2014 高考英语常考的 80 个重要句型
句型 1 would rather that somebody did…“宁愿……；更愿意……”(表示现在 或将来的愿望) would rather that somebody had done…“宁愿……；更愿意……”（表 示过去的愿望） [例句] I’d rather you posted the letter rig
ht now. 我想让你现在去寄信。 I’d rather you were not a celebrated actor. In that case, we could spend more time together. 我到情愿你不是个知名演员，这样我们可以有更多的时间在一起。 I’d rather that I hadn’t seen her yesterday. 我情愿昨天没有看到她。 句型 2 as if/though+主语+did/had done…好像……（表示现在或将来的情况 用过去时；表示过去的情况用过去完成时）[参考句型 4] [例句] Our head teacher treats us as if we were her own children, so all the students in our class think highly of her. Alan talked about Rome as if he had been there. Alan 谈起罗马来就好像他去 过那里似的。 句型 3 “wish +宾语从句”，表示不大 可能实现的愿望 表示现在的愿望：主语+过去时； 表示过去的愿望：主语+had done； 表示将来的愿望：主语+would/could do [例句] How I wish we students had more free time to relax ourselves! 我们学生多么 希望有更多的自由时间放松自己！ I failed in the maths exam. How I wish I hadn’t wasted so much time playing! What a pity you can’t go to the party. How I wish I could dance with you at the party! 句型 4 It’s high/about time that somebody did (should do) (should 通常不省 略) …早就该…… [例句]
It’s time that you went to school.= It’s time that you should go to school. It’s high time that we did something to improve our environment. 该是我们为 环保做些事情了。 I think it’s high time that she made up her mind. 我想她该拿定主意了。 句型 5 情态动词+动词不定式完成结构的用法 could have done “本来可以……”（表示过去没有实现的可能）。 might have done “本来可能……；本来应该或可以做某事”（实际没有 发生；含有轻微的责备语气。 should/ought to have done “本来该做某事”（而实际未做） should not/ought not to have done “本来不该做”（实际却做过了，含有 责备语气） needn’t have done “本来不必做”（但是已经做过了） would rather have done “当时宁愿做了某事”（实际没有做过）；否定式 would rather not have done 表达相反意思，两者都有表示“后悔”之意。 句型 6 as, though, although 引导的让步状语从句。 [ 注意 ]although 位于句首； though 位于句首或句中； as 位于句中 =though。它的词序是把句中强调的形容词、副词、动词或名词放在连词 前。[参考倒装结构] 请注意下列句式的变化： [例句] 1. Although/Though I’m young, I already know what career I want to follow. →Young as/though I am, I already know what career I want to follow. 我虽然年轻，但我已经明白我应该追随什么样的事业。 2. Although/Though I respect him very much, I cannot agree with his idea. →Much as/though I respect him, I cannot agree with his idea. 虽然我很尊 重他，但是我不同意他的观点。 3. Although/Though he is a child, he knows a lot of Chinese characters. →Child（省略冠词）as/though he is, he knows a lot of Chinese characters. 他虽然还是个孩子，却认识了许多汉字。 4. Although he tried, he couldn’t solve the problem. →Try as he might, he couldn’t solve the problem. 尽管他努力了，但是他 没有解决问题。 5. Although it is raining, I’m going out for a walk. →Raining as it is, I’m going out for a walk. 天虽然在下雨，我还是要出去 散步。 6. Strange as it may seem, nobody was injured in the accident. 这次意外虽然
显得不可思议，却没有人受伤。 7. Much as I would like to help, I have a lot to do. 虽然我很想帮助你，但是 我有很多事要做。 8. Object as you may, I will go. 纵使你反对，我也要去。 句型 7 …before…特殊用法（1）“没来得及……就……” [例句] The roof fell before he had time to dash into the room to save his baby. 他还没有来得及冲进房间救孩子，房顶就塌了。 He ran off before I could stop him. 我还没有来得及阻止，他已经跑了。 To my great disappointment, my favorite singer left the concert before I could have a word with her. 让我非常失望的是，我还没有来得及和我最喜欢的歌手打招呼，她就已经 离开了。 句型 8 …before…特殊用法（2）“过了多久才……”或“动作进行到什么程度 才……” [例句] They walked about fifty miles to the west before they saw a village. 他们西行 50 英里才看到一个村庄。 The workers worked day and night about three days before everything returned to normal. 工人们连续工作 3 天才使一切恢复正常。 He almost knocked me down before he knew it. 他几乎撞到我了才意识到。 We had walked a long way before we found some water. 我们走了很长的路才找到一点水。 Five years went by before I knew it. 不知不觉，五年过去了。 句型 9 It was + 时间段+before….“过了多久才（怎么样）……” It was not long before….“不久，就……” It will (not) be + 时 间 段 +before….“ 要 过 多 久 （ 不 久 ） …… 才……”(before 从句谓语动词要用一般时态) [例句] It was not long before he sensed the danger of the position.不久他就意识到他 处境的危险。 It was five days before he came back. 五天后他才回来。
It will be half a year before you graduate from the school. 再过半年你才能毕 业。 It will not be long before they understand each other. 他们大概不久就会互相 了解。 句型 10 in case of…(+n.) “以防；万一”； in case that…“以防， 万一……” （谓语动词用一般现在时态或 should+ 动词原形） [例句] In case of fire, what should we do? Please remind me about it in case I forget/should forget. 万一我忘了，请提醒 我。 In case (that) John comes/should come, please tell him to wait. Please take your umbrella in case (that it rains/should rain).带上雨伞，以防下 雨。 句型 11 It 强调句型 强调句的基本构成： It is/was + 被强调的部分 + who （主要指人时） /that + 其余部分 [注意 1] 这种结构可以强调句子的主语、宾语、状语（包括时间，地点，方式， 原因等），但是不能强调谓语动词（参考句型 15）。 原句的谓语动词如果是现在或将来时态，用 It is…that/who….； 原句的谓语动词如果是过去时态，用 It was…that/who….； 强调时间、地点、原因或方式时不要用 when, where 或 how, 必须用 that。 [例句 1] I saw him in the street yesterday afternoon. →It was I who saw him in the street yesterday afternoon.（强调主语） →It was in the street that I saw him yesterday afternoon.（强调地点状语） →It was yesterday afternoon that I saw him in the street.（强调时间状语） →It was him that/who I saw in the street yesterday afternoon.（强调宾语） [例句 2] He didn’t go to bed until his mother came back. →It was not until his mother came back that he went to bed. He didn’t do his homework until his father came back from work. →It wasn’t until his father came back from work that he did his homework.
