学生 高一英语必修 3 学案 Module 1 Europe 自主探究： 一、词汇拓展 1. Europe n.. 欧洲人 n. 欧洲的 adj. 2. continent n. 大陆的 adj. 大陆人，大洲人 n. 3. situate v. 坐落的，位于的 adj. 位置 n. 4. locate v. 位于 adj. 位置 n. 5. architect n. 建筑学 n
. 建筑学（师）的 adj. 6. civil adj. 使。 。 。文明\开化 v. 文明 n. 7. govern v. 统治，管理 n. 州长，总督 n. 8. represent v. 代表 n. 典型的，有代表性的 adj. 二、重点短语： 1.一座山系 2.在。 。 。的海岸上 3.西方文明的发源地 4. 位于 5.远离海岸 6.据，依照。 。 。 7.控制 8. 国家元首 9.渐渐地 10.有。 。 。人口 11.目前 12.另一方面 13.信息包 14.作为。 。 。 。而出名 15.横跨英吉利海峡 16.在中国的东部 17. 以。 。 。 的名字命名 18.主要的工业城市 和港口 知识梳理 1. . S. + be / lie + in / on / to / off + 方位词 S. + be located / situated in / on / to …… 1）台湾在中国东南、福建东部。 Tai wan is the southeast of China and the east of Fu jian. 2）重庆在中国西南，座落在长江沿岸。 Chong qing lies in the southwest of china and is the Chang jiang River. 2. .查出下列词组的意思 more than = over ______________no more than = only not more than = at most____________________ more……than ----------3. face :vt+/ vi 面向，朝向 ; 正视(事实)，对付 [联想拓展] 1）be faced with = facing 2）in (the ) face of = in face of danger
3）face to face / face—to—face . Eg: with a difficult situation , Arnold decided to ask his boss for advice. A. To face B. Having faced C. Faced D. Facing 4.Their work has influenced other writers ever since. work vi. 工作，劳动；运转顺利；成功；有效 work on (sth) “ 从事于 … 致力 于…”“继续工作，对…起作用” work at 致力于； 研究 work out 计算出；制定出 ever since 自那时起 (ever) since then; from that time/ then on（与_________时态 连用）e.g.①从此我再也没见过她。________________________________________ ②白雪公主和王子从此过上了幸福的生活。 The Snow White and the prince ____________(live) a Happy life ever since 5. across 与 through 二者均表示“穿过”，across 指从一个 上穿过；through 指从物体的中间穿过，立 体感。如：He traveled through the forest. They drive a boat the river. across 与 cross ; across 是 词， 不能在句中作谓语； cross 是 词，在句中作谓 语。如： She went the bridge. She the bridge. across / through / over ; 横穿马路一定要当心啊. 那匹马跳过栅栏. across / cross Do be careful when you go the fence. the road. .
The horse jumped
小偷是从窗户爬进来地. The thief came in the window 【考点链接】 1. As I came _____the town, I found many houses had been destroyed by the big earthquake. A. through B. across C. cross D. in 6. sign n. ① 记号,符号;② 标志;招牌;标牌 ③ 手势;暗号;表示[+to-v][+that] ④征兆;前兆 [(+of)][+(that)] ⑤ 【医】体征 The sign says "Parking Forbidden". World trade is showing signs of revival. I talked with him by signs.
[区分比较]: symbol / sign / mark / signal 1)Dark clouds are a of rain. 2) The dove is a of peace. on the floor.
