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含S气井完井井口装置的组装、维护、维修


2.1.9 INSPECTION FREQUENCY OF WELLHEADS 2.1.9.1 Suspended Wells NOTE: Inspection frequency and inspection requirements for suspended critical sour wells are covered by IRP 2.13 "Suspensi

on Practices for Critical Sour Wells". 2.1.9 井口装置检查频率 2.1.9.1 暂停井 注意:对于暂停的易出问题的酸性井的检查频率和检查需求,是由 IRP2.13 章节“易出问题的酸性 井的暂停惯例”进行说明的。 2.1.9.2 Producing Wells 生产井

IRP Producing critical sour wells must be inspected and serviced at least once every year. A good routine plan for this inspection would be late fall before freeze-up. IRP 对于生产的易出问题的酸性井必须进行检查和维修,一年至少一次。一旦生产井被冻结,一 个良好的常规检查计划就太迟了。 Inspection and servicing of the wellhead and Christmas tree should include: 井口装置和采油树的检查和维修应当包括: ? Visual inspection of all equipment to check for any loose or damaged parts. 所有设备的可视化检查,用于检查任何变松的或被损坏 的部件。 ? Lubrication of all valves (body and stem bearings) to prevent corrosion and excessive wear of valve parts. Venting and draining instructions may be needed depending on manufacturer's valve. Generally any good grade SAE #1 grease is recommended for body lubrication and for bearings see Appendix B. The grease selected is most effective if it is not soluble in the well effluent. The valve manufacturer should be consulted in selecting an appropriate grease. Lubrication pressure must never exceed the maximum working pressure of a valve. 以抵抗腐蚀和阀体部件的过度磨损的所有阀门的润滑(主体和阀杆轴承)。 依靠制造厂商的阀门进行通风和排水,可能需要说明书.通常,对于主体润 滑推荐使用任何优良等级的SAE#1润滑脂,对于轴承润滑可参见附录B.假 如所选择的润滑脂不溶解于井内产出的流体,这是最有效的。关于选择一种 合适的润滑脂,应当咨询阀门的制造厂商。润滑压力决不能超过阀门的最大 工作压力。 ? Checking stem packing on valves for leakage and adjusting or repacking as needed. 在阀门泄漏和调节,或按需要重新安装的过程中, 检查阀杆盘根。 ? Cycling surface safety valves (SSVs) to make sure they are operational.? The high and low pilots should be checked to ensure they operate at set point limits. All tubing control line connections should be checked for possible leaks and repaired as needed. 循环工作的地面安全阀(SSVs)应当确保它们是运作的。高压和低压关闭 装置应当得以检查,以确保地面安全阀在设定的压差极限范围内进行运作。

对于可能出现的泄漏,所有油管控制管线的连接都应当进行检查,并且按需 要进行维修。 ? Manual operation of all wellhead valves to ensure they work and hold pressures. 用于确保所有井口阀门正常工作和保持压力的手动操作。 ? Recording and reporting all annulus pressures. 记录和报告所有的环空压力 2.1.10 SERVICE EQUIPMENT FOR CRITICAL SOUR WELLS 对于易出问题的酸性井的维修设备 2.1.10.1 Back Pressure Valve回压阀 NOTE: A back pressure valve (BPV) is a device which seats in a tubing hanger or coupling to seal the wellbore while the blowout preventers are removed and the Christmas tree is installed/removed. It is also used to temporarily isolate the Christmas tree from well pressure, for repairs, without killing the well (see Appendix C, Figure I). 注意:回压阀(BPV)是座放在油管悬挂器或耦合中的装置,当防喷器被移走,采油树被安 装/移走,它用来密封油井。回压阀也用来将采油树从井口压力中暂时隔离出来,用来进行 维修,而不必压井(参见附录C,图I)。 Back pressure valves are installed in four different ways. The method used depends on when the BPV is installed: ? By hand on the rig floor before the tubing hanger is run. ? Using sucker rods after the tubing hanger is landed, but before the well is flowing. ? With a lubricator when the well is flowing. ? By wireline when long distance makes it impractical to use the above methods; for instance, when using "Otis" recess/locking dogs type BPV rather than the "Cameron" threaded type. 回压阀以四种不同的方式进行安装。所使用的方法依赖于回压阀何时进行安装: ?在油管悬挂器运作以前,在钻台上手动安装。 ?在油管悬挂器下放以后,但是在井内形成流动以前,使用抽油杆安装。 ?在井内形成流动以后,使用防喷管安装。 ?当长距离使以上方法的使用不切实际时,通过电缆安装。比如,奥蒂斯的凹槽/锁紧装置类 型回压阀,而不是喀麦隆的丝扣类型。 2.1.10.2 Back Pressure Valve Lubricator 回压阀防喷管 NOTE: The back pressure valve lubricator is a tool for setting and recovering back pressure valves under pressure. The lubricator is used whenever there is pressure in the wellbore (see Appendix C, Figure 2). 注意:回压阀防喷管是用于带压安装和带压回收回压阀的工具。无论何时,只要油井内有压 力,就可以使用防喷管。(参见附录C,图2) 2.1.10.3 Valve Removal Lubricators and Plugs 用于起阀的防喷管和丝堵 NOTE: The valve removal (VR) lubricator is used to install or remove a valve removal plug (VRP) in a head or spool side outlet so that an annulus gate valve can be installed, removed or repaired while under pressure.

