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HOW TO USE THE IEEETRAN BIBTEX STYLE

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How to Use the IEEEtran BIBTEX Style
Michael Shell, Member, IEEE

Abstract— This article describes how to use the I

EEEtran.bst BIBTEX style ?le to produce bibliographies that conform to the standards of the publications of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
A Index Terms— bibliography, BIBTEX, IEEE, L TEX, paper, style, template, typesetting.

IEEEtran.bst: The standard IEEEtran BIBTEX style ?le

I. I NTRODUCTION HE IEEEtran.bst BIBTEX style ?le described in this A document can be used with BIBTEX to produce L TEX bibliographies of high quality that are suitable for use in IEEE publications. Other potential applications include thesis and academic work, especially when such work is in the area of electrical and/or computer engineering. This document applies to version 1.10 and later of the IEEEtran BIBTEX style. Prior versions do not have all of the features described here. IEEEtran.bst will display the version number on the user’s console during execution. The most recent version of this package can be obtained on CTAN [1] and may also be mirrored at various places within IEEE’s website [2]. It is assumed that the reader has a basic understanding of the operation and use of BIBTEX. Documentation for the use of BIBTEX includes the user’s guide [3] as well as supplementary information which addresses frequently asked questions [4]. The large collection of sample bibliographies and string de?nitions at the TEX User Group Bibliography Archive may also be of help [5]. General support for BIBTEX related questions can be obtained in the internet newsgroup comp.text.tex. Note that the references section of this document is used for two purposes: (1) to provide information where additional information can be found; and (2) to provide examples of references created using the IEEEtran BIBTEX style. The ?rst few citations above fall into the ?rst category, while virtually all of the citations that follow will serve as examples and are not meant to be actually referred to. Hopefully, it will be clear from context which way a particular reference is used. II. I NSTALLATION The IEEEtran BIBTEX package consists of the following ?les: IEEEtran_bst_HOWTO.pdf: This documentation.
Manuscript created on June 20, 2002; revised September 27, 2002. The opinions expressed here are entirely that of the author. No warranty is expressed or implied. User assumes all risk. M. Shell is with the Georgia Institute of Technology. Email: mshell@ece.gatech.edu See [1] for current contact information.

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(unsorted, i.e., references will appear in the order in which they are cited). IEEEtranS.bst: The IEEEtran BIBTEX style ?le, but with additional sorting code (similar to that of plain.bst) which sorts the entries based on the names of the authors, editors, organizations, etc. May be of interest for non-IEEE related work. Do not use for work that is to be submitted to the IEEE. IEEEexample.bib: A BIBTEX database that contains the references shown in the references section of this document. Users can copy the entries therein to serve as starting templates. The entries also have comments which may be of additional help. IEEEfull.bib: A ?le that contains a comprehensive set of BIBTEX string de?nitions for the full names of IEEE journals and magazines. Because IEEE’s bibliography style uses abbreviated journal names, this ?le’s intended use is for work that is not to be submitted to the IEEE. IEEEabrv.bib: Same as above, but contains the abbreviated form of the journal and magazine names. Recommended for work that is to be submitted to the IEEE. IEEEbcpat.bib: Older versions of IEEE BIBTEX style ?les usually provide several string de?nitions (“acmcs,” “acta,” etc.) for a few of the popular computer related journals. However, it is inappropriate to provide journal name de?nitions within .bst ?les as this prevents entries that use them from working with other .bst ?les (that may not contain the needed de?nitions). Furthermore, these older de?nitions are not abbreviated as needed for IEEE related work. IEEEtran.bst does not provide the older de?nitions as it is designed to work with the newer “external” IEEEabrv.bib de?nitions instead. To provide for backward compatibility, IEEEbcpat.bib contains these obsolete de?nitions and can be loaded prior to any existing database ?les that still depend on them. Do not use the IEEEbcpat.bib de?nitions for new entries, or work that is to be submitted to the IEEE. BIBTEX .bst ?les can be accessed system-wide when they are placed in the
<texmf>/bibtex/bst

directory, where <texmf> is the root directory of the user’s TEX installation. Similarly, system-wide .bib ?les (IEEEfull.bib and IEEEabrv.bib) can be placed in
<texmf>/bibtex/bib
A On some L TEX systems, the directory look-up tables will need to be refreshed after making additions or deletions to the system ?les. For teTEX and fpTEX systems this is accomplished via executing

c 2002 Michael Shell

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HOW TO USE THE IEEETRAN BIBTEX STYLE

texhash

as root. MikTEX users can run
initexmf -u

to accomplish the same thing. Users not willing or able to install the ?les system-wide can make the copies local, but will then have to provide the path (full or relative) as well as the ?lename when referring A to them in L TEX. III. U SAGE
A IEEEtran.bst is invoked using the normal L TEX bibliography commands:

\bibliographystyle{IEEEtran} \bibliography{IEEEabrv,mybibfile}

String de?nition ?les must be loaded before any database ?les containing entries that utilize them — so the ?le names within the \bibliography command must be listed in a proper order. In standard BIBTEX fashion, new documents will require a A A L TEX run followed by a BIBTEX run and then two more L TEX runs in order to resolve all of the references. An additional series of runs will be required as citations are added to the document. A. Resource Requirements IEEE’s bibliography style has several unique attributes that increase the complexity of BIBTEX styles that attempt to mimic it. Because the primary design goal of IEEEtran.bst is to reproduce the IEEE bibliography style as accurately and as fully as possible, IEEEtran.bst will consume signi?cantly more computation resources (especially memory) during execution than many other BIBTEX style ?les. Most modern BIBTEX installations will be able to meet these demands without problem. However, some earlier BIBTEX platforms, especially those running on the MS Windows operating system, may be unable to provide the required memory space. Such platforms often provide as an alternative the higher-capacity1 “8-bit BIBTEX” in the form of a “bibtex8” executable which IEEEtran.bst is fully compatible with. Users who encounter BIBTEX resource limitations should upgrade their BIBTEX installation. More details on this topic can be found in [4]. B. Nonstandard Extensions Another, related, issue is that IEEEtran.bst provides extensions beyond the standard BIBTEX entry types and ?elds. These additional features are necessary for IEEE style work and were designed to closely follow the existing as well as “probable future” releases of the standard BIBTEX styles. Nevertheless, users should be aware that many current BIBTEX styles may not be compatible with BIBTEX databases that employ advanced features of IEEEtran.bst. BIBTEX will generate an error
1 However, command options may be needed to obtain the higher capacity, e.g., bibtex8 -H myfile. Use bibtex8 -help to list the possible options.

if it encounters a (cited) entry type that the style ?le does not support, but unsupported ?elds within an entry will simply be ignored. For this reason, users are encouraged to keep all nonstandard entry types in a BIBTEX database (.bib) ?le of their own. The nonstandard IEEEtran.bst entry types are: (1) “electronic” which is used for internet references; (2) “patent” which is used for patents; (3) “periodical” which is used for journals and magazines; and (4) “standard” which is used for published standards. The most important extensions to the supported ?elds will now be brie?y mentioned. 1) The URL Field: Every entry type supports an optional URL entry ?eld for documents that are available on the internet. URLs will appear at the end of the bibliography entry and proceeded by the words “[Online]. Available:” as is shown in [1]. IEEE does not place any punctuation at the end of a URL as this could be mistaken as being part of the URL. URLs are notoriously dif?cult to break properly. IEEEtran.bst places all URL text within a \url{} command so as to provide “plug-and-play” use with packages that provide such a command. It strongly suggested that, when using entries with A URLs, the popular L TEX package url.sty [6] is also loaded to provide some intelligence in URL line breaking. Alternatively, the hyperref.sty package [7] also provides a \url command. However, unless the user needs hyperlinks, url.sty might be a better approach because it is “lightweight” and less likely to exhibit compatibility issues. Users should be aware that version 1.5 and prior of url.sty interacts with BIBTEX (version 0.99c and prior) in way that can result in the anomalous appearance of “%” symbols within the URLs. To avoid this problem, it is recommended that users modify (or possibly upgrade) their url.sty package if they are using version 1.5 or earlier. The following code,2 when placed just after where the url.sty package (version 1.5) is loaded, or at the end of the de?nitions within the url.sty ?le (just before the \endinput line), will correct the problem by con?guring url.sty to ignore “%” symbols that are immediately followed by line feeds within the \url command:
\begingroup \makeatletter \g@addto@macro{\UrlSpecials}{% \endlinechar=13 \catcode\endlinechar=12 \do\%{\Url@percent}\do\??M{\break}} \catcode13=12 % \gdef\Url@percent{\@ifnextchar??M{\@gobble}{\mathbi n{\mathchar‘\%}}}% \endgroup %

If the TEX system is used by others, the original url.sty should be retained and the modi?ed version given a different name (e.g., ”url 15b.sty”). Note that any renamed style ?le needs its “\ProvidesPackage” line updated to re?ect the current A ?lename or else L TEX will issue a (harmless) warning. The \url command from recent versions of hyperref.sty does not exhibit this problem. For more details, see [4]. Even with intelligent URL breaking, formatting an entry with a URL can still pose challenges as URLs may contain long segments within which breaks are not possible (or at least
2 This

TEX code can also be obtained from [4].

HOW TO USE THE IEEETRAN BIBTEX STYLE

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strongly discouraged). In its publications, IEEE deals with this problem by allowing the interword space to stretch more than usual. To accomplish this, IEEEtran.bst automatically engages a “super-stretch” feature for every entry that contains a URL. The interword spacing within entries that contain URLs is allowed to stretch up to four times normal without causing underfull hbox warnings. Reference [1] illustrates this feature. Section VII discusses how users can control the amount of allowed stretch in entries with URLs. Alternatively, the default value of this stretch factor can be adjusted via a A L TEX command, which must be placed before the bibliography begins:
\providecommand\BIBentryALTinterwordstretchfac tor{2.5}

