些句中插入的 I think , I believe,等。 ? 如: The story,I think,has never come to the end./我相信,这个故事还远没结束. ? 情态词,表示说话人的语气（多作为修饰全句的状 语）:perhaps也许,maybe大概,acturely实际 上,certainly当然，等。
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
英语五种基本句型列式如下： 一： Ｓ Ｖ （主＋谓Vi） The sun shines./ Jim can swim. 二： Ｓ Ｖ Ｐ （主＋系动词＋表） I’m a girl. /The apple tastes good. 三： Ｓ Ｖ Ｏ （主＋谓Vt＋宾） I like English./ He is riding a bike. 四： Ｓ Ｖ ｏ Ｏ （主＋谓Vt＋间宾＋直宾） Kongrong gives his brother the bigger pear. ? 五： Ｓ Ｖ Ｏ Ｃ （主＋谓Vt＋宾＋宾补） ? Kids find games interesting.
? 1. 并列复杂句 分句a +并列连词+ 分句b. (e.g. and, but, so, or) ? 2. 主从复合句（……从句） 分句a(主句) +从属连词+ 分句b(从句). (e.g. who, which, that, if, because, where, because…) ? 3.分句个数n与连词个数m的关系: ? m=n-1,有时m=n ? 4.分句个数n与谓语动词个数v的关系： ? n=v
They are playing baseball in the garden.
Her father is a doctor and her mother is a teacher. I liked the story very much but Li Ming wasn’t intereted in it.
由从属连词连接，如who, what, which, why, when等。 , 复合句 Hurry up, or you’ll be late.
If he is all right tomorrow, he will come.
连词 从句（状语） 主句
I went to bed afer I finished my homework.
主句 连词 从句（状语）
? I met my best friend Tom at the station
主 谓 定 宾 同位 地点状
主 系 动 词 表
? He was a dancer, and I found him hardworking.
主 谓 宾 宾补
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
主语：名、代 名词性从句： 谓语：动 主从、宾从、表从、同位从 宾语：名、代 表语：名、代、形容词 同位语：名、代 形容词性从句：定从 定语：形容词 副词性从句：状从 状语：副词 补语：名、形容词、副词、介词短语…
主语从句 subject clause 宾语从句
名词性从句 noun clause
连词: that (在从句中不充当成分，无意义) if/ whether / as if (though)
连接代词: what /who/which / whose / whatever / whoever / whomever / whichever 连接副词: where / when / why / how / wherever / whenever
1.“They are good doctors”, he told us. → He told us that they were good doctors.
总结: 当从句原来是陈述句时, 变成 名词性从句用that引导。
3. “Does your sister get up early?” Do you know? → Do you know if/whether your sister gets up early? 4. “Do animals have the same senses as humans?” I often wonder. → I often wonder if/whether animals have the same senses as humans.
总结: 当从句原来是一般疑问句时, 变成 名词性从句用 if 或 whether 引导。
5. When did he buy this new bike? Could you tell me? → Could you tell me when he bought this new bike? 6. My question is this: where will the lecture be given? → My question is where the lecture will be given.
总结: 当从句原来是特殊疑问句时, 变成名词 性从句还用原来的特殊疑问词来引导。
总结: 名词性从句必须用陈述句语序。 宾语从句的时态一般与主句保持一致。
一、Object Clauses 宾语从句
know him . (简单句)
is . (复合句)
连词 从句主语 从句谓语 宾语从句
宾语从句的概念： 宾语从句在复合句中作主句的宾语。 句子结构： 主句+连词(引导词)+宾语从句
1. 连词(引导词) 1) 当宾语从句是陈述句时(包括肯定句和 否定句), 连词由that引导, 因为that在从句 中不作任何成分, 也没有任何具体意思, 因此在口语或非正式文体中常省略。 Lin Tao feels (that) his own team is even better. She says (that) she won’t take part in the sports
meeting next Sunday.
Jim thought (that) the train was like a big moving
宾语从句中的连接词that在以下三种情况 下不能省略： ①当that 从句与另一名词性从句并列作 宾语时, 第二个that不能省； ②当that作介词宾语时, that不可省掉。 ③用it做形式宾语的宾语从句。 Everyone knew what happened and that she was worried. The reason lies in that she works harder than the others do. I think it necessary that you should read English aloud.
在主句为动词 be 加某些形容词（如sorry,
sure, afraid, glad等）作表语时，后面所跟
的省略 that 的从句也可算是宾语从句。 ?I’m sorry (that) I don’t know. ?We’re sure (that) our team will win. ?I’m afraid (that) he won’t pass the exam.
2) 当宾语从句是一般疑问句时, 由连词whether
“是否”, 具有一定的意义, 所以不能省略。 Lily wanted to know if /whether her grandma
liked the handbag .
Let’s see if /whether we can find out some
information about that city .
She asked me if /whether she could borrow
these books .
