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2014高考英语阅读理解解题技巧之主旨大意题


2014 高考英语阅读理解解题技巧之 主旨大意题
阅读理解之主旨大意题
Ⅰ.每日经典谚语和句型背诵与仿写

1.Nothing is too difficult if you put your heart into it.

世上无难事,只怕有心人。

2....as...as possible=..

.as...as one can 尽可能??

活学活用

仿照上述句型,翻译下列句子。

(1)我们应该尽可能地多读书。

__________________________________________________________________________

(2)政府部门必须尽快采取行动保护河流被污染。

______________________________________________________________________________

We should read as many books as possible./ We should read as many books as we can.

The government must take actions to prevent the river from being polluted as soon as possible.

Ⅱ.阅读理解之主旨大意题

我们阅读一篇文章, 首先是要了解其大意, 明确其主旨。因此, 主旨大意题是常考 题。主旨大意题包括:主要内容(main idea, mainly about)型、文章标题(title)型、写作 目的(purpose)型。广东高考近几年来考查过的题目中 mainly about 只考过 4 题,title 题 考了 5 题, purpose 题考了 5 题。

◎解题技巧
1.弄清文章的大意, 关键是找到主题句。
主题句的位置:主题句通常在文首、文末或首尾呼应, 有时也在文中,或 没有主题句, 需根据文章所述内容进行归纳。各段的主题句也常在该段的首句或 尾句。议论文和说明文一般有主题句,但记叙文通常没有主题句,需要归纳。
2.找主题句的方法:用浏览法(skimming),即

快速阅读文首、文尾,或每段的首句和尾句等,搜索主题线索和主题信息。找主题句的 四个小窍门:

(1)段落中出现表转折的词语(如 however, but, in fact, actually 等)时, 该句很可 能是主题句。

(2)首段出现疑问句时, 对该问题的回答很可能就是文章主旨。

(3)作者有意识地反复重复的观点, 通常是主旨;反复出现的词语, 一般为体现文章主旨 的关键词。

(4)表示总结或结论的话常有 therefore, thus, in short, conclude, conclusion 等。

3.关于干扰项和正确答案。

(1)干扰项可能属文中某个具体事实或细节;可能属文中某些 (不完全的)事实或细节片 面推出的错误结论;可能属非文章事实的主观臆断。

(2)正确答案: 是根据文章意思全面理解而归纳概括出来的;但不能太笼统、 言过其实或

以偏概全。

4.在阅读理解中,主旨大意题常有以下几种命题方式: (1)Main idea 型:选择项多为陈述句,要求考生选择表达作者思想或观点的句子。题干多 为如下形式: ①What's the main idea/point of the passage? ②The passage is mainly about________. ③The passage is mainly concerned about________. ④Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage? ⑤Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea/theme of the passage? ⑥In this passage the author discusses primarily______. ⑦The subject discussed in this text is________. ⑧The general/main idea of the passage is about________. (2)Main purpose 型:选择项多为动宾结构,要求考生找到主要的写作目的,常见以下几 种题干形式: ①What's the purpose of the passage? ②The passage is meant to________. ③The purpose of the article is to________. ④In this passage the writer tries to tell us that________. ⑤The passage tells us that________. ⑥The author's main purpose in writing the passage is to ... (3)标题型:选择文章标题是另一类对主旨大意题考查的形式,命题形式: ①The best title of the passage is________. ②Which of the following is the best title of the passage?

③The best title for the passage is________. ④The most appropriate title of the passage is________. In the animal kingdom, weakness can bring about aggression in other animal. This sometimes happens with humans also. But I have found that my weakness brings out the kindness in people. I see it every day when people hold doors for me, pour cream into my coffee, or help me to put on my coat. And I have discovered that it makes them happy. 典型例析 From my wheelchair experience, I see the best in people...Often, we try every way possible to avoid showing our weakness...But only when we stop pretending we're brave or strong do we allow people to show the kindness that's in them. 30.Which of the following is the best title for the passage? A.A Wheelchair Experience. B.Weakness and Kindness. C.Weakness and Strength. D.A Driving Experience 解析:主旨大意题。在第一段中,出现了表转折的 But...可知, “But I have found that my weakness brings out the kindness in people”便是主题句,再根据第二段最后一句可以确定, 这句的确是主题句。又因标题要简明、醒目,故选 B。 答案:B In a world with limited land, water and other natural resources (资源), the harm from the traditional business model is on the rise. Actually, the past decade has seen more and more forests disappearing and globe becoming increasingly warm. People now realize that this unhealthy situation must be changed, and that we must be able to develop in sustainable (可持续的)ways. That means growth with low carbon or development of sustainable products.In other words, we should keep the earth healthy while using its supply of natural resources. Today, sustainable development is a proper trend in many countries....In recent years the markets for sustainable products have grown by more than 50%. 45.What is the main purpose of the passage?

