一、语法篇 1、定语从句（具体见两份定语从句讲义） 原则：who, whom, that, which, whose, where, when, why在从句中做某种成分 the very 其他：人+物, there be句型, 主句为who或which疑问句 注意： 1） 只用that的情形， 先行词为： 指物： all, any, no
ne, no, every, much, little, few, -thing, 序数词, 最高级, the only, 2）指物只用which：非限制性定语从句，介宾，that为先行词 3）whose表 “物的”＝of which the… ＝the… of which 4）the reason ＋why...，why必须作状语 5）the way（状语） ＋that／in which／不填 6）as：the same sb／sth ＋as…，such sb／sth ＋as…非限制性定语从句指代全句，可句首（此用法which 不可用于句首）As is known to all, … 区别 It is known to all that… 区别 What is known to all is that… 7）Is this sth the one… ? 区别 Is this the sth that/which/where/when…? 8）先行词：one of… 复数，the only one of… 单数，not the only one of… 复数 9）区别：同位语从句（n/pron不在从句中作成分）、强调句型（扒掉it be that可还原）、状从（such… as 和such that，状从such在that句中不做成分） 2、反意疑问句（见《金榜》P53） 三个方面：肯否、助动词、人称 肯否：not, no, never, none, nothing, nobody, neither, hardly, scarcely, seldom, rarely, little, few 助动词：be, 情态动词, 时态助动词 人称：-one/-body—he/they 1）祈使句：will you，无论肯否 Let’s…, shall we? 区别Let us…, will you? 区别Let me…, will you／may I? 2）He must be…, isn’t he? 区别He must have done…, hasn’t he? 区别He must have done… yesterday, didn’t he? 3）There will be…, won’t there? There used to be…, usedn’t there? 4）I/We think/expect/believe/suppose that…, 从句决定 I/We don’t think/expect/believe/suppose that…, 从句决定，从句否定 He/You/They think/expect/believe/suppose that…, 主句决定 其他各种从句均主句决定 5）and, but, so等并列句，就近原则 3、虚拟语气 适用：与真实状况相反的表达 1）insist表 “坚决主张”／suggest表 “建议”／require表 “要求” (requirement同理)／desire / advice ＋ that…(should) do／(should) not do… 注：insist表 “坚持认为某事实真实”、suggest表 “暗示、表明”，that从句不虚拟 2）wish that…／as if…／： 与将来相反should／could／would do； 与现在相反：were／did（没有was）； 与过去相反：had done 3）would rather that：与现在／将来相反did／were
回答：Yes／No只跟实际情况有关。如，He didn’t come “来没来”决定Yes／No
与过去相反：had done 4、倒装 目的：表强调 1）全倒装：There be/lie/stand/live/remain sb/sth；Here come sb（是名词）（只能Here he comes） 介短表地点、时间置句首，介短＋V＋S v-ing／v-ed置句首，v-ing／v-ed＋ be ＋ S 见M2 Unit 1 Reading 2）部分倒装：即一般疑问句形式，助动词提前 not／never／hardly／seldom／scarcely／rarely／little／few置句首时 not until…，主句部分倒装 3）So／Neither do I 区别 So／Neither I do；肯＋否 It is the same with sb/So it is with sb. 4）eg. Strange though it may sound, I was pleased it was over Child as/though he is, he really knows a lot 5、强调 强调谓语：do／does／did＋V原形，只限于一般现在和一般过去 强调其他成分：It be ＋ 被强调成分 ＋ that句子剩余部分（扒掉it be that可还原） 6、时态 现在完成时、现在完成进行时、将来进行时、过去将来时，过去完成时 It is／has been some time since… did；It／This is ＋ 最高级／第几次 ＋ 现完 It will be some time before… do／does； It was some time before… did be about to do… when…；be to do 注意： 时间状语不可靠，从句意挖掘时间信息 对话形式，说话当时为“现在” 7、非谓语动词—to do／doing／done to do 表将要，doing 表进行，done 表完成被动 done 绝对不作主语 作状语，句子主语决定主动、被动 eg. Seen from the window，a tree stands on the top of the mount ＝When seen from… ＝When it is seen from… with 复合结构， with＋sb/sth＋非谓，sb/sth 决定主动、被动 eg. The thief came in with his hands tied 宾补为 do／doing／done 的动词：see, watch, notice, observe, look at; make, let, have; hear, listen to; feel 看房子：吾（五）看三室（使）两厅（听）一感觉 注意：“使”：get sth done，get sb to do sth 8、连词 as soon as… = upon/on doing…= the moment/minute/second/every time…时间状语从句；once 一旦，时 间状语从句 now that＝since；“ , though”表然而；while 表“尽管”和“然而” in case 万一；so that 目的是／结果是；so／such… that…；… as well as 区别 not only… but also even though＝even if；as though＝as if 二、语汇篇 ——M1 M1 Unit 1 School life 1、词汇 experience：much ~，many ~s，~ed attend：~ school(上学)／a meeting／an assembly／lecture／funeral(葬礼)
join sb／club／army／party join in activities（一群人一起做的活动，非大型） take part in games（实际参与其中，发挥作用，大型重要活动） earn：~ money／one’s living／one’s place（地位）／respect respect：~ sb／sth for sth；show ~ for／to…；earn ~ from… devote：sb ~ oneself／sth to sth／doing sth；sb be devoted to sth／doing sth average：平均的，平均数 on ~；above／below the ~； struggle：~ to do sth；~ for／against／with sb／sth；have a ~ (in) doing sth a bit 和 a little：a bit of sth；a little sth 均不可数名词 均可修饰 adj／adv 原级和比较级 not a bit = not at all 一点儿也不；not a little = very much 很，非常 for free = free of charge fun：What fun！ have ~ (in) doing sth 同理 have difficulty/trouble/problems/a struggle (in) doing adj：fun 有乐趣的，令人精神愉悦的；funny 滑稽的，可笑的 prepare：~ to do sth ＝ make preparations for sth = be in preparation for sth satisfaction：to one’s ~；with／in ~；be satisfied with sth available：be ~ to do sth；be ~ for sth former：the former；the latter graduate：a ~ of…学校；~ from…学校；~ in…专业 donate：~ sth to sb／sth；make／give a donation independent：be ~ of sb 不依赖；be ~ of／from sth 独立于（国家等） regret：~ to do sth 遗憾要做；regret doing sth 后悔做过；to one’s regret inform：~ sb of/about sth；keep sb ~ed approve：~ sth 批准；~ of sth 同意；~ of sb doing sth ~ sb money for sth 收费 approval (n.) charge：sb take ~ of sth；sb be in ~ of sth；sth be in the ~ of sb；in ~ 管理 ~ with sth／doing sth 指控 require：~ sb to do；sb be ~ed to do sth；~ sth of sb； ~ doing = ~ to be done 物作主语时主动表被动，同 need，want，deserve ~ that … (should) do … 虚拟语气 熟记拼写、词义： enjoyable，assembly，literature，literary，average，challenging(和 change---changeable 区别)， encouragement，extra，sculpture，academic，exchange，fluent，splendid，title，somehow，anyhow， host，broadcast，event，poet，poetry，generation，select，composition 2、词组 dream school life achieve high grades opening hours first of all 首先 in all 总计 be fond of look up 查字典/通讯录 look through 浏览 run out of sth 用完 outdoor activities sound like a little bit after all 毕竟，终究 lunch break 午餐时间 look back on look into 调查 run／come across 偶遇 run off with sth 偷走
the best way to do sth small／average size at first above all 最重要的是 for free look up to look over 检查病人 run after 追逐 run into sb/sth 偶遇，遭遇
run away from 逃避，逃脱 3. 句型
serve meals(餐馆等)提供饭食 make the best／most of＝make (good／full) use of
develop an interest in…培养…的兴趣
1. Going to a British high school for one year was very enjoyable and exciting experience for me. 2. I found that the homework was not as heavy as what I used to get in my old school. 3. Cooking was really fun as I learnt how to buy, prepare and cook food. 4. Whether students want to exercise or just want some fun, they can use our gym. 5. Upon finishing his studies, he started traveling in China. 6. The more choices you have, the better your decisions will be. 7. I was a little nervous at first, but everyone was so nice and friendly that I soon stopped worrying. 8. I chose an old tree and gathered everyone under it before I read. 9. Our club is much more than just music. 10. It was a bit challenging/ struggle for me. 11. Though it did not look very beautiful when it was finished, I still liked it very much. Some of these are very tiring, though. 可是，然而(P47) 12. That is why my favourite subject is Literature. 13. We regret to inform you that--M1 Unit 2 Growing pains 1、单词 waste：a ~ of sth；~ sth on sth；~ sth (in) doing sth surprise：in/with ~；to one’s ~；What a ~! frightened：be ~／scared to do sth = be ~／scared of doing sth；be ~／scared to death suppose：be ~d to do sth； tolerate：~sth；~ doing/being done fault：find ~ with sb fault 承担责任的过错，品德相关，机器故障 mistake 理解认知的错误，如错认 upset：be ~ about/over sth；~ sth 打乱计划、安排等 deserve：~ sth；sth ~ doing = sth ~ to be done argue：~ with sb about／over sth；~ for／against argument (n.) in ~万一；in ~ of sth；in case that case：案例，情况 in that／this ~；in any case；in no case proud：be ~ of sb／sth = take pride in sb／sth；be ~ to do sth guide：~ sb to／through／around some place 指路 a tour guide；under the guidance of sb insist：~ on sth／doing sth；~ that… (should) do 坚决主张，虚拟；坚持认为，不虚拟 offer：~ sb sth = ~ sth to sb；~ to do sth；an offer of sth 有关 sth 的报价 supply sb with sth ＝ supply sth to sb；provide sb with sth ＝ provide sth for sb annoyed：be ~ with sb at／about sth forbid：~ sth；~ doing sth；~ sb sth；~ sb to do sth = sb (from) doing sth；sb be forbidden to do confuse：be ~d with sth；~ sb 使 sb 困惑 tend：~ to do sth = have a tendency to do sth depend：~ on one’s doing 取决于；~ on sb to do 熟记拼写、词义：