[例句 3] Only when you nearly lose someone do you fully realize how much you value him. →It is only when you nearly lose someone that you fully realize how much you value him. 只有你快要失去某个人时，你才意识到你是多么尊重他。 [例句 4] I was late again because the traffic was very heavy during the rush hour. →It was because the traffic was very heavy during the rush hour that I was late again. （强调句中只能强调由 because 引导的原因状语从句，because 不能换成 since, as, for, now that 等） [注意 2]强调句的疑问结构 一般疑问句 Is / Was it +被强调部分 +who / that …? 特殊疑问句 特殊疑问词+is / was + it + who / t hat…? What is/was it that…? Who is/was it that…? When is/was it that…? Where is/was it that…? Why is/was it that…? How is/was it that…? [例句 1] I saw him in the street yesterday afternoon. →When was it that you saw him in the street? →Who was it that you saw in the street yesterday afternoon? →Where was it that you saw him yesterday afternoon? [例句 2] I don’t know when he will come back. →I don’t know when it is that he will come back.（宾语从句疑问词后用陈述 句语序） –How was it that you got in touch with Mr. Smith? 你是怎么和 Smith 先生联 系上的？ –Trough a friend of mine. 通过一个朋友。 句型 12 （1）、祈使句（表条件）+ or/or else/ otherwise + 主句（表结果）… “否则…，要不然…” （2）、祈使句（表条件）+ and +主句（表结果） [例句] Hurry up, or you’ll be late for class. Please call me up before you come, otherwise/or else/or we might be out. 你来之前打个电话，否则，我们也许会出去。
Think it over and you will find the answer. Give him an inch and he will take a mile. 得寸进尺。 Work hard and you will make progress every day. 好好学习，天天向上。 句型 13 …until….“直到……时候”；not…until…“直到……才……” [例句] You are to stay until/till your mother comes back. 你得等到你妈妈回来。 The meeting was put off until ten o’clock. 会议推迟到十点钟。 The villagers didn’t realize how serious the pollution was until all the fish died in the river. →Not until all the fish died in the river did the villagers realize how serious the pollution was.（倒装句） 等到湖里的鱼全死光了，村民们才意识到污染是多么严重。 He didn’t go to bed until his mother came back. →It was not until his mother came back that he went to bed.（强调句） Not until he failed in the exam did he realize that he had wasted much time playing computer games. Not until his son came back from school did he go to bed. 句型 14 unless…“除非，如果不……”(=if…not) [例句] I shall go tomorrow unless it rains. 如果不下雨，我明天去。 –Shall Tom go and play football? –Not unless he has finished his homework. 除非他完成作业，否则不能出去。 I won’t go unless he comes to invite me himself. 除非他本人来邀请我，不然我是不会去的。 I won’t attend his birthday party unless invited (=unless I am invited). 除
非被邀请，否则我不 去参加的生日晚会。 句型 15 when 引导的从句 when 除了用来引导主语从句、宾语从句、时间状语从句、表语从句 和定语从句，还有一种用法值得关注，那就是 when 引导并列分句，意思 是“这时突然；就在那时”，强调另一个动作的突然发生。常用于以下句型 中 ：（1） 、 主 语 + be doing… when…意思是“正在做某事这时……”； （2） 、 主语 + be about to do…when… ；（ 3 ）、主语 +be on the point of (doing) …when…意思是“正要去做某事这时……”
[例句] One day Chuck was on a flight across the Pacific Ocean when suddenly his plane crashed. 有一天，Chuck 正在太平洋上飞行，这时他的飞机突然爆炸 了。 I don’t know when he will arrive. 我不晓得他什么时候到达。 I thought of the happy days when I was in Beijing. 我想起了在北京时的那段 快乐日子。 I believe the time will soon come when there will be no weapons in the world. 我相信世界上没有武器的日子不久就会到来。 I was walking along the river when I heard a drowning boy cry for help. 我正 在河边行走，这时我突然听到一个落水男孩求救。 I was about to leave when it began to rain. 我刚要离开，这时下雨了。 I had just finished my exam paper when the bell rang, announcing the class was over. 我刚做完作业，下课铃响了。 I thought of the happy days when I was in France. 我想到了在法国时那段快 乐日子。 I believe the time will soon come when there will be no weapons in the world. 我相信世界上没有武器的日子不久就会来临。 [比较] I was walking along the street when I caught sight of a tailor’s shop. 我正在街 上走，这时我看见一家裁缝店。 I was walking along the streets. Just at the moment I caught sight of a tailor’s shop. 我在街上走。就在那时我看见一家裁缝店。 句型 16 while 引导的从句 while 除了有“当/在……时候”的意思外（注意：引导的句子谓语动词 只能是延续性动词！），另外的两层意思也是考查的重点：（1）while = although “尽管”、“虽然”，引导让步状语从句；（2）while 的意思是“然 而；可是”，常用来表达对比关系。 [例句] While I admit that the problem is difficult, I don’t think that they can’t be solved. 尽管我承认这个问题很难，但是我并不认为无法解决。 While I admit his good points, I can see his shortcomings. 虽然我承认他的优点，我也能看出他的缺点。 While I was angry with her, I didn’t lose my temper. 虽然我很生气，但我当时没有对她发脾气。
While I understand your viewpoint, I don’t agree with you. 虽然我了解你的 见解， 我还是不能同意（你）。 I earn only 120 dollars a week, while she earns 180 dollars. 我一星期只赚 120 美元，她却赚 180 美元。 句型 17 where…（地点从句） [注意]where 引导地点从句时，可以引导定语从句或是逻辑地点状语 从句。当它在定语从句中作地点状语，指代地点时，这时可以用 in which, on which, at which, to which, from which 等结构代替。但是它引导逻辑地 点状语从句时，没有这样用法。 [例句] You should put the book where it was. 把书放回原处。 Persistent people begin their success where others end in failure. 不屈不挠者从他人失败的地方获取成功。 Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者，事竟成。 Where men are greedy, there is never peace. 人类贪欲不止，世界和平无望。 Go where you should, keep on studying. 无论你到哪里，你都应该继续学习。 That is the building where my father works. 那是我父亲工作的大楼。 Yesterday I went to the department store, where I met my teacher. 昨天我去百 货公司，就在那儿遇见了我的老师。 That’s where a change is needed. 那就是需要变更的地方。 We could see the runners very well from where we stood. 从我们所站的地方 能很清楚地看到赛跑的选手。 You should let your children play where you can see them. 你应该让小孩在 你的视线所及的地方玩耍。 Potatoes can be grown in places where it is too cold to grow rice.=Potatoes can be grown in places where it is too cold to grow rice.（本句 where 引导定语从 句） 有些地方太冷不能种水稻，但可以种马铃薯。 [请比较下面的句子结构的不同] Potatoes can be grown where it is too cold to grow rice. （本句 where 引导地点 状语从句） 句型 18 what 引导的从句 what 在英语中非常活跃,它可以用来引导主语从句、 宾语从句、 表语从 句，但是不用来引导定语从句。在句子里可以充当主语、宾语、表语、定 语，既可以指人，也可以指物。
[例句] What is the population of the world? 世界的人口有多少？ What did you pay for this picture? 这幅画你付了多少钱？ What is most important in life isn’t money. 人生最重要的并非是金钱。 Will you show me what you bought? 可以把你所买的东西给我看一下吗？ Mary is no longer what she was ten years ago. Mary 已经不是 10 年前的她了。 句型 19 as 引导的非限制性定语从句 在 as 引导的非限制性定语从句中， 连接代词 as 在句子中可以作主语、 宾语或表语等，可以指人或物。其在定语从句中的位置比较灵活，即可以 在句子前面，在句子中间或句子末尾。常用的结构有：as we all know; as is well known to…; as is often the case; as is said/mentioned above; as has been said before; as I told you before; as is evident; as often happens; as can be seen; as is/was expected; as we expect; as I can remember 等。 [注意 1]as 通常只指整个句子的内容，不表示部分内容。 [注意 2]as 引导的非限制性定语从句通常指“事先可以预料到的”“料想到 的”，表达“好”的方面。 [注意 3]as 引导限制性定语从句时，常构成 the same…as…; such…as…; so/as …as…等结构。在从句中既可以指人、物，也可以指整个句 子。 [例句] This is also part of your work, as I told you before. 我曾告诉过你，这也是你 工作的一部分。 The man was a teacher, as was evident from his way of speaking. 从那人说话 的样子可明显看出，他是个老师。 Such ideas as he hits on are worthless. 像他那样偶然想起的主意是无用的。 It’s the same story as I heard from her yesterday. 这故事跟我从她那儿听到 的相同。 He will marry as pretty a girl as he can find. 他要尽可能找漂亮的女孩结婚。 Such people as have made great contributions to the world should be greatly respected. 那些对世界做出巨大贡献的人们应该受到极大的尊重。 句型 20 which 引导的非限制性定语从句（也引导限制性定语从句） which 引导的非限制性定语从句既可以指整个句子内容，也可以指句 子的部分内容（如单词或词组等），在句子中可以作主语、宾语（动词或 介词的）、定语等。注意它在句子中的位置：只能放在主句后，不能放在
主句前。表达的内容是“不好的”、“事先没有预料到的”等时，常用 which， 只指物。 [例句] Yellowstone National Park, which is in Wyoming, is one of the most beautiful national parks in the world. 黄石国家公园位于怀俄明州， 是世界上最美丽的 国家公园之一。 The clock, which my grandfather bought, is still in good order. 这时钟是我祖 父买的，现在还走时很准。 The picture, for which he paid an enormous amount of money, was a forgery. 那幅画他花了一大笔钱购买，却是幅赝品。 She changed her mind again, which made us all angry. 她又改变了主意， 这使 我们大家都生气了。 I lived three years in Paris, during which time I learned French. 我在巴黎住了 三年，在那期间我学了法语。 The weather turned out to be very good, which was more than we could expect. 天气结果转晴， 这是我们没有预料到的。 句型 21 （1）、疑问词+ever whatever, whoever, whichever, whenever, wherever, however 用来引导让步状语从句， 相当于 no matter 和 what, who, which, when, where, how 连用。 [例句] Whatever (=No matter what) may happen, we shall not lose hope. 无论发生什么事，我们都不能失去希望。 Whatever reasons you (may) have, you should carry out a promise. 无论你有 什么理由，你都应该遵守诺言。 Whoever (=No matter who) comes, he will be warmly welcome. 无论谁来， 都 会受到热烈欢迎。 Whenever (=No matter when) it happened, it was certainly not yesterday. 此事无论发生在何时，但绝不是昨天。 Whenever you (may) call, you will find her sitting by the window. 无论什么 时候你去找她，你都会看到她坐在窗边。 Wherever (=No matter where) he went, he made friends with people. Whichever (=No matter which) of them you many choose, the quality will be the same. 他们当中不论你选哪一个，品质都一样。 However (=No matter how) hard I have tried, I can’t find the answer.
