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worknc五轴编程手册


WorkNC G3 V19

Training Guide: 5-Axis

03/05/07

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents
1 2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 4 4.1 4.2 5 6 6.1 7 7.1 8 8.1 9 9.1 10 10.1 11 12 12.1 12.2 13 13.1 14 15 15.1 15.2 16
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Prerequisites General Principles for 5-Axis Machining 5-Axis Machining Parameters Machining Zone and Surface Selection for 5-Axis Selection of the 5-axis machining method Selection of the tool orientation Lead-in selection 5-Axis Parameters Curve Machining Options Selection of the guide curve Selection of the change of direction in corners Tool Offset Distance Tool Offset Angle 5-Axis Rolling 5-Axis Rolling - Machining Strategy Lab: 5-Axis Rolling 5-Axis Pocketing 5-Axis Planar Finishing Lab: Planar Finishing Z-Level Finishing - Blade Machining Lab: Z-Level Finishing - Blade Machining 5-Axis Parallel to Curve Lab: 5-Axis Parallel to Curve 5-Axis Perpendicular to Surface Programming 5 Axis Perpendicular to Surface 5-Axis Normal to Surface Lab: Normal to Surface Grooves 5-Axis Profiling 5-Axis Profile: Surface Contact Detection Lab: Profiling 4-Axis Profiling Programming a 4-Axis Profile toolpath Rolling between Curves Blade Machining 4-Axis Spiral Blade Roughing and Finishing 4-Axis Spiral Blade Remachining Impellers

1-1 2-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-4 3-5 3-7 3-7 3-8 3-10 3-10 4-1 4-4 4-6 5-1 6-1 6-1 7-1 7-1 8-1 8-1 9-1 9-1 10-1 10-2 11-1 12-1 12-1 12-3 13-1 13-1 14-1 15-1 15-1 15-4 16-1
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Table of Contents 16.1 16.2 16.3 17 17.1 18 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.3.1 18.3.2 18.4 19 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 Programming 5-Axis Impellers Roughing Programming a 5-Axis Impellers Finishing Programming 5-Axis Impeller Remachining 5-Axis Hole Boring Lab: 5-Axis Drilling Editing Toolpaths General Points Modification of a point Modification of normals Normal Selection Types Editing Functions for Normals Wizard Collision Check General Points Display of the machine Activating Detection and Collision Properties Collision Settings "Toolpath Properties" Panel Representation of Collisions in VisuNC 16-1 16-5 16-6 17-1 17-3 18-1 18-1 18-2 18-5 18-5 18-9 18-10 19-1 19-1 19-2 19-2 19-3 19-4 19-6

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Prerequisites

1

1 Prerequisites
This training session and its related manual require that the user has a good working knowledge of WorkNC. He must know how to activate parts, create and edit toolpaths.

2 General Principles for 5-Axis Machining
The G3 V19 version of WorkNC is delivered with twenty 5-axis toolpaths. All of them are milling toolpaths, except a drilling toolpath and a laser cutting toolpath. The surface part construction is very important when using 5-Axis toolpaths. In most cases, the tool orientation is directly linked to the U and V parameters of the surfaces. Most toolpaths require the use of context surfaces to select the surfaces to machine, others require the use of one or more guides curves, etc. For 5-axis machining, a surface is made of a profile and a face. The position of the tool on the surface depends on the selected toolpath, especially for "rolling" and "profiling". E.g.: Surface to machine: Rolling:

Profiling:

Machining normal to Surface:

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5-Axis Machining Parameters Machining Zone and Surface Selection for 5-Axis

3

3 5-Axis Machining Parameters
All standard parameters may be used, except boundary curves and machining planes which are never used for 5-axis machining. 1. Selection of a machining zone 2. Selection of context surfaces 3. Selection of the machining method 4. Selection of the tool orientation 5. Lead-in selection 6. Selection of the curve to machine 7. Selection of the change of direction in corners 8. Position of the tool on the surface 9. 5-Axis Parameters 10. Surface in relation to which the tool is oriented

3.1 Machining Zone and Surface Selection for 5-Axis
It is not possible to use "Boundary Curves" or "Machining Planes": only Window and View parameters are available. In some cases, the use of a view allows defining which side of the surfaces are machined. This is for example the case for the Perpendicular to surface toolpath.

3.2 Selection of the 5-axis machining method
You can usually choose any of the three available machining methods. This means that the direction of the guide curve as it was created has no importance.

Start point of the guide curve
When using a closed curve, the point used as starting point to create the guide curve is important since the toolpath will start from that exact point. NOTE

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3

5-Axis Machining Parameters Selection of the tool orientation

3.3 Selection of the tool orientation

(5-Axis) Machining Direction Dialog Box

Surface definition
For 5-Axis programming, it is very important that surfaces are correctly defined: the tool orientation depends on the U and V parameters of the surface. Surfaces must have been properly prepared before programming a 5-axis toolpath. E.g.: Surfaces not correctly defined... Surfaces correctly defined

... wrong toolpath:

... toolpath is OK:

The example illustrated with the four images above is a clear representation of the problems that you may encounter. If the U and V surface parameters are not correct and if you choose to follow surface ISO lines, the toolpath may be incomplete or the position of the tool may be wrong. The only solution: change the surface(s) using CAD functions. Other example with wrong positioning of the tool:

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Surfaces not correctly defined...

5-Axis Machining Parameters Selection of the tool orientation Surfaces correctly defined...

3

... wrong toolpath:

... toolpath is OK:

The above example shows another type of problem that you may encounter: if the U and V parameters of the surface are not correct and if you chose to follow surface ISO lines, the toolpath may be fully completed but the position of the tool may be wrong. Again, change the surface(s) using CAD functions. In case of problems when following surface ISO lines, you can also try the other option called "Perpendicular to curve": it may give better results.

(5-Axis) Machining Direction Dialog Box - Perpendicular to Curve

Follow surface ISO lines:

Perpendicular to curve:

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5-Axis Machining Parameters Lead-in selection

3.4 Lead-in selection
If you have enough room to position your tool outside the machining zone without any risk of collision with the part or any clamping equipment, you can choose among different machining lead-ins, depending on your own preferences.