bend，starve，garbage，sink，adult，behavior，scene，defend，emergency，explanation，clinic，handle， guidance，error，café ，argument，freedom，patience，distant，annoyed，adolescence，misunderstanding， normal，confused，physical，tend，limit，wisdom，independence，balance，challenge 2、词组 turn up no more = not any more in a mess be hard on sb a piece of cake 小意思 pull one’s leg 开玩笑 keep up with 跟上/赶上 refuse to do at the same time on time 准时 at a time 每次 3. 句型 1. I can’t wait to surprise the boys! 2. Eric runs in after it, followed by a dog, walking very slowly. 3. you are supposed to come home until tomorrow! 4. The money for dog is gone 5. What did you do with the cash we left? 6. The room is in a mess, with pizza boxes on the floor and dirty dishes in the sink. 7. In the corner, there is a garbage can around which are pieces of garbage and waste paper. 8. We left you in charge! 9. Mom and Dad look at each other as lights go out. 10. Daniel has his arms crossed and looks upset. 11. They don’t deserve an explanation 12. Why didn’t they ask me what happened instead of shouting at me? 13. There is a reason why the house is a mess.. 14. Now that he has been so rude to us, I feel like we have to punish him or he won’t respect us. 15. I went to the shopping center near Huaihai Road, to change the new shoes I bought, the one that fit badly, for bigger ones. 16. I’m looking for a house, one with a garden. 17. I wish I had bought my umbrella. 18. Also, every time I watch a DVD, he sends me to bed or tells me to spend more time studying. 19. A company is hard to run. 20. It is foolish of him to --21. The main problem is that I can’t get along with my father. 22. This is a common problem that is a result of growing pains. 23. With a little bit of patience and communication, many of these problems can be solved. 24. Whenever I want to do something or suggest an idea, he doesn’t listen to me.
turn down 调低，拒绝 no longer = not any longer go out 灯自动熄灭 be strict with a wet blanket 无聊 have green fingers 擅长园艺 stay up be rude to sb at times 有时 in no time 立刻 at one time 曾经 all the time 一直
turn to sb 向 sb 求助 can’t wait to do sth defend oneself now that all ears 洗耳恭听 the top dog 顶级人士 not my cup of tea 不是我的菜 mix up sth with sth as if in time 及时 at no time 从不 along with
give sb the cold shoulder 对 sb 冷淡 rain cats and dogs 大雨滂沱
25. Both being a teenager and being a parent can be very difficult. 26. I love him a lot, but I don’t understand why he is so hard on me… 27. Along with these physical changes, there come many psychological changes. 28. Since teenagers have difficulty balancing these needs, they often question who they are and how they fit in society. 29. Sometimes he acts as if he doesn’t love us at all. M1 Unit 3 Looking good, feeling good 1、单词 figure：~ out 想出，理解，计算出 keep／have a good ~ 保持良好身材 ashamed：be ~ to do sth；be ~ of sth；What a shame！多可惜，真丢脸 work：起作用，奏效 The pills really work！ recover：~ from a disease；~ oneself 清醒过来 failure：heart／liver ~；fail to do sth contain：contain，容器容纳，包含成分 include，组成部分，如书包含章节 damage：damage，部分损害，可修复 destroy，彻底毁坏，不可修复 worth：sth be worth doing ＝ sth be worthy of being done ＝ sth be worthy to be done embarrassed：be ~ about sth suffer：~ sth 经历过或遭遇过 sth；~ from disaster／war／disease 长期受折磨； ~ for sth 承受 sth 的后果 consider：~ sth／doing sth 考虑；~ sb／sth to be 认为 under consideration 在考虑中 risk：~ sth／doing sth；take the risk of sth 冒…的风险 take a risk of doing 冒险做过；take a risk to do 冒险去做 afford：~ sth；~ to do sth count：作数 熟记拼写、词义： energetic，recover，failure，contain，chemical，treatment，damage，attractive，embarrassed，pressure，diet， athlete， branch， downtown， equipment， marathon， comfort， approximately， properly， system， count， peaceful， concentrate，amount，loss，gain 2、词组(略) 3. 句型 1. Since I’m be preparing to act in a new TV show, I’m taking weight-loss pills called Fat-Less, (which are quite popular among young women here.) 2. Nothing is more important than health. 3. Many people, (some of whom are not overweight at all), are always going on a diet or taking weight-loss pills, (which are often dangerous.) 4. Walking and riding your bike count, and so do school sports. 5. When you sleep, your body prepares you for the day (to come) 6. I think you look great as you are, and you’re a wonderful person. 7. Some sports are usually done indoors, while others are done outdoors. 8. Many teenagers are surprised to learn that when you exercise, your body produces some chemicals that make you feel peaceful and relaxed and increase your ability to concentrate when you study.