is placed, as given, in normal font, just after the title (or booktitle, if used) of the entry. IEEE exploits this feature most often for electronic references, but it has application with any entry whose exact form would be unclear without additional information (unlike optional notes which tend to be more “by the way” in nature). See section V for more details. C. Use With Cross-referenced Entries IEEE bibliographies do not normally contain references that refer to other references. Therefore, IEEEtran.bst does not format entries that use cross references (via the crossref ?eld) any differently from entries that don’t. Nevertheless, it does allow the entries using the crossref ?eld to silently inherent any missing ?elds from their respective cross-referenced entries in the standard BIBTEX manner. However, users who take advantage of this “parent/child” feature are cautioned that BIBTEX will automatically, and without warning, add a crossreferenced entry to the end of the bibliography if the number of references using the cross-reference is equal to or greater than “min-crossrefs.” Because such additional entries are unwanted in IEEE style, users who employ cross-referenced entries need to ensure that the cross-referenced entries are not added to the bibliography. The default value of min-crossrefs on most BIBTEX systems is two. Unfortunately, this value is set when BIBTEX is compiled and cannot be altered within .bst ?les. However, BIBTEX does offer a way to control it on the command line. Therefore, when using cross-referenced entries, users must remember to set min-crossrefs to a large value (greater than the number of bibliography entries) when invoking BIBTEX:
bibtex -min-crossrefs=900 myfile

However, these adjustment mechanisms are of limited use because reducing the stretch factor usually just results in underfull hbox warnings. Another way to handle problem URLs is to con?gure url.sty to allow more possible break points. 2) The Language Field: IEEEtran.bst supports an optional language ?eld which allows alternate hyphenation patterns to be used for the title and/or booktitle ?elds when these ?elds are in language other than the default. For examples, see sections V-N and VI-B as they each contain a reference that uses the language ?eld. This feature is especially important for languages that alter the spelling of words based on how they are hyphenated. Unlike some other BIBTEX style ?les, the use of the Babel package is not required to use this feature. In fact, Babel.sty should not be loaded with IEEEtran.cls as the former can interfere with the latter. However, the names given in the language ?eld must follow Babel’s convention for the names of the hyphenation patterns. See the Babel documentation for details [8]. It is a TEX limitation that, to be available for use, a hyphenation pattern must be loaded within a “format ?le” (memory image) and, therefore, cannot be loaded when running a .tex ?le. A list of available patterns is displayed on the console A each time L TEX is started. If a requested hyphenation pattern is not available, the default will be used and a warning will be issued. Users wishing to add hyphenation patterns will need to activate the desired ones in their
<texmf>/tex/generic/config/language.dat
A ?le and rebuild their L TEX format ?le3 . Adding hyphenation patterns does reduce the amount of memory available to TEX, so it cannot be done with impunity. 3) Expanded Use of the Howpublished Field: The standard BIBTEX styles support the howpublished ?eld for the booklet and misc entry types. IEEEtran.bst extends this to also include electronic, manual, standard and techreport. The rational for doing this is because, with these entry types, there is often a need to explain in what form the given work was produced. The additional information provided by howpublished
3 On teT X (UNIX) and fpT X systems this can be accomplished simply E E by running “fmtutil --all” as root. For MiKTEX users, the command “initexmf --dump” will do the trick.

Because cross-referenced entries must always appear after any entries that refer to them, it is recommended that the crossreferenced entries be kept in separate (.bib) ?le(s) so that they can be loaded after the other (.bib) database ?les:
\bibliography{IEEEabrv,mybibfile,myxrefbibs}

IV. E XAMPLES OF THE T HREE M OST C OMMONLY U SED E NTRY T YPES Journal articles, conference papers and books account for the vast majority of references in most IEEE bibliographies. It may be helpful to the user to brie?y illustrate a simple example of each of these common entry types before divulging into ones with more complex or obscure details. A typical journal article entry looks like
@article{IEEEexample:article_typical, author = "S. Zhang and C. Zhu and J. K. O. Sin and P. K. T. Mok", title = "A Novel Ultrathin Elevated Channel Low-temperature Poly-{Si} {TFT}", journal = IEEE_J_EDL, volume = "20", month = nov, year = "1999", pages = "569-571" };

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HOW TO USE THE IEEETRAN BIBTEX STYLE

which is shown as reference [9]. Using an entry key pre?x that is used only by the given database ?le (“IEEEexample” in the above entry) ensures that the entry key will remain unique even if multiple database ?les are used simultaneously. Although initials are used for the ?rst names here, users are encouraged to use full names whenever they are known as IEEEtran.bst will automatically abbreviate names as needed (but BIBTEX styles that use full names will require them to be present). Likewise, it is a good idea to provide all the authors’ names rather than using “and others” to get “et al.” [10]. Section VII describes how IEEEtran.bst can be con?gured to force the use of “et al.” if the number of names exceeds a set limit. Within the title, braces are used to preserve the capitalization of acronyms. The journal name is entered as a string that is de?ned in the IEEEabrv.bib ?le. Not only does this approach reduce the probability of spelling mistakes, but it allows the user to instantly switch to full journal names by using the IEEEfull.bib de?nitions instead (not for use with work to be submitted to the IEEE). In like fashion, the month is entered as a standard BIBTEX three letter code4 so that the month format can automatically be controlled by the string (macro) month name de?nitions provided within every .bst ?le. It is generally a good idea to also provide the journal number, but many journal article references in IEEE publications do not show the number. Section VII discusses how the user can con?gure IEEEtran.bst to ignore journal numbers for articles. A typical paper in a conference proceedings entry looks like
@inproceedings{IEEEexample:conf_typical, author = "R. K. Gupta and S. D. Senturia", title = "Pull-in Time Dynamics as a Measure of Absolute Pressure", booktitle = "Proc. {IEEE} International Workshop on Microelectromechanical Systems ({MEMS}’97)", address = "Nagoya, Japan", month = jan, year = "1997", pages = "290-294" };