Radial lead-in with tangency extension

Vertical Lead-in

Radial Lead-in

Lead-in with tangency extension

3.5

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5-Axis Machining Parameters 5-Axis Parameters

3

3.6 5-Axis Parameters
Maximum head rotation This parameter is used to specify the rotation amplitude of the machine head not to be exceeded. This maximum amplitude directly depends on the technical constraints of the machine. When the inclination angle of a surface to machine is higher than this value, the toolpath does not give any result. This parameter does not apply to all 5-axis toolpaths. This parameter allows you to indicate the machine capability to reach such angle values or not. 1. Vertical head 0° 2. Maximum amplitude from – 40 to + 40° The opposite picture illustrates this amplitude parameter. In this case, a surface to 45° could not be machined.

Vector tolerance for smoothing This parameter allows defining a maximum angle within which the tool can be adjusted on its axis to obtain a smoother toolpath and avoid vibrations of the machine head. If you set the value to 3°, each of the vectors can "deviate" by a maximum of 3°. This parameter is always combined with the smoothing distance.

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5-Axis Machining Parameters 5-Axis Parameters Smoothing Distance This is the length over which WorkNC tries to smooth the toolpath. This value applies both forwards and backwards with respect to each point of the toolpath and in the machining direction.

Smoothing vector (5°) Smoothing Distance: 1 mm

Smoothing vector (45°) Smoothing Distance: 30 mms

Vector tolerance This parameter offers the possibility of reducing/increasing the number of points in a toolpath. If consecutive point vectors along a longitudinally straight section of the toolpath have vector angle variations within the limit of this user defined tolerance, then these points will be eliminated. This tolerance cannot exceed 5°. Setting this parameter with a small value can be useful when working on recent milling centers with the latest CN controllers which function better with toolpaths containing a large number of points. Alternatively, a higher value will produce a smaller number of points which is more appropriate to older generation milling centers.

Vector tolerance

Picture 1: Tolerance = 1° Picture 2: Tolerance = 4° Picture 3: Tolerance = 0.1°

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5-Axis Machining Parameters Curve Machining Options

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3.7 Curve Machining Options
Basically, these options operate in the same way as 2D toolpaths for which he same type of parameters is available. Z-steps are completed to gradually approach the curve to machine. These parameters allow you to machine directly onto the surface or to proceed by level, especially during the roughing phase which requires large quantities of material to be removed.

Examples : Approach of the curve from + Z: Approach of the curve in the view plane:

Machining order, by level:

Machining order, by curve:

Machining Order
Machining by curve is similar to machining by zone in 3D toolpaths. The toolpath machines an area completely then goes machining the next area. When the "by level" option is selected, the number of retracts in the toolpath is higher. NOTE

3.8 Selection of the guide curve

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5-Axis Machining Parameters Selection of the change of direction in corners

Toolpath Parameters - Curve to machine

You must specify the curve to machine. Note that "Curve to machine" means the drive curve.

3.9 Selection of the change of direction in corners
The "non-tangency condition" allows managing changes of direction in sharp corners. Two options are possible: radial or by segment.

Radial:

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5-Axis Machining Parameters Selection of the change of direction in corners

3

By segment:

By segment
With the "Segment" option, the edge to machine is protected as the tool does not "roll" on it. NOTE

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5-Axis Machining Parameters Tool Offset Distance

3.10 Tool Offset Distance
The Tool Offset Distance parameter defines the axial distance between the center of the tool tip or tool end and the perpendicular point of the curve on the tool axis. By default, if the value is set to 0, the center of the tool tip or tool end is positioned on the curve during toolpath calculations.

Picture 1:

Picture 2:

1. Surface to machine 2. Curve to follow and upper surface (2/2a) 3. Lower surface 4. Controlled point of the tool (center of the tool) 5. Offset distance The picture # 1 shows the theoretical position of the tool against the machined curve. The picture # 2 shows the position of the tool with an offset value which corresponds to the tool radius. Toolpath example:

With a negative offset

3.11 Tool Offset Angle
The forward offset angle allows you to define a lead or lag angle with respect to the normal to surface position along the toolpath trajectory. Defining a positive value will result in a lead angle (forward inclination) and a negative value will give a lag angle (backward inclination). This promotes better cutting conditions and improves surface finish quality.
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5-Axis Machining Parameters Tool Offset Angle

3

Forward Offset Angle = 10°

1 Surface 2 Tool trajectory direction 3 Toolpath point A positive value of 10° has been entered for the above example so the tool will be inclined in a forward direction with respect to the tool trajectory direction. This specific parameter is not available in all 5-Axis toolpaths but can be used for 5-Axis Planar Finishing, Normal to Surface, etc.

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5-Axis Rolling Tool Offset Angle

4

4 5-Axis Rolling

The Rolling strategy is used - among others - for part trimming. 5-Axis Rolling machines with the side of the cutter, tangent to the surface and following the user-defined curve as illustrated in the following diagram.

5-Axis Rolling Machining Principle

1 Surface 2 Curve You can use this toolpath both for the roughing or finishing phase.

Surface construction
The surface construction is very important when using the Rolling strategy: surfaces must be perfectly ruled. NOTE

E.g.:

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5-Axis Rolling Tool Offset Angle Rolling: lead-in with "tangency extension"

4

1. Machined surface 2. Tangency Extension

See Also...

? Selection of the change of direction in corners [g 3-8] ?

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5-Axis Rolling Tool Offset Angle Tool Offset Distance [g 3-10] ? Tool Offset Angle [g 3-10]

4

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5-Axis Rolling 5-Axis Rolling - Machining Strategy

4.1 5-Axis Rolling - Machining Strategy
We will use the following part to illustrate 5-Axis Rolling machining strategies.

Example of 5 Axis Rolling Toolpath

The Surface Group, Guide Surfaces and Curves are defined as follows.