（2）、whatever, whoever, whichever, whomever 等引导名词性从句， 这时不能用 no matter+疑问词替换。 [例句] Take whichever you want. 你要哪个就拿哪个。 We will do whatever we can to help him out. 我们要尽力帮助他摆脱困境。 I’ll show you whatever you want to see. 你想看什么我就给你看什么。 Whoever did this job must be rewarded. 无论谁做这件事都要得到报酬。 Whoever walks around in such a heavy rain will catch a cold. 任何人在这种 大雨中行走都会患感冒。 You may invite whomever（口语中常用 whoever 代替）you like to the party. 你可以邀请你喜欢的人来参加晚会。 Take whatever magazines you want to read. 你可以取阅任何你想读的杂志。 倒装结构 句型 22 全倒装句型（一） here, there, out, in, up, down, now, then, away 等副词放在句首，句子 需要全部倒装 [例句] There goes the bell! = The bell is ringing. 铃响了！ Here comes the bus. =The bus is coming. 汽车来了。 Now comes your turn to make a short speech. 该轮到你发言了。 Away went the thief when he saw the police. Then came the hour we had been looking forward to. 我们期盼的时候到了。 [注意] （1） 在这种情况下倒装仅限于不及物动词或 be 动 词 ， 像 go, come, rush, live, stand, lie 等。 （2）主语是人称代词时不要倒装。如：Away he went. 他走远了。 句型 23 全倒装句型（二） 表示方位的状语放在句首， 句子全倒装； 谓语动词多为 be, lie, stand, sit, come, walk, run, stop etc. 不及物动词。 [例句] On a hill in front of them stands a great castle. 在他们面前的山上矗立着一 座巨大的城堡。 In front of the house stopped a police car. 房子的全面停着一辆警车。 Around the corner walks a young policeman. 拐角处有个年轻的警察在行 走。 Under the tree sat a boy of about ten. 在树下坐着一个大约 10 岁的男孩。 句型 24 全倒装句型（三）
（表语）adj. / v-ing / v-ed +（地点状语）+ be（或其他动词形式）… So adj./adv…that…如此……以至于……(so 引导的句子倒装， 而 that 引导的句子不倒装！) (这种结构是半倒装句。) [例句] Present at the meeting were the manager, all the designers and the writer. 出席 会议的有经理，设计师和词作者。 Fastened to the pole is the National flag. 旗杆上有一面国旗。 Hidden behind the door were some naughty children. 有几个顽皮的孩子藏在 门后面。 Sitting at the back of the classroom were several old teachers, listening attentively to the new teacher. 坐在教室后面的是几位老教师，他们在认真 地听新教师的课。 Gone are the days when farmers lived in the poor houses. 农民住在破旧房子里的日子过去了。 Typical for China is the crosstalk show, where a pair of comedians entertains the audience with word play. 相声是中国典型的喜剧，两个演员通过玩弄词 藻来逗乐观众。 So clearly does he speak English that he can always make himself understood. 他说英语非常清晰，别人都能听懂他的话。 So fast does light travel that we can hardly imagine its speed. 光运行非常快， 我们几乎无法想象它的速度。 句型 25 半倒装句（一） 否定意义的副词或短语放在句首，句子半倒装。这样的副词主要有： little, seldom, hardly, rarely, scarcely, never, not at all, by no means （决不） , at no time （在任何时候都不） ， nowhere, in no case (无论如何都不)； not in the least (=not at all) , on no condition（决不） 等。 [例句] Never shall I forget you. At no time was the man aware of what was happening. 那个人根本没有注意 到发生的情况。 Little did I understand what he said to me at that time. 我那时几乎没有明白 他给我说的话。 It’s beyond description. Nowhere else in the world can there be such a quiet, beautiful place. 那真是用语言难以形容。世界上没有其他地方会有这么安静、美丽的地方 了。 Not a single mistake did he make in the exam. 他在考试中没有犯一个错误。
By no means are these works of art satisfactory. 这些艺术品根本不能令人满 意。 On no condition should you visit that place. 你决不能去那个地方。 句型 26 半倒装句（二） not only…, but also…（前一分句倒装，后一分句不倒装） [例句] Not only was everything he had taken away from him, but also his German citizenship was taken away. 不仅他拥有的一切被那走了，就连他的德国国 籍也被取消了。 They suggested not only should we attend the party but also give a performance. 他们建议我们不仅要参加晚会，还要进行表演。 Not only should we students study hard, we also should know how to enjoy ourselves in our spare time. 我们学生不仅要学习好，还应该知道在课余时 间怎样享受生活。 句型 27 半倒装句（三） neither, nor 放在句首 [例句] If you don’t go to see the movie, neither will I. 如果你不去看电影，我也不 去。 --Why didn’t you buy the jacket? --Neither was the price satisfactory, nor did the color agree with me. 价格不能令人满意，颜色也不太适合我。 I don’t like him, nor do I care about him. 我不喜欢他，也不关心他。 句型 28 半倒装句（四） “only + 状语”放在句首，句子半倒装 [例句] Only when the war was over did he return to work. 直到战争结束他才回去工 作。 Only after you have reached eighteen can you join the army. 你只有到了 18 岁 才能参军。 Only in that way will we be ready for the challenges and opportunities in life. 只有这样，我们对生活中的机遇和挑战才会有充分的准备。 Only by changing the way we live will we be able to save the earth. 只有改变生活方式，我们才能拯救地球。 [注意]这种结构的倒装只在 only 引导状语的时候使用，only 引导主语的时 候不用倒装。 Only in this way can you work out the problem. 你只有用这种方法才能做出
题目。 Only this way can help you work out the problem. 只有这种方法才能帮你做 出题目。 句型 29 半倒装句（五） so + be 动词/助动词/情态动词等 + 主语 “……也……”（表示肯定意 思） neither/nor +动词/助动词/情态动词等 + 主语 “……也……”（表示否 定意思） [例句] She is interested in the story, so am I. He enjoys playing the guitar, so do I. I saw the film last night, so did he. In the past 20 years, our society has changed a lot, so have our eating habits. 近 20 年来。我们的社会发生了很大的变化，我们的饮食习惯也变了。 Tom didn’t attend the meeting last night; nor did Mary. Tom 没来参加昨晚的 会议，Mary 也没来。 I have never been abroad. Neither/Nor has Tom. [比较 1] “so + 主语 + 助动词” 表示肯定已有的观点或事实 [例句] –We have all worked hard these days. –So we have.（的确如此） I promised to help him, and so I did.（我确实帮助他了） [比较 2] “主语 + 助动词 + so” 表示按照别人的要求去做 [例句] The wounded little boy asked me to lift him up and I did so. The doctor asked Charlie to breathe deeply and he did so. 句型 30 so it is with somebody = it’s the same with somebody 前者怎么 样，后者也怎么样 [注意]前面既有否定句又有肯定句，或有多个谓语动词或助动词难以选择 时，用此句型。 [例句] John likes English but he doesn’t like maths, so it is with me (so it is the same with me). Tom is a student and he studies hard, so it is with me. –He was really manly enough to be responsible for what he had done. 他像个 男子汉，敢于对自己的所作所为负责。