3) The little boy dragged a big chair and left some
及物动词 vt. ①. 签(名);写下②. 做手势(或其他动作)通知
不及物动词 vi. ①.签字,署名 ② 签约受雇用[(+with)] 他与那家公司签约。 ③. 做手势示意 She signed the child to be quiet. He signed his name on the cheque.。 All this signs rejuvenation 复苏 of agriculture.。 He signed with the firm. She signed to us to stop talking.。 7.cover vt. ①覆盖，遮盖 be covered with 由。 。覆盖 be covered by 被。 。 。覆盖 ②占用（时间、空间）cover an area of The town covers 5 square miles. ③行走，走过 She covered 1,000 meters. ④采访，报道 I am covering the result of election. ⑤包括，包含 Is that word covered in the dictionary? n.盖子，封面。封底，掩护（物） 8.倍数的表示方法句型：① A is …times﹢adj./adv.的比较级﹢than B ②A is …times﹢as ﹢adj./adv.的原级﹢as B ③A is …times﹢the size/height/depth/width ﹢of B ④ The size/height/depth/width ﹢of A is …times﹢of B 【知识拓展】 1. 有些词（组）没有被动语态。如：take place, happen, break out, break in, occur 等。 如： This accident happened yesterday. 2. 由实意动词演变而来的系动词，如 taste, feel, look, sound, smell 等，后接形容词作 表语，不用于被动语态。如： This kind of ice cream tastes delicious. 3. 还有一些动词后面跟 well; easily, long 等副词时， 常用用主动语态表被动意思。 如：begin, sell, wash, keep, open, close 等。如： The shop closes early on Fridays. These books sell well. 【考点链接】 1. More than a dozen students in that school _____ abroad to study medicine last year. A. sent B. were sent C. had sent D. had been sent 2. Her voice _____ so beautiful that everybody present was attracted by her song. A. sounded B. was sounded C. had been sounded D. was sounding 知能提升 1.There are many beautiful islands the east coast of the country. A.off B.along C. on D.from 2.
3. The man over there is the person by the manager. A.referred to B. refered to C.referring to D. to refer to 4.—David has made great progress recently. --, and A.So he has ; so you have B. So he has ; so have you c.So has he ;so have you D. So has he ; so you have 5.The earth is about as the moon. A. as fifty times big B. fifty times as big c.as big fifty times D. fifty as times big 6. He the heavy burden of carrying for a wife and two children. A.faced with B.faced C.was faced with D.was faced to 7. When he was ________, he got seriously ill ______ his addiction to smoking. A. in his twenty; because of B. in his twenties; because C. in his twenties; because of D. in his twenty; because 8. As the first ____country in economy, America has a lot of advantages in global affairs. A. rich B. richer C. richest D. most richest 9. The husband rolled away all the money the family had ,leaving his wife and children behind him. A. cry B. to cry C. crying D. cried 10. that all mountain roads were closed. A.So became the dangerous weather B.so dangerous did the weather become C.So dangerous became the weather D.Dangerous the weather became so 11. Only after my friend came . A.did the computer repair B.he repaired the computer C.was the computer repaired D.the computer was repaired Grammar: Agreement(主谓一致) 1. 语法一致原则 句子的主语是单数，谓语动词用单数形式；主语是复数，谓语动 词用复数形式。如：Australia an extremely rich country. 注意： (1) something, everybody, nobody , either, neither, each 等不定代词作主语时，谓语需用 数。如：If anybody calls, tell him I’ll be back later. (2) 当主语后面跟有 with, together with, as well as, like 等时，谓语动词的单复数形式 仍然要与这些词语前面的主语保持一致。如：