which is shown as reference [12]. One of the unusual attributes of IEEE bibliography references is that, when formatting entries, they precede the publisher address with a period and a larger than normal space. V. S UPPORTED E NTRY T YPES The ?elds that are recognized by each entry type are shown at the beginning of each of the subsections below. A bold font indicates a required ?eld, while a slanted font is used to indicate ?elds that are extensions that may not be supported by the standard BIBTEX styles for the given entry type. The reader is reminded that IEEEexample.bib ?le contains the actual BIBTEX entries that were used to make the references demonstrated here.

A. Article Supported ?elds: author, title, language, journal, volume, number, pages, month, year, note, url. Another typical journal article is shown in [13]. Because the referenced journal was not published by the IEEE, the IEEEabrv.bib ?le will not contain the needed string de?nition. So, the user will either have to make his/her own supplementary string de?nition ?le, or enter the abbreviated journal name directly into the journal ?eld. See published IEEE bibliographies for examples of how to properly abbreviate the journal name at hand. Note also how IEEE uses small spaces to divide page (and other) numbers with ?ve digits or more into groups of three. As mentioned previously, the display of the number ?eld for articles can be controlled (see section VII). Sometimes it is desirable to put extra information into the month ?eld such as the day, or additional months [14]. This is accomplished by using the BIBTEX concatenation operator “#”:
month = sep # "/" # oct,

which is shown as reference [11]. IEEE typically prepends “Proc.” to the conference name (when forming the booktitle ?eld):
booktitle = "Proc. {ECOC}’99",

1) Articles Pending Publication: Articles that have not yet been published can be handled as a misc type with a note [15]:
@misc{IEEEexample:TBPmisc, author = "M. Coates and A. Hero and R. Nowak and B. Yu", title = "Internet Tomography", howpublished = IEEE_M_SP, month = may, year = "2002", note = "to be published" };

IEEEtran.bst does not do this automatically as it may not be appropriate for every conference. The conference entry type is also available as an alias for inproceedings. There is no functional difference between the two. Finally, a typical book entry looks like
@book{IEEEexample:book_typical, author = "B. D. Cullity", title = "Introduction to Magnetic Materials", publisher = "Addison-Wesley", address = "Reading, MA", year = "1972" };
4 For reference, these are: jan, feb, mar, apr, may, jun, jul, aug, sep, oct, nov and dec.

(date information is optional) or they can be handled as an article type with the pending status in the year ?eld [16]:
@article{IEEEexample:TBParticle, author = "N. Kahale and R. Urbanke", title = "On the Minimum Distance of Parallel and Serially Concatenated Codes", journal = IEEE_J_IT, year = "submitted for publication" };

HOW TO USE THE IEEETRAN BIBTEX STYLE

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B. Book Supported ?elds: author and/or editor, title,
language, edition, series, address, publisher, month, year, volume, number, note, url.

articles — not like manuals and books. A primary difference between booklet and unpublished is that the former is/was distributed by some means. Booklet is rarely used in IEEE bibliographies. F. Manual Supported ?elds: author, title, language, edition, howpublished , organization, address, month, year, note, url. Technical documentation is handled by the manual entry type [26]. Note that the cited example places the databook part number with the title. Perhaps a more correct approach would be to put this information into the howpublished ?eld instead [27]. However, other BIBTEX styles will probably not support the howpublished ?eld for manuals. G. Inproceedings/Conference Supported ?elds: author, title, intype, booktitle, language, series, editor, volume, number, organization, address, publisher, month, year, paper , type, pages, note, url. References of papers in conference proceedings are handled by the inproceedings or conference entry types. These two types are functionally identical and can be used interchangeably. If desired, the days of the conference can be added to the month via the BIBTEX concatenation operator “#” [28]:
month = dec # " 5--9,",

Books may have authors [12], editors [17] or both [18]. Note that the standard BIBTEX styles do not support book entries with both author and editor ?elds, but IEEEtran.bst does. The standard BIBTEX way of entering edition numbers is in capitalized ordinal word form:
edition = "Second",

IEEEtran.bst can automatically convert up to the tenth edition to the “Arabic ordinal” form (e.g., “2nd”) that IEEE uses. For editions over the tenth in references that are to be used in IEEE style bibliographies, it is best to enter edition ?elds in the “Arabic ordinal” form (e.g., “101st”). A book may also be part of a series and have a volume or number [19]. C. Inbook Supported ?elds: author and/or editor, title,
language, edition, series, address, publisher, month, year, volume, number, chapter, type, pages, note, url.