–So he was, and so it was with you. 他的确如此，你当时也一样。 虚拟语气 句型 31 （ 从 句 ） If + were/did （ 动 词 的 过 去 式 ） ， （ 主 句 ） 主 语 + would/might/should/could + do（表示对现在情况的假设） [例句] If I were you, I would not be so proud. 如果我是你，我不会如此自负。 I don’t have a cellphone. If I had one, it would be convenient for me to get in touch with others. If I were in your position, I would think better of it. 如果我处在你的位置，我 会好好考虑它。 句型 32 （从句） If + had done, （主句） 主语+ would/might/should/could +have done（表示对过去或已经发生事情的虚拟假设） [例句] What a pity it is that you didn’t attend the concert yesterday! If you had attended the concert, you would have seen the famous singer. 真遗憾昨天你没有去听音乐会。如果你去了，就能见到那位著名歌手。 Anyone in his position would have done the same. =If anyone had been in his position, he would have done the same. 任何处在 他位置的人都会这样做的。 句型 33 （从句）If + were/did（动词过去式）/were to do/should do，（主句） 主语+ would/might/should/could + do（表示对将来的假设） [例句] If he should refuse (= If he were to refuse=If he refused), it didn’t matter at all. 万一他拒绝了，那也没关系。 If you shouldn’t pass the college entrance examination, what would you do? 万一高考不中，你该怎么办？ 句型 34 虚拟语气条件句的倒装 在虚拟条件句中， 如果出现有 were, had, should， 可以省去 if, 把这些 词放在句子前面，构成虚拟倒装句。 [例句] Should he act like that again, he would be fined. 如果他还这样做， 就要受罚。 Had the doctor come in time last night (=If the doctor had come in time last time), the boy would have been saved. 昨天晚上要是医生及时到达，小孩就 会得救。
Were I to go to the moon one day, I would see it with my own eyes. Had I enough money (= If I had enough money), I would buy a larger house. 句型 35 if only 引起的感叹句，相当于 “How I wish + 宾语从句”，意思是“但 愿……；要是……就好了” [例句] If only he could come! 他要是能来就好了！ If only we students didn’t have so much homework！要是没有这么多的作业 该多好！ If only I hadn’t been so careless in the exam! 我当时没有那么粗心就好了！ 句型 36 if it were not for… (= were it not for…) if it hadn’t been for… (= had it not been for…)“要不是因为有……； 如果不是……” [注意]这种结构中不能用否定结构的缩写形式，即不能用 weren’t it for…） [例句] If it hadn’t been for (= Had it not been for) the determined captain, all the passengers on board wouldn’t have been saved. 要不是船长一直坚强，船上 的旅客就不会得救。 If it were not for your rich parents, you couldn’t live so easy a life. 要不是你 父母有钱，你的生活不会如此安逸。 If it were not for the expense, I would go abroad now. 如果不是因为经费问 题，我现在就出国了。 句型 37 “but for + 名词”和“but that +从句”，意思是“倘若不是；要不是”，接 虚拟语气 [例句] But for air and water, nothing could live. (= If there were no air or water, nothing could live.) 如果没有空气和水，什么东西都难以生存。 But for the storm, we should have arrived earlier. = If it hadn’t been for the storm, we should have arrived earlier. 如果不是暴 风雨，我们早就到了。 But for you, we couldn’t have carried out the plan. 要不是你的话，我们无法 实施那项计划。 She could not have believed it but that she saw it. 若非亲眼所见， 她是不会相 信的。
句型 38 在动词 insist（1 坚持做某事），order, command（2 命令）, advise, （3 建议做某事），demand, require, request, ask （4 要求） suggest, propose 等表示建议、命令、要求的名词性从句中谓语动词要用虚拟语气。基本句 型： 主语+ (should) + 动词原形。 另外像 decide, desire, intend, recommend 等也要接(should)+动词原形结构。 [例句] Mother insists that Tom (should) go to bed at nine o’clock.（宾语从句） We suggested that the meeting (should) be held at once. It was required that the crops (should) be harvested at once.（主语从句） The suggestion that he (should) be invited was rejected.（同位语从句） That is their demand that their wages (should) be increased.（表语从句） [注意 1] advice, suggestion, order, demand, proposal, request, desire, command, decision, requirement 等名词引导的同位语从句或表语从句，谓语动词用 (should) + 动词原形。 [注意 2] It’s
demanded/ordered/requested/proposed/required/desired 等结构后的主语从句 中，谓语动词用(should) + 动词原形。 [注意 3]suggest 意思是“表明，暗示；说明”时；insist 意思是“坚持观点，坚 持看法”时，句子不能用虚拟语气。 [例句] He insisted that he was innocent.=He insisted on his innocence. 他坚持说自己 是无辜的。 He insisted that he had never done wrong. 他坚持说没有做错事情。 Are you suggesting that I’m not suited for the job? 你是在暗示说我不适合做 那项工作？ The look on his face suggested that the teacher was quite satisfied with the result. 脸上的表情说明老师对结果感到满意。 句型 39 It is necessary/important/natural/impossible/essential（基本的）等结构 后的主语从句中要用虚拟语气，即主语+(should)+动词原形 [例句] It’s necessary that Tom take the exam first. Tom 有必要先参加考试。 With the society developing very fast, it’s quite necessary/important that we (should) have a good knowledge of English and computer. 随着社会的快速发
展，我们有必要精通英语和电脑。 句型 40 It’s strange/surprising/a pity/a shame/a surprise (that) … should do…should 表示“竟然” [例句] It’s a pity that she should miss the chance. 很遗憾她错过了机会。 It’s really surprising that a prophecy（预言）should coincide with the fact so exactly. 令人惊讶的是，预言和事实竟然如此巧合。 It’s strange that he shouldn’t pass the exam. 奇怪的是他竟然没有通过考试。 句型 41 prefer (1) prefer to do sth 例：I prefer to stay at home. (2) prefer doing sth 例：I prefer playing in defence. (3) prefer sb to do sth 我宁愿呆在家里。 我喜欢打防守。
例：Would you prefer me to stay? 你愿意我留下来吗？ (4) prefer to do sth rather than do sth ……宁愿…...而不愿.…". 例句：I prefer to stay at home rather than go out 我宁愿呆在家里而不愿出去. (5) prefer doing sth to doing sth 例：I prefer watching football to playing it. 我喜欢看篮球，不喜欢打篮球。 (6) prefer sth to sth 例：I prefer tea to coffee. 句型 42 seem (1) It +seems + that 从句 例：It seemed that everyone was satisfied. (2) It seems to sb that --例：It seems to me that she is right. (3) There seems to be ---例：There seems to be a heavy rain. (4) It seems as if ---看来好像每个人都很满意。 我要茶不要咖啡。
例：It seemed that she couldn't come to class.看样子她不能来上课了。 句型 43 表示“相差……；增加了……；增加到……”句型：
(1) She is taller than I by three inches. 她比我高三英寸 (2) There is one year between us. 我们之间相差一岁。 (3) She is three years old than I 她比我大三岁。 (4) They have increased the price by 50%. 他们把价格上涨了 50% 句型 44 too 句型： (1) too．．．to do sth． 例：Politics is too important to be left to the politicians． （＝Politics is so important that it can't be left to the politicians．） 政治太重要了，不能由政治家来决定。 (2) only too --- to do sth 例：I shall be only too pleased to get home. 我要回到家里就非常高 兴。 (3) too + adj + for sth 例：These shoes are much too small for me. (4) too + adj + a + n.