The VR lubricator mounts on the valve outlet flange and installs and removes the VRP through the open valve bore, even though the valve is under pressure. Studded, clamped and flanged side outlets of all heads are normally threaded to accept VR plugs (see Appendix C, Figure 3). 起阀(VR)防喷管可以安装或回收在顶部或筒轴输出端的起阀丝堵(VRP), 这样就可以带压对环形闸阀进行安装,回收或修复。起阀(VR)防喷管安装在 阀的出口法兰上,即使回压阀处于带压状态,可以通过开启的阀眼安装和回收 起阀丝堵。所有顶部带柱螺栓的,夹紧的和凸缘的侧出口通常用螺纹连接,以 便于使用起阀丝堵。(参见附录C,图3) 2.1.10.4 Equipment Requirements (includes Back Pressure Valves, Lubricators & Valve Removal Plugs) 装置需求(包括回压阀,防喷管和起阀丝堵) IRP Lubricators must have a working pressure rating equal to or greater than 1.3 times shut-in tubing head pressure (SITHP). Lubricators must be pressure tested after installation on the wellhead to at least SITHP. IRP 防喷管的工作压力额定值等于或大于关井油管压力(SITHP)的1.3倍。 在防喷 管安装到井口以后,必须至少以关井油管压力进行试压。
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Each qualified API 6A wellhead manufacturer will have their own designed and tested lubricators, BPVs and VRPs available for use with their own equipment. 每个合格的符合美国石油学会规范 6A 的 井口装置制造厂商将拥有自主设计和试验过的防喷管,回压阀和起阀丝堵,以应用于他们自 己的设备。 IRP Equipment must be in good, safe operational condition for the intended service conditions. All equipment must be suitable for sour service and comply with NACE MR0175, latest edition. Specific material and elastomer requirements, specifications and guidelines have been provided in Appendix E of this IRP and IRP 2.11. IRP
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设备必须处于良好状态,安全的运行条件以应用于预期的服役条件。所有设备 必须适用于酸性服役条件,并且遵守国家腐蚀工程师学会维修检查0175条例, 使用最近的版本。对于特殊材料和弹性体的需求,其规格和指导方针在本节和 2.11节的附录E中得以规定。

2.1.10.5 Procedures 过程 IRP Each manufacturer must have an approved operating manual which includes running and retrieving procedures for BPVs and VRPs. All personnel conducting these operations must be fully trained and experienced in these procedures. 每一井口装置的生产厂商必须使用经批准的操作手册,包括回压阀和起阀丝堵 的使用过程和回收过程。进行这些操作的所有职员必须充分得到训练和获得经 验。