Surface Selection Group, Guide Surfaces and Curve

The green surface is defined for machining in the Surface Group. The blue surfaces are defined as the Guide Surfaces and the Curve to Machine is the yellow curve at the base of the island. The resulting toolpath is as shown below.

Generated 5-Axis Rolling Toolpath

Let’s now take a look at a zoomed view of the cutter tip at a point on the toolpath to determine its position with respect to the flat surface defined for machining in the Surface Group.

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5-Axis Rolling 5-Axis Rolling - Machining Strategy

4

Zoom on Cutter Tip

You can see in the above screenshot that the extremity of the cutter makes contact with the flat surface defined for machining (the stock allowance = 0 in this toolpath). If we generate the same toolpath but we define the flat surface as ‘ignored’ in the Surface Group, we obtain the following result.

Zoom on Cutter Tip - Ignored Surface

As the tool is tangent to the inclined Guide Surfaces and the surface below the cutter tip is programmed as ‘Ignored’, the cutter effectively machines this surface.

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5-Axis Rolling Lab: 5-Axis Rolling

4.2 Lab: 5-Axis Rolling
Open the 5axes_1 workzone and create "Rolling" toolpaths by machining the undercut groove.

Use the 5-Axis toolpath parameters to create both 5-Axis roughing and finishing cutterpaths.

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5-Axis Pocketing

5

5 5-Axis Pocketing

This toolpath has been designed for machining tubular forms (e.g. inlet manifolds). You can machine inclined walls and undercuts without having to define different views to access these areas. The toolpath starts at the top of the pocket and mills deeper.

Tool Axis Control
Angle and attraction point... When using both an angle and an attraction point, WorkNC draws a dummy cone whose end is the center of the tool tip when in contact with the surface and inclined to the specified angle value . In this case, the tool is oriented to the specified angle, in the direction of the attraction point. This orientation applies for all points on the toolpath, provided however that the attraction point is correctly positioned.

Attraction Point...

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5-Axis Pocketing When using an attraction point only, the tool is actually oriented with respect to a line going from the center of the tool tip to the attraction point when the tool is in contact with the surface. This orientation applies for all points on the toolpath, provided however that the attraction point is correctly positioned. When the attraction point is not properly positioned for a given point on the toolpath, a new position is calculated by WorkNC to avoid collision.

Z-Step...
You can only use a Z-level machining method. The Z-step value can be fixed or variable. The view that you define is very important since each of the Z-steps in the toolpath is made accordingly. Z-steps are calculated in the plane of the view as shown in the picture below.

Cutting direction... You can select a curve to indicate the cutting direction.

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5-Axis Planar Finishing Lab: Planar Finishing

6

6 5-Axis Planar Finishing

The Planar finishing toolpath is identical to the 3-Axis strategy. You can use it to machine large parts using ball-end or flat tools. The 5-Axis strategy offers the advantage that the tool is always normal to the surface machined or some angle inclined from normal. With the 5-Axis strategy, you can also use an inclined tool to avoid having to mill with the end of the tool tip. Use a tool offset angle [g 3-10] to make sure that the tool inclination is kept constant with respect to surface normals.

Tool offset angle

1 Inclination Angle 3 Tool Example of a 5-Axis Planar Finishing toolpath:

2 Normal 4 Surface

6.1 Lab: Planar Finishing
Objectives... The goal of this lab is to show you how to implement planar finishing using related parameters.

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5-Axis Planar Finishing Lab: Planar Finishing (PC) <Installation directory>: \workncxx\surface\assembly Part required...

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Instructions...

1. 2.

Open the workzone called "Assembly". Create lists of surfaces to machine and implement this strategy with different parameters.

Tool normal to Surface:

Tool offset:

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Z-Level Finishing - Blade Machining Lab: Z-Level Finishing - Blade Machining

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7 Z-Level Finishing - Blade Machining

The 5-Axis "Z-Level Finishing" toolpath allows you to machine by level parts like turbine blades - as in 3-Axis - with the advantage that all undercut areas of the part are machined too.

7.1 Lab: Z-Level Finishing - Blade Machining
Objectives... Part required... Instructions... The goal of this lab is to illustrate 5-Axis Z-Level Finishing using related parameters. (PC) <Installation directory>: \workncxx\surface\blades 1. 2. Open the workzone called "Blade machining". Apply this strategy and try various parameters.

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5-Axis Parallel to Curve Lab: 5-Axis Parallel to Curve

8

8 5-Axis Parallel to Curve

This toolpath is similar to "3D Drive Curve Finishing" in 3-Axis. With the 5-Axis strategy, the tool is always normal to the surface being machined. Most specific parameters are the same as in the 3-Axis strategy. However, you can impose a maximum head rotation angle.

Context Surfaces
You do not need to use context surfaces with this toolpath. If a surface is in undercut along the trajectory, it will not be machined. NOTE

8.1 Lab: 5-Axis Parallel to Curve
Objectives... The goal of this lab is to illustrate 5-Axis Parallel to Curve Machining using related parameters. (PC) <Installation directory>: \workncxx\surface\turbine_training 1. 2. Open the workzone called "turbine_training". Create a toolpath to machine the lateral side of the part, as shown in both pictures below. Start by creating the toolpath using a machining window and check the results.

Part required... Instructions...

2: Undercut area machined

1: Guide curve

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5-Axis Perpendicular to Surface Programming 5 Axis Perpendicular to Surface

9

9 5-Axis Perpendicular to Surface

The "5-Axis Perpendicular to surface" strategy is used to quickly rough-machine parts made of many curved surfaces such as bumpers. Machining is made between two curves. WorkNC creates a ruled surface between both curves and creates a toolpath with respect to the normals of this surface projected on to the part.