例：This is too difficult a text for me. 这篇课文对我来说太难了。 (5) can't … too +形容词 无论……也不为过 例：We cannot emphasize the importance of protecting our eyes too much. 我们再怎么强调保护眼睛的重要性也不为过。 句型 45 before 句型： (1) before sb can/ could … 某人还没来得及…… 例：Before I could get in a word ，he had measured me． 我还没来得及插话，他就给我量好了尺寸 (2) It will be +时间+ before + 还有多长时间…… 例：It will be 4 years before he graduates. 他还有四年时间变毕业了。 (3) had done some time before （才……） 例：We had sailed four days and four nights before we saw land. 我们航行了四天四夜才见到陆地。 (4) had notdone --- before --- 不到……就…… 例：We hadn’t run a mile before he felt tired. 我们还没走到一英里路就觉得累了。 (5) It was not +一段时间+ before 不多久就…… 例：It wasn’t two years before he left the country. 还没到两年他们离开了那国家。
句型 46 用于表示过去未实现的希望和计划的句型： (1) should like to/ would like to/ would love to have done sth. 例：You should like to have written to your mother. 你本应当给你母亲写信。 (2) was / were going to do sth.（用过去将来时态表示原打算做什么） 例：Lucy was going to watch a basketball match. Lucy 原打算看一场篮球比赛。 (3) was / were going to have done sth. 表示未完成原来的计划和安排 例：Lily was going to have cleaned her bedroom, but she had no time. Lily 原打算清理她的卧室，但她没时间。 (4) expect, intend, hope, mean, plan, promise, suppose, think, want, wish ．．． 常用过去完成时态 , 在这些词后接宾语从句或者接不定式的一般形 式； 或者用一般过去时态后面接不定式的完成形式表示过去未曾实现的 愿望 例：She had supposed him to be very rich. 她原以为他很有钱。 (5) wish that …had done sth.表示过去未曾实现的愿望． 例：I wish he had been here yesterday. 要是他昨天在这儿就好了。 (6) 情态动词 should ,would, could, might, ought to 等后接不定式的完成 时， 表示过去本该做，打算做，想做而未做的事情． should have done =ought to have done 本应该做而没做 would have done = 本来就会去做某事而没做 could have done = 本可以做某事而没做 might have done 本可以做而没做 例：They ought to have apologized. 他们本该道歉的。 句型 47 倍数句型： (1)倍数＋比较级＋than．．．， 例：The room is twice larger than that one．这个房间是那个房间的两 倍大。 There is 30 times greater chance of being hit by lightening than being attacked by a shark. (2)倍数＋as＋原级＋as．．．， 例：The room is three times as large as that one．
这个房间是那个房间的三倍。 (3)倍数＋the size ／height／length ／weight ／width of．．． 例：The room is three times the size of that one． 这个房间是那个房间的 3 倍大。 句型 48 比较句型： (1)原级比较： 例：English is not so difficult a subject as Russia. 英语不是和像俄语一样难的科目。 Their bones are not as thick as adults’. 他们的骨头和成年人的不一样厚。 (2)一方超过另一方： 例：The weather of this year is a lot hotter than that of last year. 今年的气候比上一年的气候要热得多。 (3)一方不如另一方： 例：The restoration was so bad that it made some of the buildings less secure than they had been before. 修复工作是如此的糟，以致于它使得一些建筑没有以前安全 了。 (4) The + ~er + S + V, ~~~ the + ~er + S + V ~~~ The + more + Adj + S + V, ~~~ the + more + Adj + S + V ~~~ （愈...愈...） 例：The harder you work, the more progress you make. 你愈努力，你愈进步。 The more books we read, the more learned we become. 我们书读愈多，我们愈有学问。 (5) more…. than…与其说…倒不如说 例：Smith is more diligent than intelligent. 与其说 Smith 聪明倒不如说他勤奋。 (6) no +形容词比较级+ than = as +形容词的反义词+ as 例：I am no better at English than you. 我的英语不比你好。 (7) that 在前后比较中代替不可数名词和特指的单数可数名词 例：The traditional picture of St Nicholas is quite different from that of Father Christmas. (8) one 在前后比较中代替泛指的单数可数名词。 例：I prefer a flat in Beijing to one in Nanjing, because I want to live
near my Mom's. 与南京相比我更喜欢在北京有一套公寓，因为我想 跟我妈妈住一起。 (9) those 在前后比较中代替 特指的复数可数名词。 例：Salaries are higher here than those in my country. 这儿的工资比我们国家的高。 (10) ones 在前后比较中代替泛指的复数可数名词 例：Cars do cause us some health problems --- in fact far more serious ones than mobile phones do.汽车确实给我们的身体健康带来问题， 事实上比手机 造成的问题更严重。 句型 49 感叹句型： (1) What a + Adj + N + S + V! 例：What an important thing it is to keep our promise! 信守我们的诺言是多么的重要啊！ (2) How + Adj + a + N + V!（多么...！） 例：How important a thing it is to keep our promise! 遵守诺言是多么重要的事！ (3) How + S + V! 例句：How I want to go to Beijing. 我多么想去北京啊！ 句型 50 表法猜测的句型： (1) must have done sth 一定做过某事 否定形式：can't have done 例：She must have come here last night. 她一定是昨晚来的。 She can't have gone there 她不可能到那儿去。 (2) may have done sth 可能做过某事 否定形式： may not have done 例：Philip may have been hurt seriously in the car accident. Philip 可能在这次车祸中伤得很严重。 (3) might have done sth 或许做过某事 否定形式: might not have done 例：She might have known what the bottle contained. 她或许知道这个瓶子里装的是什么。 (4) should have done sth 估计已经做了某事 否定形式：should not have done 例：She should have arrived in her office by now. 她此刻估计已经到达办公室了。。 句型 51
动词不定式常用句型： (1) It takes / took / will take sb. some time / money to do sth. 某人花/花了/将花多长时间/多少钱做某事. 例句：It took me years of hard work to speak good English. 为了讲一口流利的英语,我花了多年时间刻苦操练. (2) It is + adj +for/of sb to do sth 例：Lincoln said that it was not right for the South to break away from the Union. 林肯说南方脱离联邦是不对的。 It was careless of Tom to break the cup. (3) Sb. have / has / had no choice but to do... 某人除了做……别无选择. 例句：We had no choice but to take a taxi for we'd missed the last bus. 由于错过了最后一班公共汽车,除了乘坐的士,我们别无选择. (4) It's not /just like sb. to do sth.……的行为不/正像某人的一贯作风. 例：lt's not like Jim to be late for class. He regards time as the most important thing in life. 上课迟到不像吉姆的一贯作风 , 他把时间看作是生命中最重要 的. (5) ．．．．形容词／副词＋enough to do sth． 例：I was fortunate enough to travel to South Africa.． (6) It pays to + V ~~~ （...是值得的。） 例句：It pays to help others. 帮助别人是值得的。 (7) It cost sb some time/money to do sth 例：It must cost a good deal to live here.住这儿一定会花很多钱的。 (8) do all he could to do sth do what he could to do sth do everything he could to do sth 例：They were doing everything they could to help the fatherland. 他们在尽最大努力去帮助祖国。 (9) It is hard to imagine/ say … 很难想象/说…… 例：It is hard to imagine how Edison managed to work twenty hours each day. 很难想象爱迪生每天是怎样工作 20 小时的。 It's hard to say whether the plan is practical. 这个计划是否实际很难说。 句型 52 动名词常用句型：
(1) ...have trouble/difficulty/a hard time/a difficult time (in) doing sth. (有困难做某事) 例：People from the two countries do not have any difficulty in understanding each other. 来自那两个国家的人们在相互理解上是没有困难的。 (2) upon/on doing sth, 一……就…… 例： Upon / On hearing the unexpected news, he was so surprised that he couldn't say a word. 一听到这个出乎意料的消息，他惊讶到说不出话来。 (3) There is no/some difficulty/trouble (in) doing sth. 例：There is no difficulty in solving this social problem. 解决这个社会问题毫无困难。 (4) There is no need/use harm/hurry in doing sth 例：There is no need in sending such expensive present. 没有必要送这样贵重的礼物。 (5) spend some time/money (in) doing sth 例：They say children spend too much time chatting and playing games instead of focusing on their school work. 他们说孩子们花太多的时间在闲聊和玩游戏上，而不是集中在 学习上。 (6) It's no use / good/ worth doing sth 例：It’s no use talking with him. He won’t listen to you. 跟他谈没用，他不会听你的。 (7) It's a waste of time/money/energy doing 例：It's a waste of time watching TV programme as this. 句型 53 Not --- until 句型 (1) 陈述句 not --- until --- 直到……才 例：Last night I didn't go to bed until 11 o'clock. 昨晚我 11 点钟才睡 觉。 (2) 强调句 It wasn't until…that... 直到……才……. 例：It wasn't until yesterday that I got your letter. 我直到昨天才收到你的来信. (3) 倒装句 Not until...did... 直到……才……. 例： Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted. 直到我开始工作,我才意识到我已蹉跎了很多岁月.