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2.1.10.6 Inspection 检查 IRP All BPVs, lubricators and VRPs must be visually inspected prior to usage to ensure everything is in good safe operational condition. Should any equipment be defective, it must be properly repaired before usage. The, lubricator must be

pressure tested to full rated working pressure prior to each job. Liquid Penetrant Inspection (LPI) should be done at least once a year to check for cracks. Each manufacturer must serialize his lubricator as well as document service history of the part. IRP 所有回压阀,防喷管和起阀丝堵在先于使用它们以确保井口装置都处于良好的 安全运转条件下,必须经过可视化的检查。假如某一装置是有缺陷的,就必须在 使用以前完全经过维修。防喷管在先于用其进行每一项工作时,必须经过带压测 试,直到全额的额定工作压力。用来检查裂纹的流体渗透检查(LPI)至少一年 进行一次。每一生产厂家都必须将防喷管,以及部件服役期间的文献系列化。 2.1.11 WELLHEAD FREEZING 井口装置冻结 2.1.11.1 General 通常情况 Freezing a plug in tubing or casing of a critical sour well may be necessary from time to time when other pressure control methods are not possible. The use of freezing as a well servicing technique should be kept to the absolute minimum. It is by its nature a risky procedure and the qualifications of personnel and all procedures should be carefully reviewed between the freeze specialist and the well operator/owner ahead of time. 不时地在易出问题的酸性井中的油管或套管中冻结柱塞,在其它压控方法不可能的情况下, 这一方法可能是必须的。冻结的使用,作为油井维修技术,应当保持绝对的最小化程度。一 个危险的过程、职工的技能以及所有过程,出于其危险的本性,都应当提前在冻结专家和井 队操作员/业主之间,谨慎地得以综述。 The procedure consists of placing a gelled fluid at the freeze point in the tubing or casing. Dry ice is packed around the freeze point to freeze the gel into a solid plug. After freezing the plug in place, it is pressure tested from above. It is recommended to pressure test to twice the shut-in wellhead pressure. 冻结过程包括在油管或套管中放置一定凝固点的凝胶液。 将凝固点左右的干冰进行充填,使 凝胶液冻结成固体柱塞。在原地冻结柱塞以后,对柱塞以上层段试压。推荐试压到关井井口 压力的两倍。 After pressure testing, the equipment above the plug can be removed and new equipment installed and/or repairs carried out. Because of the risky nature of the freezing procedure it is recommended that the defective part be replaced with a new one rather than attempt to repair it on the lease. 试压以后,柱塞以上层段的设备可以被移走,对新设备进行安装,和/或开展维修。由于冻 结过程的危险性, 推荐用新部件置换有缺陷的部件, 而不是根据租约尝试着进行 维修。 2.1.11.2 Qualifications of Personnel 职工的技能 Personnel working on freezing critical sour wells should have considerable experience in freezing procedures. Refer to Section 2.14. 为冻结的易出问题的酸性井作业的职工应当在冻结处理中有相当多的经验。 2.1.11.3 Equipment Requirements 设备需求 IRP All equipment which may be exposed to sour well fluids shall be in accordance with the material requirements of NACE

Standard MR0175, latest edition IRP

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有可能暴露在酸性井产流体中的所有设备都将按照国家腐蚀工程师学会维修检 查0175条例执行,使用最近的版本。

There should be a pressure gauge positioned between the injection point and the working valve to monitor injection pressures and build-up rates due to channeling. 在注入点和工作阀之间应当安置一个压力计, 用来监测由于通道注入所引起的注入压力和压 力上升速率。 Injection equipment should be capable of providing pressures equal to the working pressure of the wellhead equipment or twice the maximum shut-in pressure, whichever is lower. 注入设备可以提供的压力,应当等于井口设备的工作压力,或者最大关井压力的两倍,无论哪一个 计算值较低。 2.1.11.4 General Procedure 通用步骤 1. Hold a safety meeting with all people involved. Carefully review procedures and ensure all equipment required for repairs is available on lease. 召开所有相关人员的安全会议。仔细地检查施工步骤,确保所有需要维修的设备在租期 内是可以使用的。 2. Establish an injection point. Where one does not exist it may be necessary to hot-tap. 设立注入点。一个注入点都不存在的地方,可能有必要使用危险的分接头。 3. Build an ice crib and pack dry ice around freeze point. The crib should be a minimum of 60 cm (24") deep. The crib should be built below the injection point or in such a manner that the injection point will not freeze. The crib should also be positioned a sufficient distance from the faulty piece of equipment so that the point at which repairs are to be done will not freeze. 构建冰槽,并充填凝固点左右的干冰。冰槽至少应当深60cm(24"油井)。冰槽应当构 建在注入点以下,或者采取注入点将不会冻结的方式。冰槽位置的设置还应当与有故障 的设备有足够的距离,这样在将进行维修的位置将不会冻结。 4. Wait one hour for the metal to chill. 等待一个小时,直到感觉金属变冷。 5. Pressure up lubricator/mud injector and squeeze freeze gel into freeze point. Inject sufficient gel to ensure uncontaminated gel is in the area to be frozen. 使润滑剂/泥浆的喷射泵升压,压缩冻结凝胶并接近凝固点。注入足够的凝胶体以确保 未被污染的凝胶体充填在将被冻结的区域内。 6. Wait a minimum of one hour to one and one-half hours per inch of freeze diameter (i.e. if freezing 178 mm casing, wait 7 to 10.5 hours). If necessary protect the ice crib from rain or snow with a tarp and from sun with insulation. 每英寸的冻结直径需要等待至少的一个小时到一个半小时(例如,假设冻结178mm的 7〞套管,就需要等候7到10.5小时)。 7. Pressure test freeze plug to twice the shut-in wellhead pressure or the