Tom, (together) with his parents been to Beijing. 2. 意义一致原则 一些集合名词，如：family, enemy, class, population, army 等作主语时，谓语动词的单 复数要根据实际含义而定。当表示整体意义时，用单数；当强调个体成员时，用复 数。如：Our class a model one in our school. (指班集体） Our class doing well in English.（指全体学生） 3. 邻近性原则。neither…nor, either…or, not only…but also, or 连接两个名词或代词作 主语时；由 there, here 引导的句子，并且主语不止一个时，谓语动词通常与邻近它的 主语保持一致。如： There a dictionary and some books on the desk. Either you or I wrong. 【考点链接】 1. Professor Smith, along with his assistants, _____ on the project day and night to meet the deadline. A. work B. working C. is working D. are working 2. When I came in, his family _____ watching TV. A. are B. is C. were D. was 一、单数形式的名词与谓语动词的一致之单形集体名词 1.单形集体名词被视为一个整体时， 用作单数名词 Our family a reunion every year. 2. 单形集体名词被视为若干个体时，则要求复数动词 His family waiting for him. 3. 有些单形集体名词，即所谓的“群体名词”，如 police，cattle 等，要求复数动词 The police have caught the murderer. 单数形式的名词与谓语动词的一致之 “more than” 1. “More than one + 单形名词”结构虽有复念，但习惯上多用单数谓语 More than one question asked. 2. “more +复形名词+than one”多要求复数动词 More members than one protested against the proposal. 3. “a+单形名词+or two”结构多要求单数动词 A servant or two or three to accompany them. 4. “one or two +复形名词”结构要求复数动词 One or two reasons suggested. 5. “many a +单形名词”结构要求单数动词 Many a fine man has died in the battle. 单数形式的名词与谓语动词的一致之 “两个形容词+一个单形名词” 在“两个形容词+一个单形名词”结构中，单数名词如有复念（即代表两个事物） ，则 用复数动词
The red and the white rose both beautiful. English and French grammar not very difficult to learn. 二、复数形式的名词与谓语动词的一致 复形名词（大多以 s 结尾）在句中作主语通常 要求谓语复数动词，具体应用要注意如下几点： 1. 含双数概念的复形名词要求复数动词 your kitchen scales(天平) accurate? 2. 含复数概念的复形名词要求复数动词 The customs (关税) paid. My funds (资金) a bit low at present. 3. 含单数概念的复形名词要求用单数动词 His works (工厂) rather small. 4. 表时间，距离，钱额的复数名词用单数动词 Ten years a moment in history. Ten thousand dollars a large sum. 5. 外来的复形名词要求用单数动词 This data is very interesting. 6. 以-ics 结尾表学科的复形名词要求用单数动词 Politics(政治) is often a topic for discussion. Statistics (统计学) is a principal course at the business school. 注意；这类名词用于表示具体的、实际的内容时，则往往要求复数动词。 What are your politics(政治观点)? Statistics(统计数字) prove nothing in this case. 7. 以-s 结尾的某些表疾病的复形名词要求用单数动词 German measles(风疹) is a dangerous disease for pregnant women. 8. 有些复形名词既可用单数动词也可用复数动词 Where is / are your manners(礼貌)? 9. 复形书名一般要求用单数动词 The Newcomers《新来的人们》 is one of Thackeray’s finest books. 三、并列主语与动词的一致 列主语是指主语为 and、or 等并列词连接的名词作主语，其谓语的单复数要看情 况而定，具体用法如下： 1. “名词+and+名词”结构表示一种事物或一种概念时，应用单数动词 Fish and chips(炸鱼土豆片) a popular supper. The poet and writer(诗人兼作家) come. 有时并列主语用单数或复数动词都可 Time and tide(岁月) wait / waits for no man. 2. “each / every / no+单形名词+ each / every / no+单形名词”结构要求单数动词 Every hour and every minute(每一小时，每一分钟) important.
3. “名词/代词+or+名词/代词”结构应根据 or 后的名词/代词确定单/复数动词 He or I (他或是我) am in the wrong. He or his brothers(他或他的兄弟们) to blame. 4. “either+名词+or+名词”结构应根据 or 后的名词/代词确定单/复数动词 Either the shirts or the sweater(这些衬衣，要不就是这件毛衣) a good buy. 5. “not only+名词+but (also) +名词”结构要求动词应与 but (also)后的名词一致 Not only the students but also their teacher(不仅是学生，他们的老师也) enjoying the film. 6. “neither+名词+nor+名词”结构要求动词与 nor 后面的名词一致 Neither you nor your brother(你和人你的兄弟都不) is in fault. Neither he nor they(你和他们都不) are mistaken. 7. “there be”结构的动词应与最靠近它的名词的单复数一致。 There is a desk and some chairs in the room. There are some chairs and a desk in the room. 四、“单数形式的名词+with/as well as…+名词”结构与动词的一致 “名词+介词或介词短语 with / together with / along with / including / except / besides / as well as / added to…+名词”结构作主语，谓语一般与第一个名词一致。 A teacher, with his students, seeing a film. I as well as they ready to help. 五、“表部分的名词+of+名词”结构与动词的一致 1. “one of + 复形名词”结构后的定语从句要求谓语动词应用复数；但当“one of”前有 限定词如 the、the only、the very 等修饰时，结构后的定语从句要求谓语动词应用与 one 一致，用单数谓语。 This is one of the best books that have appeared. She is the one of those women who （do,not）know a thing about furniture. 2. “a pair of +复形名词” 结构多要求用单数谓语，但“复数名词+of a/this/that pair” 结构多用复数谓语。 A pair of gloves(一双手套) is a nice present. Socks of this pair(这双袜子) are different in size. 3. “(a) part of+ 名词”结构中，若名词为单形，一般要求用单数动词，若名词为复形， 则复数动词。 (A) part of the story(故事的一部分) not true. A part of the apples(部分苹果) bad 4. “a group(一组) / crowd(人群) / flock(一群) / file(一列)… of +复形名词”结构可用单 数动词，也可用复数动词。前者强调整体，后者强调各个组成部分。 This group of students(这一组学生) is to be sent to Italy.