句型 54 since 句型： (1) Since + S + 过去式，S + 现在完成式 例句：Since he went to senior high school, he has worked very hard. 自从他上高中，他一直很用功。 (2) It is + --- + s ince S +持续性谓语动词（表否定） 例：It is three years since she lived here. 她已三年不住这儿了。 (3) It is + --- + since S + 瞬间谓语动词（表肯定） 例：It is years since I stopped smoking）．我戒烟已经数年了。 句型 55 让步状语从句： (1) Adj./n./adv. + as/ though+ Subject（主词）+ be, S + V~~~ （虽然...） 例句：Rich as our country is, the qualities of our living are by no means satisfactory. 虽然我们的国家富有，我们的生活品质绝对令人不满意。 (2) No matter what 等特殊疑问词... …无论什么……. 例句：No matter what happens, I'll always stand by you. 不论发生什么事,我都永远支持你. (3) However + adj/adv + S + V, 尽管…… 例：You won't be able to do it alone, however much you try. 不论你多努力，你一个人也做不来。 (4) whatever/whoever/whenever/wherever + S + V，无论什么/哪里…… 例：Wherever I am I will be thinking of you. 不管我在哪里我都会想 到你。 (5) whether … or not 例：Whether you like it or not, you'll have to do it. 不管你喜欢不喜欢，你必须做这件事。 (6) even if/though 例：Even if/Even though the exercise is very difficult, you must do it. 即使那练习很难，你都必须做。 句型 56 违反常规的冠词位置句型： (1) so/as/that/too/how +adj. + a/an + n. 例：He is as good a student as you. 他和你一样是个好学生。 This is too difficult a problem for me.对我来说这是一个太难的 问题。 You can hardly imagine how clever a boy he is.
你几乎想象不到那孩子有多聪明。 (2) quite/rather/what/such/many + a/an +(adj) +n 例：She sang quite a beautiful song. 她的歌唱得很漂亮。 He was such a fool as to believe what she said. 他是这样的一个笨蛋以致于相信了她说的话。 (3) all/both/half/twice the + n 例：All the students in her class like her very much. 她班上所有的学生都喜欢她。 句型 57 表示最高级的句型： (1) Nothing is + ~~~ er than to + V Nothing is + more + 形容词 + than to + V 例：Nothing is more important than to receive education. 没有比接受教育更重要的事。 (2) no one (nobody, nothing)+so/as+原级＋as 例：Nobody is so blind as those who will not see. 没有人像那些视而不见的人如此的瞎了。 (3) 比较级＋than+any other +名词单数 比较级＋than +anything(anyone)else 比较级＋than + any of the others 例：Bamboo probably has more uses than any other plant in the world. (4) 否定词 +比较级 例：It can’t be worse. 这是最糟的 I can’t agree any more.我非常同意。 (5) be the last ---例：This is the last thing I want to do. 这是我最不想干的事。 句型 58 more --- than 句型： (1) more --- than 与其……不如…… 例：He is more lazy than slow at his work. = He is less slow than lazy at his work. 在工作上与其说他慢不如说他懒。 (2) more than 超过；不仅仅是；非常 例：These flags are more than just colorful pieces of cloth and thread sewn together. 这些旗子不只是不同颜色的布料和丝线逢在一起。 (3) not more than 最多，不超过 例：They finished the project in not more than one year.
在不超过一年的时间内，他们完成了那项工程。 (4) no more than 仅仅 例：The officials could see no more than the Emperor. 那些官员能看到的仅仅是皇帝。 句型 59 形式宾语与宾语补语句型： (1) 形式宾语代动词不定式 例：I think it necessary to explore the space. 我认为探索太空是有必 要的。 (2) 形式宾语代从句 例：They found it strange that no one would take the money. 他们感到很奇怪谁也不要这一笔钱。 (3) 过去分词做宾语补语表示宾语被动的动作： 例：I had my pen stolen. 我的笔被偷了。 (4) 现在分词做宾语补语表示宾语正在进行的动作。 例：They found her lying in bed reading a novel. 他们发现她躺在床上看小说。 (5) 以名词（间或可用代词）作宾语补足语： 例：In 1849, he went to England and made London the base for his revolutionary work. 1849 年他到了英国，并且把伦敦作为他的革命工作的基地。 I think him an honest man.我认为他是一个诚实的人。 (6) 介词短语做宾语补语：如： 例：I can't find him in the office.我在办公室外没有发现他。 (7) What do you find the hardest in... 你觉得……最大的困难是什么 例句：What do you find the hardest in learning English 你觉得学英语最大的困难是什么 句型 60 特殊的条件句： (1) Suppose/ Supposing ---, 假如…… 例：Suppose/Supposing he is absent, what shall we do? 假如他缺席，我们怎么办？ (2) On condition that 只要……；如果…… 例：I'll come on condition that John is invited, too. 如果约翰也被邀请，我就来。 (3) provided (that)/ providing ----- 只要…… I will come provided (that) I am well enough. 只要我身体好，我一定
来。 You may go out providing you do your homework first. 只要你先做作业，你便可以外出。 (4) so/as long as 例：As/So long as you work hard, you'll succeed in the end. 只要你好好干，终究会成功的。 (5) 祈使句+and + 陈述句(表肯定） 例：Give him an inch and he’ll take a mile. (= If you give him an inch, he’ll take a mile. ) 他会得寸进尺的。 (6) 祈使句+ or/otherwise +陈述句 (表否定） 例：Start at once, or / otherwise you’ll miss the train. (= If you don’t start at once, …) (= Unless you start at once, you’ll miss the train.) 立即动身，否则你会错过那班火车的。 (7) …won't...unless... 除非……否则我不会……. 例句：I won't write to him unless he writes to me first. 我不会写信给他的,除非他先写给我. 句型 61 特殊的比较句型： (1) A differs from B in that…(A 不同于 B 在于……) 例：She differs from her sister in the colour of her eyes. 她眼睛的颜色跟她姐姐不同。 (2) ...varies from person to person(……是因人而异的) 例：The opinion of the problem varies from person to person. 对这个问题的看法是因人而异的。 (3) A is superior(inferior) to B. A 优越于 B 例：The modal is technically superior to its competitors. 这一款式在技术上优越于与之竞争的产品。 Some consider digital TV to be superior to satellite TV. (4) be different from 例：Its meaning can be completely different from the meaning of its components. 它的意思有时候跟它的合成的意思完全不一样。 (5) be inferior to 例：Modern music is often considered inferior to that of the past. 现代音乐常被人认为不如过去的。 (6) A and B have sth in common. A 和 B 有共同点。 例：The Japanese and Chinese cultures have a lot in common.