9.1 Programming 5 Axis Perpendicular to Surface
Programming a 5-Axis Perpendicular to Surface toolpath mainly consists in defining each of the following elements: 1. two curves which will be used by WorkNC to create a ruled surface, 2. the surfaces to machine, 3. the stepover value, 4. the maximum depth value and 5. the view, which will be used to define which side you want to be machined. We are going to use the following bumper as an example:

Bumper Example

Defining two curves...
It is important that you correctly define the curves that will serve as guide curves since they are used to define the ruled surface. Normals will be oriented in accordance with this surface. If we consider our example, you could define curves on each side of the bumper. See curves 1 and 2 in the picture below:

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5-Axis Perpendicular to Surface Programming 5 Axis Perpendicular to Surface

Drive Curves for Perpendicular to Surface

Surfaces to machine
Now that you have defined the drive curves, you must indicate the surfaces that you want to be machined. This is done with a surface list and surface group that you then select in the Machining zone parameters. In our example, you can select all part surfaces.

Perpendicular to Surface - Surface Selection

Stepover value
Define a stepover value.

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5-Axis Perpendicular to Surface Programming 5 Axis Perpendicular to Surface

9

Perpendicular to Surface - Stepover Value

Maximum depth value
The maximum depth value is similar to a machining plane. It is used to avoid machining the inner part of the other side: Example: If you define a maximum depth value which is too big, you will obtain the following:

Perpendicular to Surface - Maximum Depth

As you can see the tool machines the opposite side of the part.

Machining View
Define a view which is above the part and covers all surfaces to machine:

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5-Axis Perpendicular to Surface Programming 5 Axis Perpendicular to Surface

Perpendicular to Surface - Machining View

The final result should look like the following:

Perpendicular to Surface - Final Result

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5-Axis Normal to Surface Programming 5 Axis Perpendicular to Surface

10

10 5-Axis Normal to Surface

This toolpath is generally used for engraving and is similar to the 3-Axis toolpath On-Curve Engraving. It has the advantage that the tool position is always normal to the surfaces being machined or some angle inclined from normal to surface. No matter the surface inclination, the depth of the groove is kept constant.

Curves to machine are prepared in the CAD environment of WorkNC. When defining curves in the CAD environment of WorkNC, do not forget to merge them.

The inclination of the tool against the normals of the surface is defined by the forward offset angle:

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5-Axis Normal to Surface Lab: Normal to Surface

5-Axis Normal to Surface: Forward Offset Angle

See Also...

? Selection of the change of direction in corners [g 3-8] ? Tool Offset Angle [g 3-10]

10.1 Lab: Normal to Surface
Objectives... The goal of this lab is to illustrate 5-Axis Normal to Surface Machining using related parameters. (PC) <Installation directory>: \workncxx\surface\5_axis_training 1. 2. Open the workzone called "5_axis_training". Create a toolpath using the "engraving" curve.

Part required... Instructions...

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Grooves

11

11 Grooves

This toolpath is designed to machine complex grooves that are not accessible in 3-Axis. The cutter is always normal to the surface at the bottom of the groove and requires one or two curves to define the groove. This strategy can be used to rough and finish grooves. It is particularly adapted to machine door or window rubber profiles.

You can machine grooves with a constant or variable width. Use the specific parameters to define the groove to machine.

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Grooves

Groove Definition

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Grooves Open groove example

11

1: Guide curve One single curve is enough to machine this groove. It must be defined at the bottom of the wall. You must also indicate the width of the groove.

Width of the groove
In this case, you can indicate a groove width that is higher than the theoretical width for the tool to go beyond the part. NOTE

Closed groove example

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5-Axis Profiling 5-Axis Profile: Surface Contact Detection

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12 5-Axis Profiling

The Profile strategy is especially useful for part trimming. This toolpath may be redundant with rolling. Use it for trimming when you do not have any side surface on which you can use rolling. Here, Rolling is possible... Here, only Profiling is possible...

Surface to machine

Profile to machine

It machines with the tool normal to the selected surface and tangent to the curve which it follows.

5-Axis Profile Toolpath

1 Curve to Machine 3 Tool Offset Distance

2 Selected Surface

See Also...

? Selection of the change of direction in corners [g 3-8]

12.1 5-Axis Profile: Surface Contact Detection
Introduction With this option, you can machine tangent to a curve and normal to bottom surface while detecting contact with neighboring surfaces. Automatic surface limitation detection Benefits

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5-Axis Profiling 5-Axis Profile: Surface Contact Detection This parameter allows you to define a curve to machine which is ‘hidden’ by an overlayed surface in the Z axis of the View or the Machining Zone. If the perpendicular distance in the Z axis between the edge of the overlayed surface and the curve is less than or equal to the defined value then machining will be performed along the edge of the overlayed surface. The following examples illustrate how this parameter works.

Surface Group, Surface Guide and Curve to Machine Definitions

1 Curve to machine 2+3 Surface selected for machining and as the Guide Surface 4 Inclined surface which ‘hides’ the curve

Curve to Machine
In order to orientate the cutter correctly, the Curve to Machine must always be on the Guide Surface. NOTE In the following example the Detection Width is set to 0.

Toolpath with Detection Width Value = 0

The toolpath is generated along the curve where the walls are vertical as the cutter can ‘see’ the curve. However, no trajectory is generated parallel the curve where inclined, overlaying surfaces are located. The next example shows the toolpath with the Detection Width set to an intermediate value.

Toolpath with Insufficient Detection Width Value Training Guide

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5-Axis Profiling Lab: Profiling In this case the toolpath trajectory partially machines parallel to the curve ‘hidden’ by the inclined surfaces. The whole section of the curve ‘hidden’ by the inclined surfaces is not machined because the Detection Width value is too small. In the following example the Detection Width value is sufficient to machine parallel to the whole section of the curve which is masked by the inclined surfaces.

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Toolpath with Sufficient Detection Width Value to Machine the Complete Curve

Z Axis View of the Toolpath

The above screenshot shows how the cutter machines parallel to the curve and against the edge of the overlying surface.

12.2 Lab: Profiling
Objectives... Part required... Instructions... The goal of this lab is to illustrate Profiling using related parameters. (PC) <Installation directory>: \workncxx\surface\part_ladder 1. 2. Open the workzone called "part_ladder". Create toolpaths by following the profile below. 1. Surface to select for profiling 2. Guide curve to select in order to complete the toolpath To generate this toolpath and obtain results, you need to specify parameters in a very precise way.

