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2013届高中英语第1轮总复习 unit4 新人教版必修3 新课标


一、 单词识记 根据词意写出单词的汉语意思或写英文单词。 unlike 1.不同;不像 prep.________________ 2.有害的 adj.______________ harmful chain 3.连锁;锁链 n.______________ 4.存在;生存 vi.________________ exist thus 5.因此;于是 adv._________

_______ puzzle 6.使迷惑;使为难 vt.;谜;难题 n.______________ 7.气候 n.______________ climate biologist 8.生物学家 n.______________ gentle 9.温和的;文雅的 adj.______________ 10.物理学家 n.______________ physicist

11.astronomy n.______________ 天文学 原子 12.atom n.______________ 碳 13.carbon n.______________ 14.acid n.______________ 酸 15.fundamental adj.______________ 基本的;基础的 16.multiply v.______________ 乘;增加 氧 17.oxygen n.______________ 二氧化物 18.dioxide n.______________ 重力,万有引力 19.gravity n.______________ 卫星;人造卫星 20.satellite n.______________

Ⅱ.写出下列单词的变化形式? system 1.系统(?n?.)_____________;系统的(?adj?.) systematic _____________? globe 2.球体,地球(?n?.)_____________;全球性的(?adj?.) global _____________? violent 3.猛烈的(?adj?.)_____________;暴力(?n?.) violence violently? _____________;猛烈地(?adv?.)_____________?
4.生存(?v?.)_____________;生存(?n?.) exist _____________? existence physicist 5.物理学家(?n?.)_____________;物理(?n?.) physics physical _____________;身体的(?adj?.)_____________?

biology 6.生物学(?n?.)_____________;生物学家(?n?.) biologist _____________?

religion 7.宗教(n.)_____________;宗教的(adj.)
_____________? religious 8.原子(n.)_____________;原子的(adj.) atom atomic _____________?

① harmful adj. 根据语境感悟其用法

Fruit juices can be harmful to children's teeth.
果汁可能对孩子们的牙齿有害。 链接 harm n. 伤害;损害 vt. 伤害……;损害…… harmless adj. 无害的;无恶意的

① harmful adj.
短语 do sb. harm = do harm to sb. 对某人有害 be harmful to 对……有害 句型 It does no harm to do sth. =There is no harm (in) doing sth. 不妨做某事 It wouldn't do sb. any harm to do sth. 做某事对某人并无害处

① harmful adj. 活用 用harm的适当形式填空

(1) Your smoking may be _______(有害) to the health of harmful
your baby.

harm (2) The storm has done great _____ (有害) to the crops.
(3) The dog seems fierce, but actually he's harmless ________.

② prevent v. 阻碍,阻止 根据语境感悟其用法 They have been prevented by the traffic jam from going there on time. 他们被交通拥堵所阻碍,以致没有按时到达那里。

② prevent v. 阻碍,阻止(to see p73 no.5)

链接
“阻止某人做某事”的几种表达式: ban sb. from doing sth. stop sb. (from) doing sth. keep sb. from doing sth.

② prevent v. 阻碍,阻止 活用 单项填空 (1) We must take firm and efficient measures to

A prevent pollution ______our life even better.
A. to make B. making C. make D. against making 解析 考查非谓语动词的使用。本题的语义是: 为了使我们的生活更加美好,我们必须采取果断 而卓有成效的措施阻止污染。根据语境非谓语动 词在本句是目的状语,所以答案是A。本题极容 易造成学生们的思维定势而误选B。

② prevent v. 阻碍,阻止
活用 单项填空

C (2) We'll spare no effort to prevent the river ______.
A. from polluting
C. being polluted 解析

B. polluting
D. polluted

考查非谓语动词的使用。本题的语义是:

我们将不遗余力地阻止河流污染。根据语境河流 与污染形成了被动关系,所以答案是C。

③violent adj. 猛烈的,凶暴的
根据语境感悟其用法 The violent windstorms are frequently accompanied by rain, snow, or hail.

强烈的风暴经常伴随雨、雪或冰雹。
链接 violence n. 暴力,暴行 violently adv. 猛烈地;剧烈地

③violent adj. 猛烈的,凶暴的
短语 a violent wind 暴风 a violent language 激烈的语言 a violent attack 猛烈的攻击 violent behaviour 暴力行为

③violent adj. 猛烈的,凶暴的
活用 根据汉语意思,完成下列句子 (1)人们非常关注青少年暴力行为。 There is a great concern about the violent behaviour _______________________among adolescents. (2)狂风将船猛地推向一块巨大的礁石。 The violent wind ___________________dashed the ship against a huge rock.

④ spread v. (spread, spread)
根据语境感悟其用法

展开,传播

He called for more measures to be implemented to
prevent the spread of the disease.