日本与中国的文化具有许多相同点。 句型 62 必须背诵的 There be 句型： (1) There is no immediate solution to the problem . 对于这个问题没有立即的解决的方案。 (2) There is no denying that + S + V ...（不可否认的...） 例：There is no denying that the qualities of our living have gone from bad to worse. 不可否认的，我们的生活品质已经每况愈下。 (3) There is no doubt that... 毫无疑问,……. 例句：There is no doubt that health is better than wealth. 毫无疑问,健康胜于财富. (4) There's no point in... ……是无意义的. 例句：There's no point in getting angry when things have happened. 对已发生的事生气是没有意义的. (5) There's no way... ……绝不可能. 例句：There's no way one could succeed without hard work. 一个人不努力绝不可能成功. (6) There is no one but ~~~ （没有人不...） 例句：There is no one but longs to go to college. 没有人不渴望上大学。 (7)There is no need/use/harm/hurry in doing sth 例：There is no need in spending money mending the broken car. 没有必要花钱去修理那破车了。 There is no use in regretting when time passed by. 时间过去了再后悔就没有用了。 There is no harm in using the environmentally friendly products. 用环保产品是没有害处的。 There is no hurry in running to school for time is still enough. 没有必要匆匆忙忙上学校，因为时间还充足呢。 (8) There no/some difficulty/trouble (in) doing sth 例：There is no trouble in selling our car. 我们毫不费力地卖了我们的车。 句型 63 time 句型： (1) the first time 引导的状语从句 例：I thought her nice and honest the first time I met her.
第一次我见到她时，觉得她很诚实。 (2) (the) next time 引导的状语从句 例：The harvest will have been got in (the) next time you come. 你下次来时，庄稼已收好了。 (3) the last time 引导的状语从句 例：What was the name of the hotel he had stayed in was
the last time he
in C airo? 他上次来开罗时往的那家旅馆叫什么来着？ (4) each time/every time 引导的状语从句 例：Every time you get back at night, you drop your shoes on the floor. 每次夜间回来，你总是把你的靴子朝地上一扔。 (5) It is ／was the first／last／second ／third time ＋从句（完成时态） 例：This is the first time I have been here 这是我第一次到这儿。 (6)It is high time that sb did (should do) sth 该……的时候了。 例句：It is high time that we went to the classroom. 该我们进教室的时候了。 (7) by the time + 从句 就在……时候；到……时候为止 例：We'll be ready by the time you get back. 你回来的时候，我们将准备好了。 (8) It's time for sb to do sth 例：It’s time for me to log off. 我该关机/下线了。 (9) It's time for sth 例：It's time for lunch. 午餐的时间到了。 句型 64 几种重要的表语从句句型： (1) The point is that ... 重点/关键是……. 例句：The point is that you have to keep your promise to help her with her English. 关键是你得遵守诺言,帮她学习英语. (2) The chance is that … 有可能…… 例：The chance is that he will succeed. 他很有可能成功。 (3) The fact is that … 事实是…… 例：The fact is that he hasn’t yet recover from illness. 事实是他还没有康复呢。 (4) The problem/question is that … 问题是…… 例：The question is whether we should ask them for help. 问题是我们是否应该向他请求帮助。 (5)That is ---
例：That is where Lu Xun used to live. 这是鲁迅过去住过的地方。 句型 65 so/such that 句型 (1) so that （引导结果状语从句）结果…… 例：We were late so that the teacher was angry. 我们迟到，使得教师生气了。 (2) so that = in order that （目的状语从句）以便，为了 例：I hurried so that I wouldn't be late for class． 为了上课不迟到，我匆忙起来。 In order that he should not be late, his mother woke him at 6. 为了使他不致迟到，他母亲在 6 点钟叫醒了他。 (3) so +形容词+（或 a/an+ 名词）+that 如此……以致于…… 例：I've been working so hard recently that I haven't had any time for collecting new stamps. 我近来一直很忙，没时间搜集新邮 票。 (4) such +名词（或 an/a+形容词 + 名词）+--- that 例：It is such an unusual work of art that everyone wants to have a look at it 这是一个异乎寻常的艺术作品，人人都想看一看。 句型 70 表示“也、同样”的句型 (1) too 用于肯定 例：I like the book, too. 我也喜欢这本书。 (2) also 用于陈述句 例：She also speaks a little Italian. 她也会说一点意大利语。 (3) either 用于否定句 例：Peter can't go and I c an't e ither. Peter 不能去，我也不能。 (4) so 用于肯定的倒装句 例：You speak English well, so does he. 你的英语讲得很好，他讲得也不错。. (5) neither/nor 用于否定的倒装句 例：I have never heard of such a thing, Neither has she. 我从来没有听说这件事，她也没有。 Tom didn’t finish his homework. Nor did Jane. 汤姆没有完成作业，Jane 也没有。 (6) as well 用于句末 例：He knows German as well. 他也懂德语。
(7) so it is/was with = so it is/was the same with 用于包含不同种类的动 词 例：Jack is a student and studies in China. So it is with Green. Jack 是一个学生，在中国学习， Green 也是如此。 (8) The same is true of……， 例： The music is dull and uninspiring, and the same is true of the acting. 那音乐单调，缺少激情；那表演也是如此。 (9) The same can be said of…… (……也是如此). 例：The same can be said of our country, also a developing one. 我们的国家也是如此，一个发展中国家。 句型 71 几种重要的同位语从句： (1) 由 where 引导 例：The suggestion where we should build our new factory should be considered. 那个我们应该在哪儿建造厂房的建议应该给予考 虑。 (2) 由 what 引导 例：I have no idea what he did. 我不知道他做了什么。 (3) 由 whether 引导 例：The question whether he’ll attend the meeting is not decided. 他是否会参加会议这个问题还没决定。 (4) 由 who 引导。 例：The question who will go abroad needs considering. 谁将去国外这个问题需要考虑。 (5) 由 when 引导 例：I have no idea when they will be back and settle down. 我不知道他们什么时候回来定居。 (6) 由 that 引导 例：The suggestion that the students should have plenty of exercise is very good. 学生应该有很多练习，这个建议不错。 (7) 由 how 引导 例：He can’t answer the question how he got the money. 他是怎样得到那钱的，他不能回答这个问题。 (8) 由 why 引导 例: We don’t understand the problem why this is the best choice. 我搞不懂这个问题，为什么这是最好的选择。
句型 72 with 复合宾语句型 (1) with + n + adj. 例：He stared at me with his mouth open. (2) with + n + adv (3) with + n + 介词短语 例：He stood with his hand in his pocket. 他站着，一手插在衣袋里。 (4) with + n + 动词不定式 例：With no one to talk to, John felt miserable. 由于没有可谈话的人，John 觉得很悲伤。 (5) with + n + 现在分词 例：With prices going up so fast, we can't afford luxuries. 由于物价迅猛上涨，我们买不起高当商品。 (6) with + n + 过去分词 例：With her eyes fixed on the opposite wall, she did not answer immediately. 她的眼睛盯着对面的墙壁，她没有立即回答。 句型 73have 复合宾语句型： (1) have sb do sth 例：I won't have you say such things. (2) have sb doing 我绝不会让你说这样的话。 他张着嘴凝视着我。
例：The boy stood there, with his head down. 这男孩低着头站在那。
例： She will have you doing all the housework if you are're not carefully. 如果你再不小心的话，她就让你做全部家务。 (3) have sth done 例：I have my hair cut every six weeks. 句型 74 几个重要的目的状语从句句型： (1) in case 我每六个星期剪一次头。