Which conclusion can you draw when comparing the obtained result and the rolling toolpath? Do you think you could have used Profiling?
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5-Axis Profiling Lab: Profiling

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4-Axis Profiling Programming a 4-Axis Profile toolpath

13

13 4-Axis Profiling
The 4-Axis Profile toolpath can be used to machine parts made by revolution. This toolpath designed for revolution shapes - allows smooth spiral movements.

13.1 Programming a 4-Axis Profile toolpath
The 4-Axis Profile toolpath is based on the external profile of the part and direction. Programming such a toolpath requires both following elements: 1. a curve to machine, 2. a point and 3. a view. The curve to machine corresponds to the profile of the part to machine and the point combined with the view axis – serves to define the axis of revolution. Note that the selected view also allows defining the machining direction. We are going to use the following part as an example:

Barrel Example

Defining the curve to machine
Simply define a curve which follows the profile of the part. If we use our example, you could define a curve like the one in the picture below:

4-Axis Profile - Curve to machine

Defining the revolution axis
To define the revolution axis and the machining direction, you need to create a point and a view. You can create the point on the revolution axis of the part and combine it with a top view of the part:

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4-Axis Profiling Programming a 4-Axis Profile toolpath

4-Axis Profile - Point and View

Simply select the curve, the point and the view in the Toolpath parameters menu and define other data as required:

4-Axis Profile - Toolpath Parameters

After calculations, you should obtain a toolpath similar to the following:

4-Axis Profile Example

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4-Axis Profiling Programming a 4-Axis Profile toolpath

13

Constant stepover
The stepover remains constant on all surfaces.

NOTE

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Rolling between Curves

14

14 Rolling between Curves

5-Axis Rolling between Curves

This toolpath can be used instead of the other rolling toolpath when the latter is not fully satisfactory. With the Rolling between Curves toolpath, the cutter follows two user defined curves instead of one curve and a surface.

Ruled surfaces
For rolling, surfaces must be ruled. If surfaces are not ruled, you can use 5-Axis Rolling between Curves and define two curves: one at the top of the surface to machine and the other at the bottom. WorkNC creates a ruled surface so that you can obtain results without having to review the surfaces.

ATTENTION

Rolling...

Between two Curves...

... the toolpath is incomplete.

... the toolpath is OK.

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Rolling between Curves

The drive curve (1) shows the path that the tool should follow while the support curve (2) is used for the tool orientation.

As for rolling, you can use the toolpath for roughing.

Concave Surfaces
It is preferable that you ignore the surfaces that you want to machine. Indeed, if surfaces are concave, WorkNC will detect a collision and will not give any result. NOTE

Training Guide

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Blade Machining 4-Axis Spiral Blade Roughing and Finishing

15

15 Blade Machining

The Blade Machining strategy is composed of three toolpaths: roughing, finishing and remachining. This strategy is based on a spiral, fluid trajectory.

15.1 4-Axis Spiral Blade Roughing and Finishing
Use
It enables a smooth Spiral toolpath for a quick calculation based on convex bounding box. You can use a flat or ball-end tool.

Programming
To program a 4-Axis Spiral Blade Roughing or Finishing toolpath, you need to define the following elements: 1. a machining view including all the surfaces that you want to machine, 2. a surface group including all surfaces to be machined and 3. eventually, a forward offset angle. For training, we are going to use the following blade:

Blade

Defining the machining view
The machining view is used to give the Z-axis orientation and must cover all surfaces. If we take our example, you can define a view as follows:

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Blade Machining 4-Axis Spiral Blade Roughing and Finishing

Spiral Blade - Machining View

Once your view is created, you only need to select it in the Toolpath Parameters menu:

Spiral Blade Parameters Menu - Machining View

Surfaces to machine
You must indicate the surfaces that you want to be machined. This is done with a surface list and surface group that you then select in the Machining zone parameters. In our example, you can select the following surfaces:

Surfaces for Machining Training Guide

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Blade Machining 4-Axis Spiral Blade Roughing and Finishing Once your surface group is created, you can select it in the Toolpath Parameters menu:

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Spiral Blade Parameters Menu - Surface Group

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Blade Machining 4-Axis Spiral Blade Remachining

15.2 4-Axis Spiral Blade Remachining
Use
It enables the remachining specifically of the fillet of a blade with a smooth spiral movement either from the exterior towards the center or vice versa. Note that this toolpath may also be used to machine fillet radius of undercut surfaces or parts like skis.

Programming
At the opposite to 4-Axis Spiral Blade Roughing and Finishing, programming a 4-Axis Spiral Blade Remachining requires you to define two drive curves. Note that both curves must be correctly oriented so that the surface created by WorkNC is also correctly ruled.

Defining two curves
If we take again our example, you should create two curves as follows:

Spiral Remachining - Drive Curves

Defining the remachining order
When programming a spiral blade remachining toolpath, you also need to indicate the remachining order. Three options are possible: Normal: the tool machines from one curve Inside to outside: the tool machines from Outside to inside: the tool machines from the drive curves to the middle of to the other: the middle of the surface to the drive the surface: curves:

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Impellers Programming 5-Axis Impellers Roughing

16

16 Impellers

The Impeller Machining strategy is composed of three toolpaths: roughing, finishing and remachining. You can use it for impellers with single or dual blades.

16.1 Programming 5-Axis Impellers Roughing
Programming a 5-Axis Impellers Roughing toolpath is only possible with a ball-end tool and mainly consists in defining the following: the surfaces to be machined, q q a guide surface which will be used in this case as a tool support surface, the center point of rotation and q the number of blades. q We are going to use the following part as an example:

Impeller

Defining the surfaces to machine...
? Create a list with all the surfaces where you want to rough out material:

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Impellers Programming 5-Axis Impellers Roughing

Impeller - Surface Selection

?

Once your surface list is created, you only need to create a surface group with it and select it in the Toolpath Parameters menu:

Toolpath Parameters: Surfaces to machine

Defining the guide surface...
? Create a list with the surface that you want to use as a guide surface for the cutter:

Impeller - Selection of the Guide Surface

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?