Inbook is used to reference a part of a book, such as a chapter [20] or selected page(s) [21]. The type ?eld can be used to override the word chapter (for which IEEE uses the abbreviation “ch.”) when the book uses parts, sections, etc., instead of chapters
type = "sec.",

D. Incollection Supported ?elds: author, title, booktitle,
language, edition, series, editor, address, publisher, month, year, volume, number, chapter, type, pages, note, url.

Incollection is used to reference part of a book having its own title [22]. Like book, incollection supports the series [23], chapter and pages ?elds [24]. Also, the type ?eld can be used to override the word chapter. IEEE sometimes uses incollection somewhat like inproceedings when the book in question is a composition of articles from various conferences [25]. For such use, the differences between incollection and inproceedings are minor — one distinctive sign is that, with incollection, the volume number appears after the date, while with inproceedings it appears before. To better support such use, IEEEtran.bst, unlike the standard BIBTEX styles, does not require a publisher ?eld for incollection entries. E. Booklet Supported ?elds: author, title, language, howpublished, organization, address, month, year, note, url. Booklet is used for printed and bound works that are not formally published. IEEEtran.bst formats titles of booklets like

Although not common with conference proceedings, the volume and number ?elds are also supported [29]. Note that, unlike the other entry types, IEEE places such information prior to the date. From IEEE’s viewpoint, the location and date of the conference may form the dividing point between information related to identifying which proceedings and information that pertains to the location of the information referenced therein (pages, etc.). IEEEtran.bst supports a paper ?eld (a nonstandard extension) for paper numbers [30]:
paper = "11.3.4",

The type ?eld can be used to override the default paper type (“paper”) [31]:
type = "postdeadline paper",

Section VII describes how these extensions can be disabled if desired for journals with bibliographies that tend not to display such information (while allowing the user to retain such information in the database entries for those journals that do). There are events that happen during conferences that may not be in the written proceedings record (speeches, etc.). Sometimes it is necessary to reference such things. For these occasions, IEEEtran.bst supports the intype ?eld (a nonstandard extension) which can override the word “in” in the reference [32]:
intype = "presented at the",

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Note that when using intype, the booktitle ?eld is no longer italicized because the book that contains the written conference record is no longer what is being referred to. H. Proceedings Supported ?elds: editor, title, language, series, volume, number, organization, address, publisher, month, year, note, url. It is rare to need to reference an entire conference proceedings, but, if necessary, the proceedings entry type can be used to do so. I. Mastersthesis Supported ?elds: author, title, language, type, school, address, month, year, note, url. Master’s (or minor) theses can be handled with the mastersthesis entry type [33]. The optional type ?eld can be used to override the words “Master’s thesis” if a different designation is desired [34]:
type = "M. Eng. thesis",

the title. This is probably done to emphasize that electronic references may not remain valid on the rapidly changing internet. Note also the liberal use of the howpublished ?eld to describe the form or category of the entries. The organization and address ?elds may also be used [42]. N. Patent (IEEEtran.bst extension) Supported ?elds: author, title, language, assignee, address, nationality , type, number, day , dayfiled , month, monthfiled , year or yearfiled , note, url. Patents are supported by IEEEtran.bst. The nationality ?eld provides a means to handle patents from different countries [43], [44]
nationality = "United States",

or
nationality = "Japanese",

J. Phdthesis Supported ?elds: author, title, language, type, school, address, month, year, note, url. The phdthesis entry type is used for Ph.D. dissertations (major theses) [35]. Like mastersthesis, the type ?eld can be used to override the default designation. K. Techreport Supported ?elds: author, title, language, howpublished , institution, address, number, type, month, year, note, url. Techreport is used for technical reports [36]. The optional type ?eld can be used to override the default designation “Tech. Rep.” [37], [38]. L. Unpublished Supported ?elds: author, title, language, month,
year, note, url.

Note that, with the exception of the U.S., the word for the nationality of a patent is not usually the same as the word for the country that issued the patent. The nationality for a U.S. patent can be entered either as “U.S.” or “United States.” IEEEtran.bst will automatically detect and convert the latter form to “U.S.” as is done by IEEE. The nationality should be capitalized. The assignee and address (of the assignee) ?elds are not used by IEEE or IEEEtran.bst. However, they are provided, and proper values should be assigned to them (if known) for all patent entries as other BIBTEX styles may use them. The type ?eld provides a way to override the “patent” description with other patent related descriptions such as “patent application” or “patent request” [45]:
type = "Patent Request",

The unpublished entry type is used for documents that have not been formally published. IEEE typically just uses “unpublished” for the required note ?eld [39]. M. Electronic (IEEEtran.bst extension) Supported ?elds: author, month, year, title, language, howpublished, organization, address, note, url. IEEEtran.bst provides the electronic entry type for internet references [40], [41]. IEEEtran.bst also provides the aliases “online,” “internet,” and “webpage” for compatibility with some existing BIBTEX database and style ?les. However, “electronic” should be used for all new work. IEEE formats electronic references differently by not using italics or quotes and separating ?elds with periods rather than commas. Also, the date is enclosed within parentheses and is placed closer to

