We all know something about Copernicus. He was one of the first scientists to use mathematical observations to collect information. He believed the sun is the center of the universe and the
earth and other planets goes around it. The chart on P.7 shows his theory.
How many planets in the solar system ? How to remember their order?
Son, My Very Excellent Mother Just Sent Us Nine Pizzas
Can you repeat the eight planets in the solar system in the correct order ?
Mercury Mars Uranus Neptune Saturn
Draw the two theories of the universe.
Before Copernicus’ theory 1. God _____ made the earth.
The sun is the center of 1. _______ the solar system and the planets go around it 2.________ The earthwas the except the _________. the moon center of the solar earth is spinning as 2. The _______ system. it goes round the sun.
Listen carefully and try to draw the two theories of the universe.
Before Copernicus’ theory
The Earth was the center of the solar system, and the Sun and other planets went around it.
Showing Copernicus’ theory
The Sun is the center of the solar system, and the Earth and other planets go around it.
Why could he not tell about his theory? Because the powerful Chistian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea
Read the text carefully and loudly, and then tell whether the following statements are true or false.
Before Copernicus’ theory
1. At Copernicus’ time, Christian Church was in charge of many western T countries.
2. Copernicus noticed that observed from the earth, some planets appears in front of or behind the earth. F
3. Copernicus didn’t show his new theory to his friends until he completed it. T
4. His friends were not interested in his ideas. F 5. Since he was not afraid of being attacked by the Church, Copernicus published his book as soon as he F finished working on it. 6. Newton, Einstein, and Hawking are all scientists who made contributions to the study of the universe. T
? 1.This passage is about Copernicus’ ___________ (revolute) theory. revolutionary
a revolutionary leader/ a leader of revolution ? 2. Copernicus was _________ (fright) frightened
and his mind was confused. ? 3. Although he had tried to ignore them, led all his mathematical calculations ____ (lead) to the sameconclusion ________(conclude)： that the earth was not the centre of the solar system.
lead to: result in 导致; 通向 Your carelessness will lead to the trouble in the future. 条条大道通罗马。 All roads lead to Rome. There is a passage leading to the living room. The guide will lead the tourists to visit the attraction . lead sb to do sth 领着某人去做某事
? 4.Only ____ if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. =The movements of the other
arose ? 5. The problem _____(arise) because astronomers had noticed that some planets in the sky seemed to stop, move backward and then go forward in a loop. arise-arose-arisen Vi发生,出现,呈现 rise-rose-risen Vi自身移向较高的位置 raise-raised-raised Vt 举起,抬高,提高
planets in the sky made sense only if you put the sun there.
only if 只有；只要。 ? “Only + 副词 /介词短语/状语从句”即 only修饰状语放句首,主句要倒装。 1）Only by shouting and waving his hands could he be noticed. 只有通过喊叫和挥手他才能被注意到。 2)只有用这种方法我们才能解决这个数学问题 Only in this way can we work out the maths problem.
①His argument does not make sense. 他的争论没有意义。 ②这个句子完全讲不通。 This sentence doesn’t make any sense. ＝ This sentence makes no sense. ③It makes sense to take care of your health. 注意身体健康是明智的。 ④Can you make sense of the article ?
⑤There’s no sense in getting angry about it. 为此生气是没有意思的。
(1)make sense是不及物动词短语，可用于it makes sense (for sb.) to do sth.结构中。而 make sense of是及物动词短语。意为：理解， 明白。 (2) a sense of humor幽默感 in a sense在某种程度上 lose one’s sense昏过去;发疯;失去理智 There is no sense in doing sth.做什么没有道 理/没有必要/没意义
6.In 1514 he showed it privately _______(private) to his friends. fixed 7.He placed a ______(fix) sun at the centre of the solar system with the going planets ______(go) round it and only the moon still going round the earth. ? 8.He also suggested that the earth was spinning __________ (spin) as it went round it
spin ---spun ---spun----spinning e.g. We span the coin to see who would have first turn.
9.The Christian Church rejected his theory,saying _____ (say) it was against God's idea and people who supported it would be attacked. 译:如果你认为这建议不适合你,你可以拒绝。 If you don’t think the suggestion is suitable for you, you may reject it. an offer reject a possibility candidate refuse to a theory rejected accept applicant
10.Copernicus' theory is now the basis ____ on which all our ideas of the universe are built.
11. His theory replaced the Christian which said things fell to idea of gravity, ______ earth because God created the earth as the centre of the universe. 12.His friends were enthusiastic and encouraged him to publish his ideas, but _____Copernicus was cautious.
6. enthusiastic: be interested in
Show enthusiasm for things that you expect others to be enthusiastic about. 如果你想唤起别人对某件事的热情，自 己先表现出热情。 enthusiasm for (doing)sth 对(做)某事充满热情 译：全体员工热衷于这个项目。
All the staff are enthusiastic about the project. be enthusiastic about….
cautious: careful to avoid risk 1.我的爸爸是一位非常谨慎的司机。 My father is a very cautious driver. 2.The bank is very cautious about lending money. 3.警卫告戒我要当心陌生人。 The guard warned me to be cautious
be cautious about sb./sth.小心; 谨慎于
1. The quarrel led __ to the fighting
between the two villagers.
2. He is always positive _____ about trying new
3. His father is very strict with ____ him and
strict in __ his studies too.
4. We should base our theory on __ fact. 5. The photo calls up the memory of his childhood __ at times.
6. According to my point __ of view, we
should stick to our plan.
If you were Nicolaus Copernicus, would you have hidden your theory for so many years? Why? As a scientist, Copernicus was more cautious
than coward. If he had published his ideas at his
time, he would have been killed just as Bruno who
was burnt to death because his theory was against
the Christian Church’s. Every time when a new idea appears, there are always rejections. It’s normal.
Scientists should have patience to spread their truth.
◆ As a scientist, one should be brave. But Copernicus was afraid of being attacked by the Christian Church. So he had hidden his theory for so many years. What do you think of this? Agree: 1.He was cautious. if he had published his ideas, he would have been killed just as Bruno who was burned to death because his theory was against the Christian Church. 2.Every time when a new idea appears, there are always rejections. It’s normal. Scientists should have patience to spread their truth. 3.It made no sense for him to publish his theory in a hurry. He was just cautious not coward. He should protect himself first.
1.Copernicus was very coward. He should speak out his discovery and let the world know the truth earlier. 2.Science can never advance unless people have the courage of their beliefs. 3.As a scientist, you must have the courage to publish your findings. No matter how people oppose them, time will show if your ideas are right or wrong.
Dear Nicolaus Copernicus,
Write a short letter asking Copernicus (not) to publish his ideas so everyone can read them
I am a student studying astronomy and I would very much like to read your new theory about the solar system. I hope you will publish it for several reasons. I understand the problems with the present theory. The way the planets move is not what you would expect if the earth was the center of the universe. It is also odd that the brightness of some stars seems to change. So I agree with you that we need a new theory.
I know your observations have been very carefully carried out over many years. Now you must have the courage to publish them. Science can never advance unless people have the courage of their beliefs. I know you worry about what will happen if you publish your new theory. No matter how people oppose it, time will show if your ideas are right or wrong. So I hope you will feel you can publish your new theory. Yours sincerely,
? Write a short letter asking Copernicus to publish his ideas so everyone can read them.