Impellers Programming 5-Axis Impellers Roughing Select the surface list in the Toolpath Parameters menu:

16

Toolpath Parameters: Guide Surface

Defining the center point of rotation and the number of blades...
To define the center of rotation and the number of blades, click on the Impeller Definition button, select the center point of rotation, enter whether blades are single or dual blades as well as the number of blade sets (in our example, there are 5 single blade sets). The center point of rotation usually corresponds to the machine axis origin (0, 0, 0 coordinates). If not, you can define as follows...

Toolpath Parameters: Center Point of Rotation

And select it in the Impeller Definition window:

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Impellers Programming 5-Axis Impellers Roughing

Toolpath Parameters: Impeller Definition

Such programming would result in the following toolpath:

Impeller Roughing Toolpath

Number of blade sets
Note that the number of blade sets in the above picture has actually been reduced to one. NOTE

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Impellers Programming a 5-Axis Impellers Finishing

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16.2 Programming a 5-Axis Impellers Finishing
Programming a 5-Axis Impellers Finishing toolpath is only possible with a ball-end tool and mainly consists in defining the following:
q q q

the surfaces to be machined - i.e. all surfaces at the bottom of the impeller, the center point of rotation and the number of blade sets.

Surfaces
For the new 5-Axis Impellers Finishing toolpath, surfaces do not need to be ruled but surfaces must be trimmed correctly, making the preparation work a little longer. NOTE

Defining the surfaces for remachining...
? Create a list with the surfaces for finishing:

Impeller - Selection of the Surfaces for Finishing

?

Once your surface list is created, you only need to create a surface group with it and select it in the Toolpath Parameters menu:

Toolpath Parameters - Surface Selection

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Impellers Programming 5-Axis Impeller Remachining

Defining the center point of rotation and the number of blades...
The center point of rotation and number of blades are defined in the same way as for Impellers Roughing and Remachining. [g 16-1] Basically, these parameters are the only particular parameters that need to be defined for Impellers Finishing. After calculation, you should obtain a toolpath similar to the following:

Impeller Finishing Toolpath

Machining Order
The toolpath starts in the middle of the area between the two blades and machines alternatively on the right and left. NOTE Blade fillets are machined during the 5-Axis Impellers Remachining.

16.3 Programming 5-Axis Impeller Remachining
Programming a 5-Axis Impellers Remachining toolpath is only possible with a ball-end tool and mainly consists in defining the following:
q q q q

the surfaces to be machined, two curves – each of them indicating the upper and lower profile of the blade, the center point of rotation and the depth and width.

Defining the surfaces for remachining...
? Create a list with all surfaces for remachining:

Impeller - Selection of Surfaces for Remachining

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Impellers Programming 5-Axis Impeller Remachining Once your surface list is created, you only need to create a surface group with it and select it in the Toolpath Parameters menu:

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Toolpath Parameters - Surfaces for Remachining

Defining two curves to indicate the lower and upper profiles of the blade...
? Create two different curve sets: one with a curve matching the lower profile and another matching the upper profile of the blade:

Ruled Surface
These curves are used to create a ruled surface for machining.

NOTE ? Once your curve sets are created, you only need to select them in the Toolpath Parameters menu: click on the Impeller Definition button, select the curve sets, the center point of rotation as well as the number of blades if you want to remachine several blades with the toolpath.

Drive Curve Selection
The drive curve # 1 must correspond to the upper profile of the blade, the drive curve # 2 to the lower profile. ATTENTION

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Impellers Programming 5-Axis Impeller Remachining

Toolpath Parameters: Impeller Definition

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5-Axis Hole Boring Programming 5-Axis Impeller Remachining

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17 5-Axis Hole Boring

5-Axis Drilling is used to drill holes whose axes are normal to the surface. Basically, this means that you do not need to create a view for each orientation. You can drill holes one after the other in one single phase. Drilling can be made either from a point set file or a series of holes imported with the CAD part.

Bore Diameter
The bore diameter is equal to the the tool diameter. This also applies to holes imported with the CAD part. NOTE

When using the "Drill Points" option, you can specify the holes to machine or read a point set file from your CAD system. In this case, you do not need to have holes imported with the CAD part. You must also specify the drilling depth.

Bore Cycles
Note that all 3-Axis bore cycles are available in 5-Axis.

NOTE

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5-Axis Hole Boring Programming 5-Axis Impeller Remachining

The picture below shows a series of holes drilled from a point set file.

If you have holes imported with the CAD part, you can use the Vectors option. You just need to create the curve which will define the tool orientation. Curve extremities are the start and end points of the drilling toolpath. The Depth Offset parameter is a value which is added to the theoretical drilling depth.

The picture below shows a series of through holes machined in accordance with the holes in the CAD part.

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5-Axis Hole Boring Lab: 5-Axis Drilling

17

Axis defining the drilling orientation

You can use CAD functions to retrieve the initial cylindrical entities. This solution allows the automatic creation of the axis to be used for hole drilling. You will then only need to create a curve file. These curves can later be used to drill each of the holes from your CAD system.

Through Hole
If you need to drill a through hole, you may - depending on the curve that you created obtain a toolpath that is not correctly oriented, as the picture # 1 below shows. To solve the problem, you must create a point at one of the curve extremities to indicate the start point and force WorkNC to drill in the right direction.

NOTE

Picture 1...

Picture 2...

1: Start point of the curve

17.1 Lab: 5-Axis Drilling
Objectives... Part required... Instructions... The goal of this lab is to illustrate 5-Axis Drilling using related parameters. (PC) <Installation directory>: \workncxx\surface\5axis_drilling

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1.

Open the workzone called "5axis_drilling".

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5-Axis Hole Boring Lab: 5-Axis Drilling 2. Activate the CAD environment and create a point set file to retrieve the initial cylindrical entities and try different hole drilling toolpaths.

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Editing Toolpaths General Points

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18 Editing Toolpaths
18.1 General Points
The G3 V19 graphic interface allows viewing 5-Axis toolpaths but does not support all editing functions required in 5-Axis (modification of a point, of normals). For this, you must use VisuNC.