maximum working pressure rating of the wellhead equipment, whichever is lower. Maintain this pressure test for a period of time equal to or greater than the time required to complete the wellhead repairs. After pressure testing, open working valves and allow plug to sit for at least 15 minutes with valves open to further test the plugs. 冻结柱塞的试压应达到关井井口压力的两倍,或井口设备的最大工作压力额定值,无论 哪一个计算值较低。试压维持一段时间,这段时间等于或大于井口装置完成维修所需的 时间。试压以后,打开工作阀,并容许柱塞在阀门开启的情况下座放至少15分钟,从而 对柱塞进行进一步的测试。 8. Carry out repairs on wellhead. Pressure test new equipment against freeze plug. Leave pressure trapped above the freeze plug, so that it does not jump up the hole once thawing starts. 开展井口装置的维修。依靠冻结柱塞对新设备进行试压,并在柱塞以上层段留下圈闭压 力,这样一旦冻结柱塞开始解冻融化,它就不会在油井内上投。 9. Slowly thaw out plug and flow out the freeze gel. If time and weather (plus 0 C) permit, plug can be thawed naturally. If speed is required or cold weather is present, then steaming will be required to thaw plug. Use extreme caution. Cover the wellhead with a tarp and allow steam to flow gently onto the wellhead until the frost on the outside disappears (minimum of one hour). When the outer metal is warm to touch then full force steam can be applied. Allow approximately the same amount of time for full force steaming as was used for freezing. This will permit the plug to thaw completely before attempting to flow it back. o 对柱塞缓慢地解冻,并且使冻结的凝胶液开始缓慢流动。如果时期和天气(0 C 以上) 允许,柱塞就可以自然地解冻。如果需要加快速度,或当前是冷空气,那么就需要通入蒸 汽以对柱塞解冻。使用严重警告。使用油布遮盖井口装置,容许蒸汽逐渐流动到井口装置 上面,直到外表面的霜冻消失(至少一小时) 。当外侧金属感觉到变暖,然后就可以采用全 压力蒸汽。全压力蒸汽所使用的总时间允许与冻结柱塞时所使用的时间大致相同。这将使 冻结柱塞在试图使其回流以前完全解冻融化。 2.1.11.5 General Precautions 通用措施 ? Keep work area uncluttered.工作区保持整齐。 ? Unnecessary personnel should stay clear of the work area during repairs. 维修期间,不相关的职员应当避开工作区。 ? Monitoring of H2S is required, and the type of monitoring is dependent on the complexity of the job. In the case of H2S work, breathing apparatus should be
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worn during repairs, and it is recommended that safety personnel and equipment be present. 需要监测H2S,监测类型取决于工作的复杂性。在H2S起作用 的情况下,防毒面具在维修期间应该会损耗,推荐应有安全员和防护装置在场。 ? Never strike or jar the frozen equipment with a hammer. 决不用锤子打击或震 动结冰的设备。 ? Ensure area where freeze plug is to be set is free of hydrocarbons. The plug is a water based gel and the two do not mix very well; hydrocarbon will prevent the plug from setting properly. The hydrocarbons can be removed by flushing the section to be frozen. 确保应当放置冻结柱塞的区段是无烃的。柱塞是 水基凝胶体,与烃类不能很好地混合在一起;烃类将阻碍柱塞进行适当的安置。可以通