In order to provide full support for both patents and patent applications, two sets of date ?elds are provided. One set pertains to the date the patent was granted (day, month and year) the other pertains to the date the patent application was ?led (day?led, month?led and year?led). There is a slight complication because IEEE displays only one date for references of patents or patent applications. IEEEtran.bst looks for the presence of the year and year?led ?les. If the year ?eld is present, the set pertaining to the date granted is used. Otherwise, IEEEtran.bst uses the set pertaining to the date ?led. O. Periodical (IEEEtran.bst extension) Supported ?elds: editor, title, language, series, volume, number, organization, month, year, note, url. The periodical entry type is used for journals and magazines [46]. P. Standard (IEEEtran.bst extension) Supported ?elds: author, title, language, howpublished , organization or institution, type, number, revision, address, month, year, note, url.

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The standard entry type is used for formally published standards [47]. For the name of the issuing entity, either the organization or institution ?elds can be used based on whatever the preference of the issuing entity may be. IEEE (and thus IEEEtran.bst) do not display the address of the issuing organization/institution, but this information should be provided as other BIBTEX styles might. The type ?eld can be used to override the default description “std.” while the optional revision ?eld can be used to provide a revision number [48]:
type = "Working Draft Proposed Standard", revision = "5.2",

D. Other References When dealing with a reference that does not ?t into any of the categories of the previous examples, the best strategy is to use the closest one that ?ts. If that fails, fall back on the misc entry type. Sometimes the most dif?cult step is determining what a particular reference actually is. Consider [56] which appeared in an IEEE journal. Now, from the appearance of this reference, one could conclude that what is being cited is an article that appeared in a journal called “Blue Book.” However, CCSDS’s Blue Books are actually a series of books, number four of which is what is being referenced. So, it might be better to use the book entry type with a series ?eld [57]. (Also, note in this reference how IEEE replaces author names that are identical to the previous reference with a long dash.) But, using the author ?eld for organizations is not a good practice. Therefore, the manual entry type, which provides an organization ?eld and does not require an author, might be even better [58]. The howpublished ?eld is used for the Blue Book series and number. Upon even closer inspection, one ?nds that Blue Book number four is actually a request for a standard! So, perhaps the best approach is to use the IEEEtran.bst entry type for standards [59]. VII. T HE IEEE TRAN BST C ONTROL E NTRY T YPE IEEEtran.bst provides a very special entry type that can be used to externally control some aspects of the bibliography style. By altering these controls, a user can make adjustments in order to (1) compensate for minor variations in the typical bibliography styles of the various IEEE journals; (2) tweak certain aspects of the produced bibliographies to better suit the particular taste of the author (within the bounds of IEEE’s standards); and (3) provide a limited means to implement changes that might be desirable in certain types of non-IEEE related work such as theses. IEEEtran.bst is not a universal style — alterations beyond those described here are outside of the scope of IEEEtran.bst’s design. Users are cautioned that changes to some of the controls can result in a bibliography style that is no longer compliant to IEEE’s style. In order to access the IEEEtran.bst controls, users must create an “IEEEtranBSTCTL” entry in one of their database (.bib) ?les:
@IEEEtranBSTCTL{IEEEexample:BSTcontrol, CTLuse_article_number = "yes", CTLuse_paper = "yes", CTLuse_forced_etal = "no", CTLmax_names_forced_etal = "10", CTLnames_show_etal = "1", CTLuse_alt_spacing = "yes", CTLalt_stretch_factor = "4", CTLdash_repeated_names = "yes", CTLname_format_string = "{f.?}{vv?}{ll}{, jj}", CTLname_latex_cmd = "" };

Alternatively, the misc entry type, along with its howpublished ?eld, can be used to create references of standards [49].

Q. Misc Supported ?elds: author, title, language, howpublished, organization, address, pages, month, year, note, url. Misc is the most ?exible type and can be used when none of the other entry types are applicable. The howpublished ?eld can be used to describe what exactly (or in what form) the reference is (or appears as). Note that IEEEtran.bst, unlike the standard styles, also supports the organization, address and pages ?elds. Possible applications include technical-report-like entries that lack an institution [50], white papers [51] and data sheets [52].

VI. U NUSUAL T YPES OF R EFERENCES A. Private Communication Private communication entries can be created using the misc type with a note indicating “private communication,” or “personal correspondence,” etc., [53].

B. Laws and Regulations Legal documents and laws are probably best handled by the misc type [54]. The howpublished ?eld can handle the regulation number/description, while the organization ?eld can carry the issuing body. The cited example also uses the language ?eld as it is written in German.

C. Internet RFCs Internet “Request For Comments” (RFC) documents are usually handled via the misc entry type [55]. The howpublished ?eld can contain the RFC number. Because of the online nature of RFCs, it is a good idea to provide a URL ?eld if at all possible. Alternatively, RFCs can be handled as electronic entry types, albeit with less portability (under other .bst ?les).