他呼吁采取更多措施以阻止疾病的传播。
短语 spread out a map 摊开地图 spread news 传播消息

④ spread v. (spread, spread)
活用

展开,传播

根据汉语意思,完成下列句子

(1)这座城市向北方延伸了10英里。 spreads for The city __________ ten miles to the north. (2)苍蝇传播疾病。 spread Flies _______ diseases. (3)坏消息通常传得快。 Bad news usually spreads quickly _______________.

⑤puzzle n. & v. 根据语境猜词义

(1) It's a puzzle to me why he hasn't come for my
birthday party. B (2) Can you help me out with the math puzzle? C (3) Her word puzzled him. A (4) I was puzzled how to handle the situation. D 根据语义找匹配 A. 使……迷惑不解 C. 难题 B. 谜 D. 使……为难

⑤puzzle n. & v.( to see p72 no.2)
链接 puzzling adj. 令人困惑的;使人感到困惑的

puzzled adj.
puzzlement n.

困惑的;感到困惑的
困惑,迷惑

⑤puzzle n. & v.
短语 be in a puzzle about work out a puzzle 对……大惑不解 猜谜;解决难题

puzzle over
puzzle out

对……冥思苦想
(苦苦思索而)搞清楚

puzzle one's brain about / over
对……而大伤脑筋

⑤puzzle n. & v.
活用 用puzzle的正确形式填空 puzzling puzzled The (1) _________ boy (2) _______ his mother,

so there was a (3) puzzled expression on her face. _______ puzzlement Much to (4) __________ of his mother, he left home without saying a word.

⑥ exist vi. 根据语境猜词义 (1)Problems also exist in agriculture. C (2)Food will not get cheaper under existing conditions. A (3)She exists on tea and bread. B 根据语义找匹配 A. 生存;生活 B. 现存的;现在的 adj. C. 存在;有

⑥ exist vi.( to see p72 no.1)
短语 exist in 存在于……中 exist on 靠……为生 exist by 靠……生存 existence n. 存在;生存 in existence 存在 come into existence 开始存在;成立 bring into existence 使产生

⑥ exist vi.
温馨提示 exist 是不及物动词,不能用于被动,也不能用于 进行时态。 exist 还可用于there be 句型中表示“存在有”。类

似的还有seem, appear, stand, lie, run, remain, etc.

⑥ exist vi.
There appears to be lots of

misunderstanding between us. 我们之间有很多误会。 There once lived two gods who were in

charge of Earth and Heaven.
曾经有两个神,他们分别掌管地和天。

⑥ exist vi.
活用 单项填空 There, in the small temple, used to _____ a big C bell. But now it has gone. A. happen B. come C. exist D. stand

解析 在那个小寺庙里,曾经“有”一个大钟,但 现在已经不见了。

⑦ gentle adj. 根据语境猜词义 (1) Mothers are always gentle with their children. A (2) It's very comfortable to let the gentle wind blow on your face. B 根据语义找匹配 A. 轻轻的,轻柔的 B. 温柔的,文雅的

⑦ gentle adj. 链接 gentle-looking adj. 看起来彬彬有礼的、看起来很绅士的 gentleman n. 绅士,先生 gently adv. 温柔地,轻柔地,轻轻地 gentleness n. 温柔,和善 短语 be gentle with sb. 对某人体贴入微 gentle in voice / action 声音温柔,举止文雅

⑦ gentle adj.

活用 单项填空 C (1) Strolling at the lake, the ______ wind is brushing your face. How romantic! A. mild B. soft C. gentle D. light
解析 考查形容词词义辨析。题意是:信步于湖 畔,清风轻拂着你的脸。多么富有诗情画意啊! 通过语境体现出是物体运动轻缓的语义,所以答 案是C。

⑧pull n. & v.
根据语境猜词义 (1) To escape the pull of the earth, a rocket must

reach a speed of 28,440 km/h. B (2) He pulled the door open and rushed out. A 根据语义找匹配 A. 拉 B. 吸引力

⑧pull n. & v. ( to see p72 no.3) 短语 pull down pull off 拆除; (把身体)拖垮 (匆忙地)脱下(衣物); (成功地)完成

pull on
pull out

(匆忙地)穿上
拔出; 驶出; 摆脱(困难)

pull in
pull away

进站;靠岸
驶离;开走

⑧pull n. & v. 活用 单项填空 C (1) The bus ______ the bus station and the passengers got off one after another. A. drove away B. pushed in C. pulled in D. rushed in 解析 考查动词短语辨析。 语义是:班车驶进车 站 , 乘 客 一 个 个 地 下 来 了 。 drive away 开 走 ; push in 是不存在的短语;rush in 冲进,不合题意, 所以答案是C。

⑧pull n. & v. 活用 单项填空 D (2) The brave man ______ his clothes and jumped into the river to save the drowning boy. A. pulled on B. put off C. took off D. pulled off 解析 考查动词短语辨析。 语义是:勇士匆忙脱 下衣服跳进河里救那落水儿童。pull on匆忙穿上; put off 推迟;take off脱下,在语境中不是最佳答 案;pull off匆忙脱下,所以答案是D。