过对将要冻结的井段洗井去除烃类。 ? When freezing multiple casings and tubings, freeze from outside inward. Test each annulus one at a time. 当冻结多重的套管和油管时,从外向内进行冻结。 对每一环空进行试压,一次测试一个环空。 FRAC HEADS AND TREE SAVERS 压裂头和采油树内护套

2.1.12.1 General Requirements 通常需求 Frac heads or tree savers are to be used whenever pumping or stimulation pressures could exceed the API maximum working pressure rating for the wellhead/Christmas tree. 无论何时,只要泵压或采用增产措施的压力可能超过美国石 油学会规定的井口装置/采油树的最大工作压力的额定值,就应该使用压裂头和采油树内护 套。 Acid jobs performed through the original wellhead/Christmas tree without the use of a frac head or tree saver would be acceptable provided the treatment pressure did not exceed 90% of the wellhead/Christmas tree API maximum working pressure rating. After completion of the jobs it is recommended that all wellhead/Christmas tree valves exposed to the acid be opened, closed and re-greased. 只要采用增产措施的压力不超过美国石油学会规定的井口装置/采油树的最大工作压力的额 定值的90%,在不使用压裂头和采油树内护套的情况下,通过原来的井口装置/采油树完成 酸化作业将是可以接受的。酸化作业完成以后,推荐所有暴露在酸液中的井口装置/采油树 的阀门应当被打开,再次润滑后关闭。 2.1.12.2 Frac Heads 压裂头 IRP Frac heads for critical sour wells are to meet API Specification 6A, Nineteenth Edition (2004)1 and NACE Standard MR0175, latest edition The lower master valve, adapter flange and other primary components for frac heads shall, as a minimum, comply to Product Specification Level Three (PSL III) as defined by API 6A. All other frac head components should conform to PSL 1 (see Appendix F, Figure I). IRP
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用于易出问题的酸性井中的压裂头应当满足美国石油学会规范6A,第十九版 (2004年)1,以及国家腐蚀工程师学会维修检查0175条例,最近的版本。 作为最小值,用于压裂头的低等的主阀,适配法兰以及其它主要部件将遵守美 国石油学会规范6A定义的产品规范等级3 (PSL III)。所有其它的压裂头部件 将遵守产品规范等级1(参见附录F,图1)。
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Upon installation, the frac head should be pressure tested to its API maximum rated working pressure and the operating pressure should not exceed 9O% of the API rated working pressure. 关于安装,压裂头应当试压到美 国石油学会规定的最大额定工作压力, 而且工作压力不应当超过美国石油学会规 定的额定工作压力的90%。 All frac heads should have full bore access to tubing. 所有压裂头应当具有取下油管 的全通径。 NOTE: For guidance on material requirements and specifications including elastomers refer to Appendix E of this IRP and IRP 2.11. 注意:参考本节附录E和2.11节,用于指导包括弹性元件在内的材料需求和规范。

2.1.12.3 Maintenance of Frac Heads 压裂头的维护 Prior to service or after each job, all valves should be pressure tested and charted. The valves should also be greased. 在压裂头服役以前,或在每一次工作以 后,所有阀门都应当试压和制作曲线图。还应当对阀门进行润滑。 All bolts should be torqued to API 6A, Nineteenth Edition (2004) specifications. 所有螺栓都应当根据美国石油学会规范6A上扭矩,第十九版规范(2004) 。 IRP Prior to installation on critical sour wells, frac heads are to be pressure tested as specified in API 6A, Nineteenth Edition (2004) . IRP 在对易出问题的酸性井进行安装以前,压裂头应当按照美国石油学会规范6A中指定 的内容进行试压,第十九版(2004) 。 A log of shop servicing and pressure testing of frac heads must be kept at all times by the supplier of the frac head. 由压裂头的生产厂商 提供的车间维护保养和试压的记录必须一直得到保存。 2.1.12.4 Hook Up (Frac Heads) 组装(压裂头) IRP Use hammer unions consistent with frac iron pressure ratings. All connections between the top of the frac head tee and the first hammer union must be flanged or clamped. Threaded connections will not be used for critical sour wells.
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IRP 使用与压裂铸铁的压力额定值相一致的翼形由壬。在T形压裂头的顶部和第一个翼形由壬 之间的所有连接,都必须用法兰连接或夹紧。螺纹连接将不能用于易出问题的酸性井。 2.1.12.5 Tree Savers 采油树内护套
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Tree saver components are to be suitable for sour service as per NACE Standard MR0175, latest edition and all internal parts to be new when working on critical sour wells. 按照国家腐蚀工程师学会最近版本的维修检查 0175条例,采油树内护套部件应当适合于酸性的服役工作,并且当其使用于易出问题的酸 性井时,所有内部零件都应当是新的。 All seals should be replaced after any H2S service. 在经过任何H2S介质下的服役工 作以后,所有密封都必须被置换。 IRP IRP IRP IRP Plug valves are to be inspected, greased and pressure tested after every job. 在每一次工作以后,都应当对塞阀进行检查,油脂润滑和试压。 A log of all parts, their material and date of servicing is required. 需要对所有部件的材料和维护保养日期进行记录。