The above example shows all of the available control ?elds and their default values. Only the ?elds that need to be changed have to be listed in a control entry — ?elds that are missing or empty will not be altered. The changes are activated by citing

8

HOW TO USE THE IEEETRAN BIBTEX STYLE

the control entry type (in the user’s .tex ?le) using a special cite command which is a modi?ed version of \nocite:
\bstctlcite{IEEEexample:BSTcontrol}
A This command is provided by the IEEEtran.cls L TEX class as well as by the IEEEtrantools.sty package [1]. Users using other class or package ?les will have to manually de?ne the command in the preamble of their document:

\makeatletter \def\bstctlcite#1{\@bsphack \@for\@citeb:=#1\do{% \edef\@citeb{\expandafter\@firstofone\@citeb}% \if@filesw\immediate\write\@auxout{\string\citat ion{\@citeb}}\fi}% \@esphack} \makeatother

The source code of \bstctlcite can also be found in the comments near the top of the IEEEtran.bst ?le. \bstctlcite is silent — it will not add any entry to, or affect the numbering of, the bibliography, nor will it place any citation numbers in the main text. There are two main limitations on its use: 1) For the unsorted BIBTEX style, it must be placed before any entries that it is to affect. Because the user will almost always want to apply the changes to all the bibliography entries, a good location is just after \be gin{document}. For the sorting style, control entries will automatically be given a sort key value that will put them at the beginning of the references. If this is not desired, a control entry can be manually given a key ?eld with a value that will result in the desired sort position. 2) operation is “one shot.” That is to say the same control entry cannot be used again. However, it is possible to call another control entry that uses a different key name. This behavior is directly related to the way BIBTEX allows a reference to be cited multiple times, yet still produces only one entry within the bibliography. A. BST Control Entry Fields Here is a brief description of each of the control entry ?elds. CTLuse_article_number: Setting this to “no” will turn off the display of the number ?eld for articles. “yes” enables. This is useful for IEEE publications that tend not to show the number ?eld for referenced articles, but the user wishes to include the number ?eld in the database entries. Turning off the display of the number ?elds for articles can also help to give more consistent results if the database article entries are erratic in their inclusion of the number ?eld. The default value is “yes.” CTLuse_paper: Likewise, setting this to “no” turns off the display of paper and type ?elds for inproceedings entries. “yes” enables. The default value is “yes.” CTLuse_forced_etal: Setting this to “yes” enables IEEEtran.bst to automatically truncate a list of author names and force the use of “et al.” if the number of authors in an entry exceeds a set limit. “no” disables. The default value is “no.” CTLmax_names_forced_etal: This value is the maximum number of names that can be present beyond which “et al.”

usage is forced (if forced “et al.” is enabled). The default value is 10. CTLnames_show_etal: The number if names that are shown with a forced “et al.” Must be less than or equal to CTLmax_ names_forced_etal. The default value is 1. CTLuse_alt_spacing: Setting this to “no” will shut off the alternate interword spacing for entries with URLs. This feature may be of use to those who do not want the entries in A the bibliography ?les (.bbl) to contain the added L TEX code required by this feature. The default value is “yes.” CTLalt_stretch_factor: If alternate interword spacing for entries with URLs is enabled, this is the interword spacing stretch factor that will be used. For example, the default value of 4 means that the interword spacing in entries with URLs can stretch to four times normal. The given value does not have to be an integer. CTLdash_repeated_names: Setting this to “no” turns off the use of dashes for entries with names that are identical to those of the previous entry (repeated names) [57]. May be useful for non-IEEE related work. IEEE normally does this, so the default value is “yes.” CTLname_format_string: This is the BIBTEX name format string that controls the format of the author and editor names. See [60] for more information. Do not alter this control for work that is to be submitted to the IEEE. A CTLname_latex_cmd: If not empty, speci?es a L TEX command, that must use a single argument, which is to process each of the (formatted) author and editor names in all the entries. For example, using
CTLname_latex_cmd = "\textsc"

will result in all of the author and editor names being rendered in the small caps font. Because IEEE does not use a different font for names, this control should not be used for work that is to be submitted to the IEEE. The default is empty. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author would like to thank Laura Hyslop of the IEEE for her help with obtaining the de?nitions for the IEEE journal and magazine names and abbreviations. Also deserving recognition are Patrick W. Daly, for producing the makebst package from which algorithms were borrowed; Howard Trickey, Oren Patashnik, Silvano Balemi and Richard H. Roy for their work on earlier versions of IEEE BIBTEX styles; and Javier Bezos for his helpful suggestions on the implementation of the language ?eld. Oren also kindly reviewed the beta release and made many suggestions that improved the ?nal version. R EFERENCES
[1] M. Shell. (2002) IEEEtran homepage on CTAN. [Online]. Available: http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/ supported/IEEEtran/ [2] (2002) The IEEE website. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee.org/ [3] O. Patashnik. (1988, Feb.) BIBTEXing. btxdoc.pdf. [Online]. Available: http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/biblio/bibtex/contrib/doc/ [4] D. Hoadley and M. Shell. (2002, Oct.) BIBTEX tips and FAQ. btxFAQ.txt. [Online]. Available: http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/biblio/ bibtex/contrib/doc/ [5] N. H. F. Beebe. (2002, May) TEX user group bibliography archive. [Online]. Available: http://www.math.utah.edu:8080/pub/tex/ bib/index-table.html