三、词组互译 将下列词组译成中文或英语。 watch out 1.密切注视;当心______________ break out 2.突发;爆发______________ 3.既然______________ now that cheer up 4.感到高兴/振奋______________ prevent?from? 5.阻止;制止______________ 6.轮到某人;接替______________ in one's turn give birth to 7.产生;分娩______________ lay eggs 8.下蛋______________ in time 9.及时;终于______________ block out 10.挡住(光线)______________

11.think of?as______________ 把??看作是 合成?? 12.combine into?______________ 13.cool down______________ 冷却 14.get the hang of ______________ 熟悉; 理解;掌握 与??不同 15.be different from?______________ 16.spread all over the earth ______________ 遍布全世界 过去, 推移 17.go by______________ 去旅行 18.make a trip ______________ 启程 19.be off______________ 20.rise into the air______________ 升入太空

①in time 最后,迟早,终于;及时,不迟 to see p72 no.4
Peace will come in time.

和平总有一天会成为现实。
短语 be in time to do sth. in no time 来得及做某事 转眼工夫,立刻

at times

有时,偶尔,不时

①in time 最后,迟早,终于;及时,不迟

短语
at a time 一次,每次 at one time 有个时期;曾经,一度 at any time 随时,无论何时 at no time 永不,在任何时候都不

活用

用time 的相关短语填空

(1)继续努力吧,你迟早会成功的。 in time Keep trying, and ________ you will succeed. (2)我赶得上那趟火车吗? in time Will I be _______ for the train / to catch the train?

(3)我马上就回来。 in no time I'll be back __________.
(4)每次服两粒。 at a time Take two pills _________. (5)从前他们在这些峡谷中采煤。

At one time they used to mine for coal in these valleys. __________

② cheer up

根据语境猜词义 (1) It's said that thousands packed the city center to cheer her. A (2) Everybody cheered when the medical team arrived. B (3) When the rescuers appeared, cheers ran out of the waiting crowd. C
根据语义找匹配 A. 为……喝彩 B. 欢呼 C. 欢呼声;喝彩声

② cheer up ( to see p73 no.6)

链接
Cheers! 短语 cheer up (使)高兴起来; (使)振作起来 干杯! 兴高采烈的; 精神振奋的 cheerful adj.

cheer on

为……鼓气; 向……喝彩

①What it was to become was uncertain until
between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago when the dust

settled into a solid globe. (教材P25)
随后它将变成什么样子无人知晓,直到38到 45亿年之间它才形成了一个固体的球体。

when 在这个句子中是并列连词引导并列句。

when引导并列句不能放在句首,它所体现出的语
义 是:“就在这时 ;就在那时 ;此时此刻 ;届 时”。一般它有两个极具有代表性的句式:

(1) be doing sth. when… 表示“正在做某事就
在这个时候发生了另外的一件事” 。

(2) be about to do sth. when… 表示“正要做某
事就在这个时候发生了另外一件事”。

I was about to leave when the phone rang. 我正要出去就在这个时候电话响了。 I was walking in the street when I heard my name called from behind. 我正在街上散步就在这时我听到有人在背后叫 我的名字。 Professor Wang will come for a visit to our school in May when he will give away his works to our library. 王教授将在5月份访问我校,届时他会把他的著 作捐赠给我校。

when除了引导时间状语从句外,它还能引导哪些 状语从句呢? (1) How can he learn anything when he has spent all of his spare time surfing the Internet playing computer games? (2) They kept digging when they must have known there was no hope. (1) 引导原因状语从句,表示“既然”。既然他把所有 的业余时间都用在上网玩游戏上了,他又怎能学到什 么呢? (2) 引导让步状语从句,表示“尽管”。他们明明知道 没任何希望,但他们还是不停地挖。

②Although its origin may still be a puzzle, the
moon can never be anything more than a satellite

of the earth.(教材P28)
尽管月球的起源扑朔迷离,但它只不过就是 地球的一颗卫星。

never…anything more than = no more than =

only 只是,只不过
The building can never be anything more than a big house. 这个建筑物充其量就是一座大房子。 He is much of a talker, but, as a matter of fact, he

is never anything more than an unknown person.
他侃侃而谈,但实际上他就是一个无名之辈。

辨析

more than/no more than/not more than (1)more than ①more than + 数词 = over + 数词 “多于”; ②more than + 形容词 “十分地……”; ③more than + 名词 “不只是……” ④more than + 句子 “超出了……的范围”; “是某人不能做的” Well done! I am more than pleased with you. I love you more than I can say.

辨析
more than/no more than/not more than (2)no more than ① no more than + 数词 = only “仅仅……” ② no more than + 名词 “就是……”、“只 是……” We need no more than two persons to do the job. The leaders of our Party is no more than servants for the people.

辨析

more than/no more than/not more than
(3) not more than not more than + 数词 “不多于……”、“不超 过……” It's not more than a mile to the downtown. You can go there on foot.


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