表“是否”时, 在下列情况下用whether。 a. 主语从句 b. 表语从句 c. 同位语从句 e. 介词后的宾语从句 f. 后接动词不定式 (whether to do sth.) g. whether or not 连在一起引导宾语 从句时不用if
a. 当whether后紧跟or not时, 不用if. b. 介词后面的宾语从句不能用if.
e.g. I don’t know whether or not I will stay.
e.g. I worry about whether I hurt her
练一练: if / whether if / whether she had a bike. 1. I asked her __________
2. We’re worried aboutwhether ________ he is
safe. 3. I don’t know whether ___________ /if he is well or not. 4. I don’t knowwhether ________ or not he is well. 5. I don’t know _______ to go. whether
3) 当宾语从句是特殊疑问句时, 由连接代词 (what, who, whom, which, whose) 或连接 副词(when, where, how, why)引导, 因为连接 代词或连接副词在从句中担任一定的句子成分, 具有一定的意义, 所以不可以省略。 Do you know what he said just now? I don’t remember when we arrived. I asked him where I could get so much money. Please tell me who (whom) we have to see. Do you know what time the plane leaves?
Could you tell us how much it costs to fly to Hainan? Could you tell us how often you go abroad for a holiday? Could you tell us how long the meeting will last? I don’t know how far it is to the cinema. Please tell us how many students there are in your school? Please tell us how soon you will be ready. Can you tell us how old his brother is?
1) 如果主句是现在的时态(包括一般现在时， 现在进行时, 现在完成时)从句的时态可根 据实际情况而定(包括一般现在时,一般过 去时,一般将来时,现在完成时等)。 ?I know he lives here. ?I know he lived here ten years ago. ?I have heard that he will come tomorrow.
2) 如果主句是过去的时态(包括一般过去时, 过去进行时), 那么从句的时态一定要用相 对应的过去的某种时态(包括一般过去时， 过去进行时, 过去将来时, 过去完成时)。
?I knew who lived here. ?I saw she was talking with her mother. ?He asked whether his father would come back tomorrow. ?He said that he had seen it .
3) 当从句是客观真理, 定义, 公理, 定理 时用一般现在时。 ?The teacher said that the sun travels around the earth.
1. I didn’t know what time hewrote _______ the letter. (write) has taken away 2. Could you tell me who _________ the book already? (take) had been to the 3. Ling Feng told me he _________ Great Wall several times. (be)
4. The radio says it _______ will be cloudy tomorrow.
goes well. 5. The headmaster hopes everything ______
were playing (play). 6. Tom says that they ____________ basketball at six o’clock yesterday evening. 7. I hear they ______________ have returned (return) it already. had been members of the 8. He said that they _________ Party since 1948. (be)
? When will he go to the library?
? His brother asks when he will go to the
His brother asks when will he go to the
? What does he want to buy ? ? I don’t know what he wants to buy . I don’t know what does he want to buy .
1) could / would是委婉语气, 而不是过去式, 因此宾语从句的时态根据实际情况用不同时态。
?Could you please tell me where we show our tickets ? ?Could you tell us which gate we have to go to? ?Would you like to know when he will come back?
2) 如果主句的谓语动词是ask时, 连词不可能 是that; 如果主句的谓语动词是say时, 连词用that。 ?She says (that) she will leave a message on his desk. ?He said (that) he was going to take care of the child. ?He asks if I like playing the piano. ?You may ask the man over there how you can get to the bus station.
3) 否定的转移: 若主语谓语动词为think,
consider, suppose, believe, expect, guess,
意义, 一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上, 从句谓语用肯定式。 I don’t think this dress fits you well. 我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。
4) It 常可以放在动词think, find, consider,
believe, feel, make等后作形式宾语：it 不
仅可以作形式主语, 还可以作形式宾语而 真正的宾语-that从句则放在句尾，特别是
We heard it that she would get married
5) 连词 if 和 when 在不同从句中的区别： Do you know if ______back next week? If C he ______ back, please let me know. A. he comes, will come B. will he come, comes
C. he will come, comes
D. he will come, will come
come (come). I don’t know when hewill _________ I can’t wait here any more. When hecomes _____
(come), would you please ask him to call
D it’s summer or 1. The young man asked _____
B. that C. weather D. whether A 2. We don’t know ______ they did it. A. how on time. A. that B. if C. when D. what time B. who C. what D. which B Jim can come back 3. The teacher asks us ____ A. either
4. Does anybody know ______ C we will have a
sports meeting this weekend or not .
A. if B. where C. whether D. that
5. Could you show me ________ ? D
A. how can I get to the station
B. where is the station
C. how I could get to the station
D. how I can reach the station
6. Please tell me _______. C A. what does he like B. what he does like C. what he likes D. what he like B 7. My sister told him ________ . A. what day was it B. when the train arrived C. who she was waiting D. where did you live 8. Someone is ringing the doorbell. Go and see D _______. A. who is he B. who he is C. who is it D. who it is
9. Could you tell me how long ________? B
A. you have bought the watch
B. you have kept this science book
C. have you been away from China
D. have you been a member of Greener China
10. He says that if it ______ C tomorrow, he
A. will rain, won’t go B. rained, wasn't go
C. rains, won’t go
D. rain, will go