This group of students(这组学生都) are to be sent to Italy. 5. “a number of /numbers of + 复形名词”结构应用复数动词；而“the number of +复形 名词”结构应用单数动词 A large number of people(许多人) have come to see the exhibition. The number of the chairs(椅子的数量) in the room is ten. 6. “an average / total of +复形名词”结构应用复数动词； 而“the average / total of +复形 名词”结构应用单数动词。 An average of 3000 letters (平均 3000 封信) a month are received by the newspaper’s office. A total of 3000 letters(总共 3000 封信) were received last month. The average of letters(信件的平均数) received each month 3000. The total of letters(信件的总数) received last month 3000. 7. “a lot / mass / heap/plenty…of +名词”结构要求谓语动词与 of 后的名词单复数一致。 A mass of people(许多人) were seen working there. A lot of money(很多钱) is spent on travel. 8. “a large quantity of +不可数名词或复数名词”、 “a large amount of +不可数名词”结构 要求单数谓语动词； “large quantities of +不可数名词或复数名词”、 “large amounts of + 不可数名词”结构要求复数动词。 A large quantity of students(很多学生) coming. Large amounts of water(大量水) wasted. 9. “this / that / a / what kind of +名词”结构要求单数动词；而 “these /those kind of+名 词”、“these/ those /what kinds of+名词”结构多要求复数动词。 This kind of apple(这种苹果) is sour. These kind of apple(s)(这些苹果) are sour. What kind of apple(哪种苹果) is sour? What kinds of apple(哪些种类的苹果) are sour? These kinds of apple(s)(这些种类的苹果) are sour. 10. “most / 百分数/分数/the rest/ the remainder + of +名词”结构要求动词与 of 后面的 名词的单复数一致。 The rest of the story(故事的其余部分) needs no telling. He stayed in the classroom and the rest of the boys(其他的男孩们) out at play. Three-fourths of the surface of the earth(地球表面的四分之三) sea. Most of his time(他的大部分时间) is spent on traveling. Most of his students(他的大部分学生) like him.
六、短语、从句或句子作主语与动词的一致 短语、从句或句子作主语时，一般要求用单数动词。 No news is good news. (no news 为名词短语 ) Children’s interfering in their parents’ right to remarry has become a social problem.(主 语为一动名词复合结构) That he likes Mary is known to many of his friends.(主语为一名词性从句) “How do you do?” is not a question but a greeting.(主语是一句子) 注意：主语为 what 引导的主语从句时，谓语动词应与从句所指代的内容的单复念一 致。What he says (他所说的) not important. What I want(我所需要的) details. 当 what 引导的主语从句中谓语为复数时，全句的谓语动词也应是复数。 What make the river more beautiful the flowers growing in the water. 七、名词化的形容词和过去分词作主语与动词的一致 名词化的形容词和过去分词作主语与动词的一致应取决于主语的数念。主语如表单 念，就用单数动词；主语如表复念，就用复数动词。具体如下： 1. 主语表单念，谓语用单数。 The true(真实，表单念) to be distinguished from the false. The accused(被告，表单念) was released. 2. 主语表复念，谓语用复数。 The poor (穷人，表一类人) looked down upon by the rich. 3. 名词化的形容词或过去分词为复数形式，谓语用复数。 The newlyweds(新婚夫妇，本身为复形) are now spending their honeymoon abroad. 八、代词与动词的一致 1. all / some / any / most 用作主语时，随其数念用单数或复数动词。 All(事情，单念) ready and all(人，复念) here. I don’t think any is left.我认为没什么剩下。 I don’t think any of them(他们中没人) have seen her. Most of the building was destroyed but most were saved. 2. “each of + 复形名词”结构要求单数动词，但“复形名词+ each”结构要求复数动词。 Each of the jobs(每一份工作) planned by Billy. we each(我们每个人) have a copy of this dictionary. 3. every 和 everyone 一般要求用单数谓语；either 一般要求用单数谓语，但在非正式
文体中, “either of +复形名/代词” 结构可用复数动词。 Either method(任一种方法) is practical. Either of them(他们中任一人) are/is enough to drive me mad. 4. neither/none 可用单数或复数动词 Neither of the books is /are satisfactory. None of us know / knows for certain. 5. 疑问代词 what 作主语时，谓语与其所含的数念一致。当说话人不确知 what 的数 念或不强调数念时，应用单数动词。 What’s on the table?桌上是什么？ What are on the table? 桌上是些什么？ What’s in the sky? 天上是什么？ 九、数词与动词的一致 1. 语法一致 Two and two are four.(主语是 Two and two ) Four from seven three.(主语为 four) 261 divided by 9 equals 29.(261 是主语) Three times one three.(主语为 three, times 被看成介词) 2. 意念的一致 Two and two is four.(将主语 two and two 看成一个数目，谓语单数) One half of the world’s population are Asians.