IRP The tree saver is to be shop pressure tested to a minimum of 1.5 times the rated working pressure before every job. IRP 在每一次工作以前,都必须对采油树保护套进行工地试压,试压压力的最小值是额定 工作压力的1.5倍。 IRP Do not exceed 90% of the rated working pressure of the tree saver during well work. IRP 在油井作业期间,不要超过采油树保护套的额定工作压力的90%。

IRP The bleed off line must be secured. IRP 泄压管线必须是安全的。 NOTE: For further guidance on material requirements and specifications including elastomers for tree savers refer to Appendix E of this IRP and IRP 2.11 (Guidelines For Selecting Elastomeric Seals) 注意:参考本节附录E和2.11节(选择弹性密封件的指导方针),对于包括用于采油树内护 套弹性元件在内的材料需求和规范,可以进行进一步的指导。 2.1.12.6 Hook-Up (Tree Savers) 组装(采油树内护套) IRP Use hammer unions consistent with frac iron pressure ratings. Connections between the tree saver and the frac iron shall be flanged or clamped. Threaded connections should not be used for critical sour wells. IRP 使用与压裂铸铁的压力额定值相一致的翼形由壬。在采油树内护套和压裂铸铁之间的连接, 都必须用法兰连接或夹紧。螺纹连接将不能用于易出问题的酸性井。 WELLHEAD RECORDERS 2.1.13.1 Requirement IRP 井口记录仪

要求

A list of wellhead components must be maintained by the owner/operator for critical sour wells to ensure the safe and orderly conduct of workover operations in both normal and emergency situations.

IRP 对于易出问题的酸性井,井口组件的列表必须由业主/操作者进行维持,以确保在通常情况 和紧急情况下,安全和有序地实施修井作业。 This list should be sufficiently detailed so that all components of the wellhead can be identified, and both the proper equipment (the proper specifications) and the correct workover procedures may be incorporated in the workover plan. 这一列表应当进行充分地详述,这样井口的所有组件就可以经过鉴定,而且在修井计划中, 就可以将固有设备(严格的规范)和恰当的修井步骤相结合起来。 2.1.13.2 Recommendations 推荐 Wellhead records should contain: 井口记录应当包括: ? The make and model of all wellhead components, as well as all pertinent specifications such as sizes and working pressures. The thread connections in the bottomhole test adapter (wellhead cap assembly) and tubing hanger (including BPV threads) should be noted. 所有井口组件的型号和样式,以及例如 尺寸和工作压力的这样的所有相关规格。井底测试适配器上的螺纹连接(井口帽装配), 以及油管悬挂器(包括回压阀的螺纹)都应当得以记录。 ? A schematic of the wellhead identifying components and their configuration. 关于井口装置的可识别部件和它们的配置的示意图。 ? Date of initial installation and date of subsequent workovers (with details of any wellhead changes). 最初的安装日期和后来的修井日期(任意井口装置改变的细 节)。 Wellhead records should be checked for accuracy as part of the semi annual or

annual wellhead inspection. The records should be updated each time the well is serviced or worked on. 作为半年或全年的井口装置的一部分内容,应当检查井口记录的精确度。每次对油井进行维 护保养或继续作业,记录都应该得以更新。 Wellhead records should be updated and maintained at the office of the licensees responsible for coordinating the emergency response plan for the field containing that well.井口记录必须在持证者的办公室中得以更新和维持下来,持证者负 责对包含该井眼的井场在紧急情况下的反应计划进行协调。


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