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深圳牛津版八年级下 Chapter3 Environment 语言点

Chapter 3 深圳牛津版八年级下 Environment 语言点
告诉某人做某事________________ 大量;大堆________________ 处于危险中________________ 以…的形式 ________________ 一路上;自始至终________________ 为了________________ 与…不同________________ 与…相同________________. make sure ________________ take action ________________ put out________________ warm up________________ deal with________________ switch off ________________ as…..as possible___________ take action ________________

1、in danger …our world is in danger. be in danger 处于危险中 eg: The animal is in danger. be in trouble 处于困境、麻烦中 be in trouble with sb. 与某人有矛盾 2、without Without it, Earth would be as cold and lifeless as the surface of the moon. 没有它,地球将会 像月球表面一样寒冷且没有生命。 without 的用法: a. 表示“没有”“缺乏”,与 with 意义相反,有时用作定语时可以换作一个定语从句。 a man without friends 没有朋友的人 b. 表示条件,意为“如果没有”,有时可与条件状语从句替换。 I can’t do it without your help. 你不帮忙,我干不了。 c. 后接动名词,表示纯粹的否定,意为“不”“不经”。 He left without saying a word. 他一句话没说就走了 3、act The atmosphere around Earth acts like the glass act like/as 充当;起…的作用 Last summer she acted as a guide for tourists 去年夏天,她担任旅游向导。 A trained dog can act as a guide to a blind person .经过训练的狗可以担任盲人的向导。 act 扮演 Who act the part of Miss Ceeley? 谁扮演西利小姐这个角色呢? 4、It lets sunlight in and keeps much of the warmth from getting out. 它吸收阳光并且防止大量热散发出去。 a. let…in 让…进入;准入 let…out 让…出去 b. keep…from doing sth.=stop…(from) doing sth.=prevent…(from) doing sth. 阻止…做某事/

发生 eg: The heavy rain kept us from going out. c. warmth 是由“形容词+th”构成的名词,类似的还有 long—length wide—width deep—depth 5、in the form of 以…的形式 The donation are given in the form of money. 捐赠是通过金钱的形式给予的。 She told her past to us in the form of a story. 她以故事的形式把她的过去讲给我们听。 扩展:in form 形式上 6、too much 和 much too …and it is keeping in too much heat! 意思取决于第二个词,too much=much,一般修饰不可数名词,但前者语气更强,可数名 词可用 too many=many 来修饰;much too=too,往往用来修饰形容词或副词,但前者语 气更强。 :There is too much rain.雨水太多了。 He drives much too fast.他开车开得太快了。 You are asking too much.你要求太多了。 7、cause This will cause the level of seas to rise and drown cities and even countries. cause v.导致,产生 cause sb./sth. to do 导致…发生/产生 The heavy rain caused the rivers to rise. 暴雨导致河水上涨。 cause sb. sth. 给…带来(后果,麻烦等) The failure in his job cause him much anxiety.工作中的失败令他忧心忡忡。 8、make …is making the greenhouse effect worse. …使得温室效应更加糟糕. make+宾语+宾语补足语 “使…做什么/怎么样” 1) make sb./sth.+ do eg: He made me stay with him.他让我和他在一起。 2) make sb./sth.+ adj. eg: He tried to make them happy.他设法使他们高兴。 make sb./sth.+ adj .比较级 “使…更加…” eg: He made the garden more beautiful.他 让花园变得更加漂亮。 3) make sb./sth.+n. eg: He made her his wife.他娶她为妻。 4) make sb./sth.+介词短语 eg: He asked us to make ourselves at home.他要我们不要拘 束。 5) make sb./sth.+过去分词 eg: He made the house painted.他粉刷了这栋房子。 9、take in 吸收 = take care of 照顾 absorb 吸收 take on 从事 take part in 参加 take off 起飞;脱 take out 带出去;取出

10、This creates mountains of rubbish and it pollutes our land and seas .

They began to create a new world. 他们开始创造一个新的世界。 ▲ create,discover 与 invent create 产生,创造 He create another new song. discover 发现 表示已经事实上早已存在,但是不为人们所知。 Do you know who discovered America ? invent 发明 着重指前所未有的东西 Edison invented the electric light bulb . ▲ mountains of =a mountain of 大堆;大量 lots of ,a lot of ,a great quantity of 11、habit n.习惯;习性 be in the habit of … =have the habit of … 有…的习惯 form(get into, develop) the habit of … 养成…的习惯 break the habit of … 戒除…的习惯 My father is in the habit of staying up.我爸爸有熬夜的习惯。 ▲ habit, custom 与 manners habit 侧重自然养成的个人习惯; custom 指一个国家、一个民族、一个地区或一个社会的习惯、行为方式或习惯习俗。也 可指个人的习惯; manners 指在某一时期或某一团体中盛行的社会礼仪或社会风俗模式。 The celebration of Christmas is a custom.庆祝圣诞节是一种风俗。 It is bad manners to interrupt.打断别人的话是不礼貌的。 12、That is enough to reach all the way from Earth to the moon.那足够从地球一直到月球。 1)reach “到达,抵达” When will they reach Shenzhen?他们什么时候到达深圳? “伸出(手);伸手够到” He reached his hand out for the book. 他伸出手来接书。 ▲ reach, arrive in/at 和 get to reach 是及物动词,后面直接接地点。eg: reach Shenzhen arrive 是不及物动词,后面要跟 in 或是 at, 表示到达大城市或国家时要用 in,表示到 达小城市,乡村,车站等小地方则用 at. eg: arrive in Shenzhen, arrive at our school get 也是不及物动词, 后面常接 to。 不过当“到达”的地点是副词时就不接 to. eg: get to our school, get here 2) all the way 一路上;自始自终 The girl was happy all the way.这个女孩一路上都很高兴。 扩展 by the way 顺便说 on one’s way to… 在去…的路上 3) from…to… “从…到…” from house to house 挨家挨户 13、为了… in order to +do sth. 可以放句首或句中 in order that+从句 可以放句首或句中 in a way 在某种程度上 lose one’s way 迷路 连接名词时,名词前不需要用冠词. from time to time 有时