HOW TO USE THE IEEETRAN BIBTEX STYLE

9

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[33] N. C. Loh, “High-resolution micromachined interferometric accelerometer,” Master’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1992. [34] A. Karnik, “Performance of TCP congestion control with rate feedback: TCP/ABR and rate adaptive TCP/IP,” M. Eng. thesis, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, Jan. 1999. [35] Q. Li, “Delay characterization and performance control of wide-area networks,” Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Delaware, Newark, May 2000. [Online]. Available: http://www.ece.udel.edu/?qli [36] R. Jain, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and D. M. Chiu, “Congestion avoidance in computer networks with a connectionless network layer,” Digital Equipment Corporation, MA, Tech. Rep. DEC-TR-506, Aug. 1987. [37] J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, and D. Towsley, “A stochastic model of TCP Reno congestion avoidance and control,” Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, CMPSCI Tech. Rep. 99-02, 1999. [38] D. Middleton and A. D. Spaulding, “A tutorial review of elements of weak signal detection in non-Gaussian EMI environments,” National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NTIA Report 86-194, May 1986. [39] T. J. Ott and N. Aggarwal, “TCP over ATM: ABR or UBR,” unpublished. [40] V. Jacobson. (1990, Apr.) Modi?ed TCP congestion avoidance algorithm. end2end-interest mailing list. [Online]. Available: ftp: //ftp.isi.edu/end2end/end2end-interest-1990.mail [41] V. Valloppillil and K. W. Ross. (1998) Cache array routing protocol v1.1. Internet draft. [Online]. Available: http://ds1.internic.net/internet-drafts/ draft-vinod-carp-v1-03.txt [42] D. H. Lorenz and A. Orda. (1998, July) Optimal partition of QoS requirements on unicast paths and multicast trees. Dept. Elect. Eng., Technion. Haifa, Israel. [Online]. Available: ftp://ftp.technion.ac.il/pub/ supported/ee/Network/lor.mopq98.ps [43] R. E. Sorace, V. S. Reinhardt, and S. A. Vaughn, “High-speed digitalto-RF converter,” U.S. Patent 5 668 842, Sept. 16, 1997. [44] U. Hideki, “Quadrature modulation circuit,” Japanese Patent 152 932/92, May 20, 1992. [45] F. Kowalik and M. Isard, “Estimateur d’un d? efaut de fonctionnement ? tage de modulation l’utilisant,” d’un modulateur en quadrature et e French Patent Request 9 500 261, Jan. 11, 1995. [46] IEEE Personal Commun. Mag., Special Issue on Wireless ATM, vol. 3, Aug. 1996. [47] Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Speci?cation, IEEE Std. 802.11, 1997. [48] Fiber Channel Physical Interface (FC-PI), NCITS Working Draft Proposed Standard, Rev. 5.2, 1999. [49] I. Widjaja and A. Elwalid, “MATE: MPLS adaptive traf?c engineering,” IETF Draft, 1999. [50] L. Roberts, “Enhanced proportional rate control algorithm PRCA,” ATM Forum Contribution 94-0735R1, Aug. 1994. [51] “Advanced QoS services for the intelligent internet,” White Paper, Cisco, May 1997. [52] “PDCA12-70 data sheet,” Opto Speed SA, Mezzovico, Switzerland. [53] S. Konyagin, private communication, 1998. [54] “Messung von St¨ orfeldern an Anlagen und Leitungen der Telekommunikation im Frequenzbereich 9 kHz bis 3 GHz,” Me?vorschrift Reg TP MV 05, Regulierungsbeh¨ orde f¨ ur Telekommunikation und Post (Reg TP). [55] K. K. Ramakrishnan and S. Floyd, “A proposal to add explicit congestion noti?cation (ECN) to IP,” RFC 2481, Jan. 1999. [56] Consulative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), “Telemetry channel coding,” Blue Book, no. 4, 1999. [Online]. Available: http://www.ccsds.org/documents/pdf/CCSDS-101.0-B-4.pdf [57] ——, Telemetry Channel Coding, ser. Blue Book. Newport Beach, CA: CCSDS, 1999, no. 4. [Online]. Available: http://www.ccsds.org/ documents/pdf/CCSDS-101.0-B-4.pdf [58] Telemetry Channel Coding, ser. Blue Book, No. 4, Consulative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), Newport Beach, CA, 1999. [Online]. Available: http://www.ccsds.org/documents/pdf/ CCSDS-101.0-B-4.pdf [59] Telemetry Channel Coding, ser. Blue Book, No. 4, Consulative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Recommendation for Space Data System Standard 101.0-B-4, May 1999. [Online]. Available: http://www.ccsds.org/documents/pdf/CCSDS-101.0-B-4.pdf [60] O. Patashnik. (1988, Feb.) Designing BIBTEX styles. btxhak.pdf. [Online]. Available: http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/biblio/ bibtex/contrib/doc/


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