A.To introduce a new business model. B.To compare two business models. C.To predict a change of the global market. D.To advocate sustainable development. 解析: 主旨大意题。 在第一段中, 出现了转折的 Actually, 其后的 “People now realize that this unhealthy situation must be changed,and that we must be able to develop in sustainable(可持 续的)ways”是主题句,随后的两句话都是对这一句进 行解释 ;句中两个 must 清楚表明了作者“提倡可持续发展” ,第二段首句“ Today, sustainable development is a proper trend in many countries” 进一步说明, 作者写这篇文章的主 要目的是“提倡可持续发展” 。故选 D。 答案:D Although the use of the expression is an insincere, meaningless social custom at times, there is nothing wrong with the sentence except that it is little uninteresting. The salesgirl, the waitress, the teacher, and all the countless others who speak it without thinking may not really care about my day. But in a strange and comfortable way, it's nice to know they care enough to pretend they care when they really don't care all that much. While the expression may not often be sincere, it is always spoken. The point is that people say it all the time when they like. 30.What is the best title of the passage? A.Have a Nice Day — a Social Custom B.Have a Nice Day — a Pleasant Gesture C.Have a Nice Day — a Heartwarming Greeting D.Have a Nice Day — a Polite Ending of a Conversation 解析:主旨大意题。由该段的第一句(特别是 custom 一词)可知。 答案:A (2013 年高考)Imagination and fantasy can play an important role in achieving the things we fear.Children know this very well. Fred Epstein,in his book If I Make It to Five,tells a story he heard from one of friends about Tom,a fouryearold boy with a cancer in his back bone.He came

through several operations and a lot of pain by mastering his imagination ? It doesn't mean that you should dress as a superhero for you next job interview. But,next time you are tested in a way that seems impossible, imagine what it would take to overcome it. Become the person you need to become to win over your challenge and do it in your mind first. So,let your imagination run wild,and dare to dream. 30.What is the purpose of the passage? A.To tell us an interesting story. B.To help us make right decisions. C.To advise us to care about children. D.To encourage us to use our imagination. 解析:主旨大意题。由文章首句 Imagination and fantasy can play an important role in achieving the things we fear 和全文末句 So, let your imagination run wild, and dare to dream 可 知,作者写这篇文章的目的是鼓励我们运用我们的想象力。 答案:D (2013 年高考)Some people think that success is only for those with talent or those who grow up in the right family, and others believe that success mostly comes down to luck. I'm not going to say luck,talent,and circumstances don't come into play because they do. Some people are born into the right family while others are born with great intelligence,and that's just the reality of how life is. However,to succeed in life,one first needs to set a goal and then gradually make it more practical. And,in addition to that,in order to generally good at something,one needs to spend at least 10,000 hours studying and practicing. To become great at certain things,it'll require even more time,time that most people won't put in. ... Whatever you do,if you want to become great at it, you need to work day in and day out, almost to the point of addiction,and over a long period of time. If you're not willing to put in the time and work,don't expect to receive any rewards... 35.What is the main theme of the passage?

A.Having a goal is vital to success. B.Being good is different from being great. C.One cannot succeed without time and practice. D.Luck,talent and family help to achieve success. 解析:主旨归纳题。由第二段开头的 However 可知,本文的中心论题不是第一段而在 第二段 to succeed in life, one first needs to... needs to...,再结合最后一段第一句 if you want to become great at it, you need to work day in and day out, almost to the point of addiction, and over a long period of time,可知本文的主题思想——不花时间、不去实践是不可能取得成功的。 答案:C 1.Music was not the only gulf. From clothing and hairstyles to activities and expectations, earlier generations of parents and children often appeared to move in separate orbits. Today, the generation gap has not disappeared, but it is getting narrow in many families. Conversations on subjects such as sex and drugs would not have taken place a generation ago. Now they are comfortable and common. And parent child activities, from shopping to sports, involve a feeling of trust and friendship that can continue into adulthood. The purpose of the passage is to________. A.describe the difficulties today's parents have met with B.discuss the development of the parent child relationship C.suggest the ways to handle the parentchild relationship D.compare today's parentchild relationship with that in the past 解析:主旨大意题。由全文内容可知,特别是由“the generation gap has not disappeared, but it is getting narrow”等关键词句,进行时就是一个过程,可见本文主要是讨论父母与孩 子之间的关系的发展过程。 答案:B 2.Sometimes you'll hear people say that you can't love others until you love yourself. Sometimes you'll hear people say that you can't expect someone else to love you until you love yourself. Either way, you've got to love yourself first and this can be tricky. Sure we all know that