例：He left early in case he should miss the last train. 他动身得早，以免误了最后一班火车。 (2) for fear (that) 例：He handled the instrument with care for fear (that) it should be damaged. 他小心翼翼地摆弄那仪器，以防把它弄坏。 (3) so that 例：Let’s take the front seats so that we can see more clearly. 让我们坐到前面的座位上，以便能看得更清楚些。 (4) in order that
例：He got up very early so that/in order that he might/could catch the early bus. 为了赶上早班车，他起了个大早。 句型 75 几个难掌握的主语从句和宾语从句 (1) You may take whatever(=anything/everything that)you like. 你喜欢什么就拿什么。 (2) You may take whichever(=any) seat you like. 你想坐哪个位置就坐哪个位置。 (3) Whoever(=Anyone who) cuts the trees down must be punished. 任何一个砍树的人都必须受到惩罚。 (4) You may give the note to whomever(=anyone whom) you meet at the office. 你可以把条子给你在办公室看到的任何一个人。 句型 76 使用现在完成时和过去完成时的常用句型： (1) since 句型：主句用完成时 例：My aunt has worked in a clinic since 1949. 从 1949 年，我婶婶就一直在一家诊所工作。 (2) since when +完成时 例：Since when have you planted so many young trees? 从什么时候你种植了这么多小树的？ (3) This/it is the first (third...) time sb have done sth 例：This is the first time I have been here.这是我第一次到这儿。 (4) by…（到……为止）到过去某个时候为止用过去完成时，到现在为 止 用现在完成时，到将来某个时候为止用将来完成时。 例：She will have finished the book by my next birthday. 到我下一个生日为止，我将完成那本书。 By eleven o'clock yesterday, we had arrived at the airport. 到昨天十一点止我们就已经到达机场了。 但比较：By the time the speaker entered the hall, all the listeners were seated. 就在主讲者进入大厅的时候，所有的听众都坐好了。 (5) in the past time( two days/years...) +完成时 例：In the past 10 years, there have been great changes in our family life. 在过去的十年里，我们的家庭生活发生了很大的变化。 (6) hardly ... when.... (no sooner ... than)句型用过去完成时
例：Hardly had I reached the school when the bell rang. 我一到学校，铃子就响了。 No sooner had we sat down at the table than the phone rang. 我们刚坐到桌子旁边电话就响了。 (7) 未实现的愿望打算等等用过去完成时 例：I had thought I could pass the final examination but I failed. 句型 77 几种特殊的状语从句句型： (1) everywhere 引导 例 ： Everywhere they went, they were kindly received / warmly welcomed. 他们每到一处就收到热烈的欢迎。 (2) anywhere 引导 例：We’ll go anywhere the Party directs us.党指向哪我们就去哪。 (3) the way 引导 例：She is doing her work the way I like it done. 她在用她喜欢的方法做她的工作。 (4) like 引导 例：The landlord was watching him like (= just as) a cat watches a mouse. 那地主监视着他就像猫监视老鼠一样。 (5) immediately 引导 例：I didn’t wait a moment, but came immediately you called. 我一刻也没停留，你一打电话我就来的。 句型 78 有关 it 的几个特殊句型 ： (1) owe it to sb. that…把…归功于… 例：I owe it to you that I finished my work in time. 亏你帮忙，我才及时完成了工作。 (2) take it for granted that …想当然 例：I take it for granted that they will support this idea. 我认为他们会支持这个提议是理所当然的。 (3) keep it in mind that… 例：It must be kept in mind that there is no secret of success but hard work. 一定要记住的是成功的秘密是努力的工作。 (4) It can be seen from the statistics that ...从这个统计可看出…… 例句：It can be seen from the statistics that exercise is good for us. 从这个统计可以看出，练习对我们是有好处的。
(5). It 用在不能直接跟宾语从句的动词后面， 尤其是表示好恶的动词后， enjoy, like, love, dislike, resent, hate, don't mind, be fond of, feel like, see to, appreciate, stand 例 宾语从句紧跟 it 之后 I hate it you can swim so well and I can't. 我妒嫉你游泳那么好，而我不能。 I would appreciate it if you call me back this evening. 如果你晚上给我回电话,我会非常感激. I can't stand it when people talk with their mouth full. 我无法忍受别人说话的时候满嘴食物. (6). It 用在不能直接跟宾语从句的介词后面，宾语从句紧跟 it 之后 （except that 例外） 例：I'm for it that you will follow their advice. 我赞成你采纳他们的意见。 (7) It must be pointed out that 必须指出的是 例句：It must be pointed out that it is one of our basic State policies to control population growth while raising the quality of the population. 一定要指出的是国家基本政策之一是在提高人口质量的同 时控制 人口增长。 (8) It has been proved that… 有人已经证实…… 例：It has been proved that his theory is right. 已经证明，他的理论是对的。 句型 79 列举、说明句型： (1) on the one hand --- ; on the other hand (2) For one thing ---; for another thing --例：For one thing, these shoes don't suit you. For another, they are too expensive. 一方面,这双鞋子并不适合你;另一方面,这太贵了. (3) It is one thing to...; it is another to... 做这件事是一回事；做那件事是另一回事 (4) what's more ---; morever ---; furthermore --(5) Firstly ---; secondly ---; finally --(6) In the first place ---; in the second place --(7)First of all/to begin with ---; in addition/besides --句型 80 总结句型： (1) Through the above analysis(分析) 例：Through the above analysis, I believe that the positive aspects
outweigh the negative ones. 通过以上分析，我认为积极因素大于消极因素。 (2) To sum up,总而言之, … 例：To sum up, there are three ways of solving the problems. 决而言之，解决这个问题的方法有三条。 (3) In short... 总之…… 例：In short, the students have not arrived at any agreement yet. 总之，学生们还没有达成一致的意见。 (4) In a word , it is clear that… 总之，很明显…… 例：In a word, it is clear that smoking does harm to our health. 总之，很明显，抽烟对我们健康有害。 (5) On account of this we can find that … 由此我们可以知道… 例：On account of this we can find that it is not suitable for middle school students to have cell phones. 由此我们可以发现中学生持有手机是不合适的。 (6) In conclusion … 结论之, … 例： In conclusion, we must take into account this problem rationally and place more emphases on peasants’ lives. 结论之，我们必须理性地考虑这个问题，对农民的生活应给予 更多的重视。 (7) All in all, it is obvious that …..总之，很明显…… 例：All in all, it is obvious that the government should set up different kinds of schools to meet the demands of different children. 总之，很明显，政府应该建立多种不同的学校去满足不同孩子的需要。 (8) From what has been discussed above/taking into account all these factors, we may safely arrive at/draw/come to/reach the conclusion that ... 从以上所讨论的东西来看/考虑到所有这些因素， 我们完全可以得出 这样的结论…… 例：From what has been discussed above/taking into account all these factors, we may safely arrive at/draw/come to/reach the conclusion that the leisure life-style is undergoing a decline with the progress of modern society, it is not necessary a bad thing. 从以上所讨论的东西来看/考虑到所有这些因素， 我们完全可以得出这 样的结论，随着现代社会的进步，闲暇的生活方式正在减少，这未必是一 件坏事。