Starting VisuNC
? To start VisuNC, click on the icon.

If this icon is not displayed on the screen, show the toolbar called "FAO_Utility" by right clicking above the WorkNC graphic interface:

FAO Utility Toolbar

Editing a 5-Axis Toolpath
? Select the check box corresponding to your 5-Axis toolpath under the first tab called Toolpath Display, click on the Edition button then on Modify.

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Editing Toolpaths Modification of a point All modification types available in the G3 V19 interface are also available in the VisuNC interface. In addition, the latter allows making the following modifications: § modification of a point, § modification of normals and § use of the wizard. You can use the 5-axis editing functions to modify retracts and approaches to make sure that there is no risk of collision due to machine head rotations.

18.2 Modification of a point
You may have to modify a point for one of the following reasons: this may for example allow you to make the tool trajectory longer, as shown in the picture below. As the tool fully retracts from the part, there is no risk of collision between the machine and the part when leading out. You can also change rapid speed into work speed or assign a new position to a point while choosing the repositioning direction.

Initial trajectory

First select the Position option in the Action field. In our example, select the direction (Toolpath) into which you want to position the point outside the part.

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Editing Toolpaths Modification of a point Three directions are possible (Previous, Normal, Next):

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Toolpath Edition Parameters

You only need to drag and drop the end point of the toolpath to a new position.

Toolpath Edition Parameters

The three following pictures show the steps and end result when moving a point to a new position in the cutting direction. This operation is a manual operation which does not allow entering new point coordinates.

Repositioning of the last point

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Editing Toolpaths Modification of a point

Another example: Speed Modification:

The work speed (1b) of the modified point (1a) is changed to approach speed (2 and 3) on its previous position.

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Editing Toolpaths Modification of normals

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18.3 Modification of normals
This function allows modifying the orientation of the vectors of a group of points in the toolpath.

Collisions
Modifying normals has a direct influence on the tool orientation. This modification should be made only if you are sure that this will not generate any collision between the tool and the part.

ATTENTION

Modification of normals

You can select the normals to be modified in five different ways:
q q q q q

by point, by limited propagation, by point-to-point smoothing, by window propagation or by contour propagation.

You must select: 1. the direction into which you want to orientate normals and 2. a specific editing function for all selected normals.

18.3.1 Normal Selection Types
Select by one "Point"
You can select n normals by entering the distance to be applied on both sides of the control point. The control point is the point selected to "pilot" all normals to be modified. You can also modify normals before and / or after the control point.

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Editing Toolpaths Modification of normals

Select by "Limited Propagation"
The limited propagation allows selecting all normals between two points. The selection is made in two steps: 1) Selection of the normals included between two points (click on the first point then on the second point):

2) Selection of the control point for the modification:

Select by "Window Propagation"
The Window propagation allows selecting all normals included in a window and to create additional points at the junction of the selection window and the toolpath.

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Editing Toolpaths Modification of normals Selection window:

18

Selected normals:

Select by "Contour Propagation"
The Contour propagation operates in the same manner as the window propagation, except that the selection is made using a contour defined by several points instead of a rectangular window.

Select by "Point-to-Point Smoothing"
The smoothing function allows normal rectification. Normals are compared one to the other. If they are within the "angle tolerance" that you defined, they are rectified.

Normal Smoothing

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Editing Toolpaths Modification of normals Both pictures below show normals which have been rectified within an angle tolerance of 20°.

Normals without smoothing:

Normals after smoothing:

Collision Check
Since smoothing is completed after the calculation of the toolpath, there is no collision check between the tool and the surfaces. Toolpath smoothing may generate collisions since such a modification is made with the toolpath editor in VisuNC.

WARNING

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Editing Toolpaths Modification of normals

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18.3.2 Editing Functions for Normals

The "Door" function
All normals are oriented in the same direction with the same amplitude, similar to a door opening and closing.?

The "Linear" function
Normals draw a line from the reference point to the last normal modified. Vectors are not adjusted to the same level.

The "Square" function
After modification, normals represent a parabola.

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Editing Toolpaths Wizard

The "Gauss" function
Normals being modified are kept tangent with other normals. This is the only of the five functions that keeps tangency.

The "Circle" function
Normals being modified draw a circle on both sides and a straight line in the center.

18.4 Wizard
This advanced functionality provides a separate graphical window enabling all types of modification to one or several points. It allows - among others - to copy and delete points, etc.

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Editing Toolpaths Wizard

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Wizard

The Wizard option shows the following window:

Point edition

?

Right click in the left table (e.g. in the Coordinates field) then select Options to display a dialog box in which you can select the columns to display in the wizard.

Dialog box to add or remove columns:

Use the Reset info button to reset all calculation information. By pressing both the [CTRL] key on your keyboard and the Prev or Next button, you open a context menu allowing you to quickly go to another particular point on the toolpath.

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Editing Toolpaths Wizard Add Suppress Modify Offset Undo

Using the Wizard, you can make four different types of modification. You also have an Undo button to cancel one or several actions that have not yet been saved.

"Add" Function Selection of a point
Before using the Add function, select a point to indicate where the extra point must be added. NOTE

You can add a point by copying a point before or after the selected point. This may be completed while adding an automatic retract before or after the selected point. It is possible to change the speed type (work speed, approach speed, etc.).

Adding a middle point: You can add a middle point before or after the selected point. You can make a copy before or after. Offset: You can add a point before or after using an offset value.

"Suppress" Function
? Select the point that you want to remove and click on the Suppress button. You are free to retract for the deleted point. In case of retract, you can choose the direction as well as the distance:

Suppress Point

"Modify" Function
? Select the point for which you want to modify attributes and click on the Modify button. You can change the point coordinates, the normal vector and the speed.

Modify Point

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Editing Toolpaths Wizard

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"Offset" Function
? Select the point that you want to offset. It can be offset in the Normal, X, Y or Z direction. The offset distance can be automatically calculated or user specified.