we're the apple of our parents' eyes, and that our Grandmas think we're great talents and our Uncle Roberts think that we will go to the Olympics, but sometimes it's a lot harder to think such nice thoughts about ourselves. If you find that believing in yourself is a challenge. it is time you build a positive self image and learn to love yourself. ... The best way to defeat a passive self image is to step back and decide to stress your successes. That is, make a list if you need to, but write down all of the great things you do every day. Don't allow doubts to occur in it. ... The best way to get rid of a negative selfimage is to realize that your image is far from objective, and to actively convince yourself of your positive qualities. Changing the way you think and working on those you need to improve will go a long way towards promoting a positive selfimage. When you can pat(拍)yourself on the back, you'll know you're well on your way. Good luck! What is the passage mainly about? A.How to prepare for your success. B.How to face challenges in your life. C.How to build a positive selfimage. D.How to develop your good qualities. 解析:主旨大意题。反复出现的词语,一般为体现文章主旨的关键词。第 1 段最后一句 中有“build a positive selfimage” ,第 3 段首句的“the best way to defeat a passive selfimage is to...” ,最后一段的首句“The best way to get rid of a negative selfimage is to...”都是说明如何 肯定自我形象的。因此选 C。 答案:C 3.How should one invest a sum of money in these clays of inflation(通货膨胀)? Left in a bank it will hardly keep its value, however high the interest rate.Only a brave man, or a very rich one, dares to buy and sell on the Stock Market.Today it seems that one of the best ways to protect your savings, and even increase your wealth is to buy beautiful objects from the past.Here I am going to offer some advice on collecting antique clocks, which I personally consider are among the most interesting of antiques.

... Antique clocks could be very expensive, but one of the joys of collecting clocks is that it is still possible to find quite cheap ones for your own home.After all, if you are going to be ruled by time, why not invest in air antique clock and perhaps make a future profit? The purpose of the passage is________. A.to introduce the culture of antique clocks B.to offer some advice on collecting antique clocks C.to compare different ways to make a future profit D.to explain convenient and reliable ways of telling time 解析:主旨大意题。反复出现的词语,一般为体现文章主旨的关键词。由首尾两段,特 别是第一段最后一句“Here I am going to offer some advice on collecting antique clocks...”和 最后一段的最后一句“...why not invest in air antique clock and perhaps make a future profit?” 可知答案为 B。 答案:B 4.Do you want to live with a strong sense of peacefulness, happiness, goodness, and selfrespect? The collection of happiness actions broadly categorized as “honor” help you create this life of good feelings. Here's an example to show how honorable actions create happiness. Say a store clerk fails to charge us for an item.If we keep silent, and profit from the clerk's mistake, we would drive home with a sense of sneaky excitement.Later we might tell our family or friends about our good fortune.On the other hand, if we tell the clerk about the uncharged item, the clerk would be grateful and thank us for our honesty.We would leave the store with a quiet sense of honor that we might never share with another soul. Which of the following can be the best title of this passage. A.How to Live Truthfully B.Importance of Peacefulness C.Ways of Gaining selfrespect

D.Happiness through Honorable Actions 解析:主旨大意题。反复出现的词语,一般为体现文章主旨的关键词,文中出现得最多 的是 happiness 一词,而文章第二段“Here's an example to show how honorable actions create happiness”就是全文的主旨,因此选 D。 答案:D 5.Men have always believed that they are smarter than women.Now, a study has found that while this is certainly true, men also have to deal with the fact that they are also more stupid than the fairer sex. In the study, scientists measured the IQ of 2500 brothers and sisters and they found an uneven number of men not only in the top two percent, but also in the bottom two percent. The study's participants were tested on science, maths, English and mechanical abilities. Though there were twice as many men as women in the smartest group, there were also twice as many men among the dolts. The purpose of the passage is to tell us that________. A.man are smarter than women B.man are more stupid than women C.a new fact about the IQ of men and women has been found D.men are more likely to receive first class university degrees 解析:主旨大意题。反复出现的词语,一般为体现文章主旨的关键词,文中出现较多的 词是 study,根据文章第一段第二句得知答案为 C。 答案:C 6.Weather changes when the temperature and the amount of water in the atmosphere change. We can see and feel water coming from the atmosphere when we have rain. But the water must somehow get back to the atmosphere. Meteorologists call this the water cycle. What is the main idea of the passage? A.Water cycle.