(集体名词 population 在此指成员) 主谓一致练习：选择填空： 1. Large quantities of water ____every day here while it is in great need in some faraway area. A. are being wasted B. is wasted C. have been wasted D. was wasted 2. The writer and actor ____ invited to give us a report yesterday. A. are B. have been C. was D. were 3. Zhang’s family ____ rather big and his family ____ fond of music. A. is; are B. is; is C. are; is D. are; are 4. ____ of the land in that district ____ covered with trees and grass. A. Two fifth; is B. Two fifths; are C. Two fifth; are D. Two fifths; is 5. Since then the number of people taking driving lessons ____ 20%. A. has increased to B. increased by C. has increased by D. have increased by 6. Although many of the houses in the small town ____ still in need of repair, there ____lots of improvement in their appearance. A. are; has been B. is; have been C. is; are D. are; was 7. His cattle _____ very fat. A. is B. have C. has D. are 8. The audience ____ large and the audience ____ enjoying every minute of the play. A. are, is B. is, have C. is has D. is are
9. Where ____ my jeans? I can’t find them. A. is B. are C. was D. were 10. There ____ a watch and chain on the table. A. have B. has C. are D. is 11. Skating and swimming ____ my favorite sports when I was young. A. is B. are C. was D. were 12. All ______ ready for the Christmas party and all ____ eager to enjoy the ball. A. was, is B. is were C. is, are D. are, is 13. Not only his children but also his wife _____ to visit the zoo. A. likes B. like C. has liked D. have liked 14. Neither you, nor I, nor anyone else ______ willing to do this work. A. are B. is C. am D. has 16. Bob, as much as his brothers, ________ responsible for the accident. A. was B. were C. had D. are 17. Tom, more than anyone else, _____ anxious to go to China again. A. is B. are C. has being D. have being 18. No one except John and Rose _____ late for school yesterday. A. was B. were C. is D. are 1. Most of what has been said about the Smiths also true of the John sons . A. are B. is C. being D. to be 2.Although the causes of cancer , we don’t yet have any practical way to prevent it. A. are being uncovered B. have been uncovering C. are uncovering D. have uncovered 4.The water cool when I jumped in to the pool for morning exercise. A. was felt B. is felt C. felt D. feels 7. I got caught in the rain and my suit . A. has ruined B. had ruined C. has been ruined D. had been ruined 8. If Newton lived today ,he would be surprised by what in science and technology. A. had discovered B. had been discovered C. has discovered D. has been discovered 9. Visitors not to touch the exhibits. A. will request B. is requested C. are requesting D. are requested 14. More than a dozen students in that school abroad to study medicine last year. A. sent B. were sent C. had sent D. had been sent
21. Professor Smith, along with his assistants, on the project day and night to meet the deadline. A. work B. working C. is working D. are working 22. With more forests being destroyed, huge quantities of good earth each year. A. is washing B. is being washed away C. are washing away D. are being washed away 23. All the employees except the manager to work online at home. A. encourages B. Encourage C. is encouraged D. are encouraged 24. When and where to go for the on-salary holiday yet. A. are not decided B. have not been decided C. is not being decided D. has not been decided 26. He is the only one of the students who a winner of scholarship for three years. A. is B. are C. have been D. has been 28.This kind of books very useful but books of that kind useless. A. is; is B. is; are C. are; is D. are; is 29. The following some newly-published popular magazines. A. is B. are C. was D. appears 31. Every possible means to save the miners stuck in the mine. A. have tried B. have been tried C. has been tried D. has tried