Offset Point

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Collision Check General Points

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19 Collision Check
19.1 General Points
VisuNC allows calculating and viewing collisions between:
q q q

the tool and the surfaces, the tool holder and the surfaces, the machine and the surfaces. VisuNC especially allows viewing the machine and its different components. In case of a collision, the machine changes color during the progressive display of the toolpath. The part areas in collision are represented with a 3D curve. It is also possible to display the proximity of the tool holder with the part: the distance between the tool holder and the part is displayed automatically on the screen as soon as it falls below the value specified. All these elements allow you to reliably check each of the toolpaths before starting actual machining. The picture below shows a machined part and the selected machine for the toolpath.

Display of the part and the machine

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Collision Check Display of the machine

19.2 Display of the machine
Machines are usually designed in a CAD system and then imported in WorkNC with information about their parameters and limits.

Backup Directory
By default, machine definition and configuration files are saved under the WorkNCxx\pospro\5axismachines directory. Each sub-directory corresponds to a machine.

Select and Display the Machine
The following tool bar allows you to select and display the 5-Axis machine.
Show the Machine tool bar

1 Select the machine 2 Select the point of view for the toolpath Allows defining machine properties. Allows showing or hiding the machine.

19.3 Activating Detection and Collision Properties
The following toolbar allows activating or not the collision detection and defining collision properties.

?

Click on the icon to activate or deactivate the collision detection. When activating the collision detection, the other icons in this tool bar are made available. To define the collision detection properties, click on the icon.

Collision Properties

This panel is used to select which components you want to check. You can for example choose to check collision only between the tool holder and the part. In details: Tool Holder Yes or no Yes or no

Training Guide

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Collision Check Collision Settings Machine

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Yes or no Set it: Opens the panel used to define only some of the machine elements for collision check (rather than the whole machine):

Defining some elements only allows shorter calculation times. These properties correspond to the ones in the ?data“ file. However, when you modify data directly in this panel, the initial file is not modified. Information is saved in the ?machine.ini“ file. Part Yes or no Value: this value corresponds to one grid step. This grid represents the model on which all collision check calculations will be based on. The grid covers the whole part surface after calculation. If the tool size is less than 1mm, a lot of information would be lost during calculations. Yes or no This is the stock generated in VisuNC when completing a simulation. This is not the stock from stock model management. Yes or no Value: This value expressed in mm is the distance below which you consider that your tool enters in collision. Holder proximity Stock current All Yes or no Value: This value expressed in mm is the distance below which you consider that your tool holder enters in collision. You can choose to set everything to yes or no. Test collisions: Allows activating the collision check. This option has the same effect as the ? Click on the Apply button to confirm and save your data. icon.

Stock

Tool proximity

19.4 Collision Settings
After defining "collision properties", right click on the name of a toolpath in the list and select "Collision Detection" to obtain the following panel and define some extra parameters:

Collision Check Calculations

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When completing a collision check, WorkNC checks each of the points on the toolpath. In some cases, the distance between two points may be very high. In this panel, you can add virtual points that will also be checked against collision.
Training Guide

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Collision Check "Toolpath Properties" Panel In the above panel, the distance for checking the tool movements is 2 mms. Then, each 2 mm along the toolpath, a collision check is made. The three tolerance parameters in this panel work in the same way. The upper picture shows a toolpath and each of the points on it. The lower picture shows the normals of the toolpath which also correspond to each of the points on the toolpath. The distance between normals varies more or less. Here, if the distance # 1 is higher than 2 mms, WorkNC adds control points every 2 mm on tool movements, as indicated in the above panel (Tolerance collision tool sweep).

Collision report
You can automatically generate a text file including each of the points in collision. This file is called outil*.txt and is usually saved under the Collision directory of the workzone. NOTE

19.5 "Toolpath Properties" Panel
? To display the properties of a toolpath, right click on the name of the toolpath in the list and select Properties.

This panel allows - for a given toolpath - to configure the display in accordance to your own requirements. The two first lines are used to modify collision properties. This means that for a toolpath you may wish to check or not collision with the tool or tool holder.

Training Guide

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Collision Check "Toolpath Properties" Panel

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Shortcut
Right click on the name of the toolpath while maintaining the [CTRL] key pressed to directly open the above panel. NOTE

Part Properties
? Click on the icon while maintaining the [CTRL] key pressed to open the part properties panel. The same properties are available in the "Collision Properties" panel.

Part Properties

Batch Calculation of Collisions
? Right click under the toolpath list to display the Collision Batch window (see "1" below).

Activating Collision Check
To activate the batch calculation of collisions, you must first have activated the collision ATTENTION 1 detection ( ). 2 3

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Training Guide

Collision Check Representation of Collisions in VisuNC Select one or more toolpaths to check (2) then click OK to display the "Collision Calculation" panel (3). The configuration of this panel applies to each of the selected toolpaths for batch calculations.

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19.6 Representation of Collisions in VisuNC
The pictures below show that elements in collision change to the red color.

Collision Display

You can see on picture # 2 that only the tool changes to the red color in case of a collision. When going down beyond the tool in the part or any other machine element, each machine component in collision changes to the red color, which is the case in pictures 3 and 4. In the same way, if a machine element reaches an out of limit position, the color of this element changes.

Color Configuration
The configuration of colors for collision check and out-of-limit positions is made in the "newvisu.cfg" in the following section: NOTE [VAxisMachine] collision color = 255 0 0 # [0..255] [0..255] [0..255] / -1 -1 -1 Glassy outside color = 255 0 255 Glassy # [0..255] [0..255] [0..255] / -1 -1 -1

Training Guide

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Collision Check Representation of Collisions in VisuNC

19

Display the collision area on the part
To display a 3D curve on the part to mark the collision area, click on the icon.

Collision Curve

As shown in the above example, the collision surface on the part is limited by a 3D curve. Note also that the whole surface is displayed in red and that red circles indicate each of the points on the toolpath for which there is collision.

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Training Guide

19

Collision Check Representation of Collisions in VisuNC

Representation of the tool holder proximity with the part
? First click on the icon to activate the function.

When the distance between the tool holder and the part falls below the specified value, the distance appears on the screen as follows:

Proximity Distance

Training Guide

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