B.Water vapour. C.How rain forms. D.Water, vapour, rain. 解析:主旨大意题。由该段最后一句“Meteorologists call this the water cycle”可知答案 为 A。 答案:A 7.Technology is the application( 应用 )of knowledge to production. Thanks to modern technology, we have been able to increase greatly the efficiency of our work force. New machines and new methods have helped cut down time and expense while increasing overall output. This has meant more production and a higher standard of living. For most of us in America, modern technology is thought of as the reason why we can have cars and television sets. However, technology has also increased the amount of food available to us, by means of modern farming machinery and animal breeding techniques, and has extended our life span via(通过)medical technology. What is the best title for the passage? A.The definition of technology B.Modern technology C.The application of technology D.The development of technology 解析:主旨大意题。反复出现的词语,一般为体现文章主旨的关键词,文中出现较多的 词是 modern technology,文章的主要笔墨是用在科学技术的作用上,所以答案应选 B。 答案:B 8.The most widespread mistake of all is that colds are caused by cold. They are not. They are caused by viruses(病毒)passing on from person to person. You catch a cold by coming into contact, directly or indirectly, with someone who already has one. If cold causes colds, it would be reasonable to expect the Eskimos to suffer from them forever. But they do not. And in isolated Arctic regions explorers have reported being free from colds until coming into contact again with infected people from the outside

world by way of packages and mail dropped from airplanes. The passage mainly discusses________. A.the experiments on the common cold B.the fallacy (谬论)about the common cold C.the reason and the way people catch colds D.the continued spread of common colds 解析: 主旨大意题。 该段的第一、 二句 “The most widespread mistake of all is that colds are caused by cold.They are not”是本文的主题句。全文主要阐述了“感冒不是由寒冷引起的” 这一观点。 答案:B 9.Zinc(锌)is one of about 20 elements necessary for good health. It is present in the body in a very small amount but makes it possible for important chemical actions to be carried out in cells. Scientists are just beginning to discover how zinc and other elements work. The best title for the passage may be________. A.A New Discovery B.Zinc and Health C.How Zinc Works D.Add Zinc to Your Food 解析:主旨大意题。根据第一句(主题句) “Zinc(锌)is one of about 20 elements necessary for good health”可推知。 答案:B 10.According to a famous optical(光学)expert, Alexander, who recently visited Shanghai, the developed countries in Europe and America have made rules that children must wear resinous (树 脂)glasses instead of the traditional glasses made of glass.This is because the glass glasses are more likely to do harm to children's eyesight. This news article mainly wants to tell us________.

A.Alexander visited China and introduced a new type of glasses B.we should wear resinous glasses instead of glass glasses C.resinous glasses are popular in Europe and America D.glasses can be made of other materials instead of glass 解析:主旨大意题。根据文章第 1 句“...children must wear resinous(树脂)glasses instead of the traditional glasses made of glass”可推知此题答案为 B。 答案:B 10.Selfcontrol is man's last greatest victory. If a man lacks selfcontrol he seems to lack everything. Without it he can have no patience, no power to govern himself; he can have no self confidence, for he will always be controlled by his strongest feeling. If he lacks selfcontrol, the very backbone and nerve of character are lacking also. The author's main purpose in writing this article is to________. A.explain that selfcontrol is the key to success B.teach people how to control everything in order to make a great success C.distinguish all kinds of selfcontrol and suggest ways for keeping it D.advise people not to lose temper so as to make and keep more friends 解析:主旨大意题。文章的第 1 段为主题句,因此答案为 A。 答案:A 12.Mr.Peter Johnson, aged twentythree, battled for half an hour to escape from his trapped car yesterday when it landed upside down in three feet of water. Mr.Johnson took the only escape route—through the boot(行李箱). What is the best title for this newspaper article? A.The Story of Mr.Johnson, A Sweet Salesman B.Car Boot Can Serve As The Best Escape Route C.Driver Escapes Through Car Boot

D.The Driver Survived A Terrible Car Accident 解析: 主旨大意题。 根据第 1 句 “Mr.Peter Johnson...escape from his trapped car...through the boot”可归纳出文章的标题为答案 C。 答案:C 13.The most frightening words in the English language are, “Our computer is down.” You hear it more and more when you are on business. The other day I was at the airport waiting for a ticket to Washington and the girl in the ticket office said, “I'm sorry, I can't sell you a ticket. Our computer is down.” The best title for the article is ________. A.When the Computer Is Down B.The Most Frightening Words C.The Computer of the Airport D.Asking the Computer 解析:主旨大意题。反复出现的词语,一般为体现文章主旨的关键词,根据文章第 1 句中的“Our computer is down”可推知此题答案为 A。 答案:A 14.In fact, when we say that all of us must be educated to fit us for life, it means that we must be educated in such a way that, firstly, each of us can do whatever work suited to his brains and ability,and secondly, that we can realize that all jobs are necessary to society, and that is very bad to be ashamed of one's work.Only such a type of education can be considered valuable to society. The passage tells us about ________of the education. A.the means C.the value D.the type 解析:主旨大意题。根据全文的内容,特别是根据文章的最后一句“Only such a type of education can be considered valuable to society”可推知此题答案为 C。 答案:C B.the system


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