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北师大版必修3 Unit 9 Lesson 36 Car Culture课件


With the improvement of living conditions, more and more people have their own cars. As a result, there are more cars are on roads, and more highways or express ways are built.Good or bad? Talk about traffic problems with your friends.

Use the key words in Exercise 2.

Make a mini survey in your group to collect information of traffic conditions in your city.

When and how does a traffic jam happen?
Traffic jams often occur on highways wherever two lanes must merge into one. Lanes of cars cannot merge if there are no large gaps between cars. Therefore, drivers who create large gaps between cars will ease this type of traffic jam.

Big cities are faced with serious traffic problems. There are often traffic jams. When you are trapped in a traffic jam, the following advice may be helpful.

To ease a jam:
1. Maintain a large space ahead of your car. 2. Encourage one, two even three cars to merge ahead of you. 3. If traffic slows to a complete stop, KEEP TWO CAR-LENGTHS OF SPACE OPEN AHEAD OF YOU. 4. Never "punish" merging drivers by closing your gap.

Los Angeles tops list for drivers getting stuck fuming
COLLEGE STATION, Texas (CNN) -- Traffic jams in the United States are costing Americans $68 billion each year in wasted time and fuel, according to a new report.

Based on the analysis of 75 U.S. cities, the annual Urban Mobility Report from the Texas Transportation Institute finds the average rush-hour driver -- not just commuters, but all drivers -- wastes about 62 hours in traffic each year.

That's not total travel time, that's just the extra time spent going slow or going nowhere because of traffic congestion. By several measures, the report found Los Angeles had the worst traffic. The report stated that the average Los Angeles rush-hour driver wasted 136 hours a year in slow or stopped traffic.

The runner-up metro areas in this time-draining category: San Francisco, California; Washington; Seattle, Washington; Houston, Texas; San Jose, California; Dallas, Texas; New York; Atlanta, Georgia; and Miami, Florida.

The report also measured cities according to a Travel Time Index , which looked at how much slower a particular trip takes during rush hour compared with the same trip driven when traffic is flowing freely.

Los Angeles topped that list, too. The study said a rush hour trip in Los Angeles takes an average 90 percent longer than the same trip during a non-rush hour period. The runner-up metro areas in this category: San Francisco, California; Chicago; Washington; Seattle, Washington; Miami, Florida; Boston, Massachusetts; San Jose, California; Denver, Colorado; and New York.

The study also found that rush hours are lasting longer. In 1982, the report found traffic was congested about 4.5 hours a day for the 75 cities studied. In 2000, traffic was congested an average of seven hours a day.

"All of this demand can't be handled in the (rush) hour like it used to be, so traffic spills over, trails over into other hours," said Tim Lomax, one of the report's lead authors. "And that's spreading to more of the urbanized areas, so instead of just the area in the beltway being congested, it's a lot more than that now."

Lomax said roads and alternatives like public transportation and telecommuting aren't keeping pace with the increased number of miles people are driving, which is causing the congestion. In the average U.S. city, people traveled 85 percent more miles by car in the year 2000 than they did in 1982.

"There's a combination of factors -- the amount of people, the amount of roadway that is there," Lomax said. "It's sort of a supply demand relationship -you can think of it that way. And there's a lot more demand than there is supply."

Diagram

The diagram you have just read is about the traffic accidents which happened in 1997 in a certain city.Study it carefully and then write a report about it. Tomorrow you are going to have a discussion about it in your group.


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