so as to +do sth. to do

不能放句首,只能放句中 可以放句首或句中

1. She arrived early in order to get a good seat. 2. In order to get a good seat, she arrived early. 3. She arrived early so as to get a good seat. 4. She arrived early to get a good seat. 5. To get a good seat, she arrived early. 6. She arrived early in order that she could get a good seat. 14、that is, “也就是说;即 ” 对前面的解释 eg: He is coming next Friday, that is , on the 23rd. 他下周五来,也就是 23 号来 15、prefer 更喜欢的 1) prefer sth 2) prefer sth to sth 3) prefer doing sth to doing sth . 4) prefer to do sth 过去式 preferred I prefer dogs I prefer English to Chinese . I prefer playing basketball to playing table tennis . Bruce prefers to play football .

5)prefer sb (not) to do sth = would like sb(not) to do sth I prefer you to come to my party on Sunday. 6)prefer to do sth rather than do sth 16、the +形容词 表示某类人或事物 How wil the singers try to help the poor in Africa? The sick were sent home . The green is life. the+ 姓氏的复数 表示一家人 或者夫妇 The Blacks do not throw away as many tins as the Whites The Greens live upstairs I prefer to take a train to Beijing rather than fly there .

一、选择题 1 She is ready to help people who are A. at B. for danger. C. in D. on

2 --Look, the factory is pouring waste water in the river! --That's terrible! Why not A.keep; doing C.to keep; to do 3 --Shall we go to Mount Tai next Sunday? --I prefer at home rather than . B.to stay; go out D.staying; going out them that? B. stop; doing D. to stop; to do

A.to stay; to go out C. staying; to go out

4.I can’t go to No. 1 Middle School ______ the teacher’s help. A. with 5. We A.cost B. without 2100 yuan on a new TV set. B. pay C.spend D.take C. under D. at

6.---Don’t you think making too much noise can ____ pollution? --- Yes, I think so. A. cause B. get C. reduce D. save

7 . We have ____ homework every day. It takes nearly four hours to do it. A. mountains C. mountains of B. like mountains D. mountain of

8. In order ____ the world a friendly place, one must show a friendly face. A makes B making C to make D make

9. My parents always tell me _____ others late at night . A call B not call C to call D not to call 10. —I don’t have a partner to play table tennis with —Why _____ a sports club to practice a lot ? A don’t join C not to join B not joining D don’t you join

11.We have ____ homework every day. It takes nearly four hours to do it. A. mountains B. like mountains C. mountains of D. mountain of 12.---Don’t you think making too much noise can ____ pollution? --- Yes, I think so. A. cause B. get C. reduce D. save

13.---I will go on vacation in the UK. ---The UK is a beautiful country. _____, you will have a wonderful trip. A. That is B. This is C. In total D. For example

14.--- How can we protect our city? --- _____ protect our city, we ____ become green consumers.. A. In order of; should C. In order to; should B. In order to; can’t D. In order of; can’t

15.Trees are important. They can _____ harmful gases and release oxygen. A. get in C. let in 二、完型填空 The problem of pollution is getting more and more serious. Most people know there are four main kinds of __16__. For example, farmers use __17__ chemicals in their fields, so fields become __18__. This means soil pollution. People pour waste B. take part in D. take in

water into rivers and lakes, so the problem of __19__ pollution is becoming serious. Dirty air from factories and traffic vehicles __20__ people feel terrible. Most people also know about white pollution. It is caused by plastic bags. People can __21__ plastic everywhere in the streets. For quite a long time, people didn't’ __22__ that noise was a kind of pollution. In fact, it is __23__. People living near airports and factories often have hearing problems. What is ____, no one seems to think that light pollution is a problem, __25__ it does have a bad effect on us. Then what should we do? 16. A. pollution 17. A. few 18. A. wetter 19. A. soil 20. A. makes 21. A. hear 22. A. invent 23. A. lifeless 24. A. worse 25. A. and B. industry B. little B. better B. air B. causes B. look B. realize C. action C. much C. poorer C. white C. gets C. see C. absorb D. protection D. many D. richer D. water D. creates D. smell D. dream

B. important C. interesting D. harmful B. better B. but C. more important C. or D. more necessary

D. so

熟读并且背诵下面句子 1. Without it, Earth would be as cold and lifeless as the surface of the moon. 没有它,地球将会像月球表面一样寒冷且没有生命。 2. It lets sunlight in and keeps much of the warmth from getting out. 它吸收阳光并且防止大量热散发出去。 3. The burning and cutting down trees is making the greenhouse effect worse because trees take in harmful gases. 燃烧和砍伐树木使得温室效应更加糟糕,因为树木可以吸收有害气体。 4. This creates mountains of rubbish and it pollutes our land and seas. 这造成了大量垃圾,并污染了我们的土地和海洋。 5. In order to save Earth, the book is asking us to became “green consumers”. 为了拯救地球,此书号召我们成为“绿色消费者”

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