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The ever-increasing use of pressure vessels has given special emphasis to analytical and experimental methods for determining their operating stresses。 压力容器的用途日益广泛, 促使人们特别强调用理论计算和实验分析方法来确定容器的

工作 应力。 With this software so available there seems little need for analysts to develop their own programs. 由于这一软件非常适用,程序分析人员看来不需要自己再编制新程序。 Let us take a closer look at what happens in the lamp filament,the connecting wires, and the coils of the instruments. 让我们再仔细检查一下这些仪器中的灯丝、接线及线圈出了什么问题。 This is useful in evaluating the primary membrane stress and the secondary bending stress in vessels. 这有助于计算容器的一次薄膜应力和二次弯曲应力。 To design is to formulate a plan for the satisfaction of a human need. 所谓设计就是议定某种方案以满足人们某种需求。 The book is intended to serve as an introduction to pressure vessel design for the student,a design basis for the practicing engineer. 本书的宗旨是向学生介绍压力容器设计入门知识, 同时也为从事实际工作的工程师提供基础 知识。 Therefore,the longitudinal stresses in a thin sphere subject to internal pressure may be to be equal to the longitudinal stress in a cylinder. 因此,受内压薄壁球壳的径向应力与受内压圆筒的径向应力相等。 Although various forms of energy are quite different,they are all manifestations of the concept. 尽管能量的各种形式有很大差别,但它们都体现了同一概念。 The total design process is of interest to us. 我们对这一总体设计方法感兴趣。 The example above illustrates how the equation can be used to design or analyze an element. 上面的例子说明这一方程该如何应用于部件的设计和分析。 The capacity to move information quickly and inexpensively is due to entirely new uses communications. 快速廉价的信息传递是由于通讯设备彻底更新的原因。 It makes no difference what form of chemical combination of the carbon may have at the entering or leaving conditions. 进入或离开系统时碳化物以何种形式存在是没有关系的。 Successful mass production depends on close inspection and strict control of the quality of manufactured products. 成功地进行大批量生产取决于对产品质量的严格检测和控制。 A very brief description of the behaviour of materials is provided in Chap.2. (我们)在第二章很简要地阐述了这些材料的性能。 There has been a striking growth in public information banks. 公用信息库明显地发展起来了。 There is only one unit for each physical quantity. 每种物理量仅有一个度量单位。 An extreme value of the shear stress may not be the same as the maximum value.

剪应力的极值与其最大值不一定相等。 The welds must be as strong as the other members of the structure. 焊缝与结构中其它构件必须具有同样的强度。 There are three main classes of stainless steels designated in accord with their metallurgical structure. 不锈钢可按金相组织分为三大类。 If the height is changed,compensation must be found in a change of either pressure or velocity. 高度一改变,压力或速度就必定有相应的变化。 The most important characteristic of stainless steels is their corrosion resistance 抗腐蚀性是不锈钢的一个最重要的特性。 Of all the cast materials, gray cast iron is the most widely used. 所有的铸造材料中最常用的要数灰口铸铁。 The ferritic chromium steels have a chromium content ranging from 12 to 27 percent. 铁铬钢的含铬量为 12—27%。 The very-high-carbon steels have good quench-hardenability. 高碳钢的淬硬性很好。 Both of these methods are suitable for detecting cracks. 这两种方法都适合于检测裂纹。 The equation is applicable to the general case. 该方程适用于一般情况。 Proper valve selection is essential for a well-designed piping system. 要设计一个完善的管路系统必须选择合适的阀门。 Particular attention must be given to the several types of seating materials. 应特别注意这几种类型的阀座材料。 The alloy sheet is usually 5/64-1/8 in.thick. 合金钢板的厚度一般为 5/64-l/8 英寸。 The greater the stress required to produce a given strain,the stiffer the material is said to be. 产生一定的应变所需的应力越大,则材料的刚度也越大。 At elevated temperatures (above 800T) marked changes in mechanical properties occur in steels. 处于(800T 以上)高温时,钢的机械性能发生显著的变化。 Thus even for very small values of stress,there will be infinite stress at the crack tip. 因此,即使施加很小的应力,裂纹尖端的应力也将是无穷大。 We shall examine these steps in the design process in detail. 我们应该详细地对这些设计步骤进行检查。 He is working carefully in the laboratory now. 他正在实验室里认真地工作。 In an actual pump not only are all the sources of fluid friction active, but mechanical friction occurs as well in bearings and seals or stuffing boxes. 在实际的泵体中不仅存在流体摩擦阻力,而且在轴承和填料函内部还存在机械摩擦阻力。 Following are the steps that would be used in a computer routine to calculate the involute profile. 用于计算渐开线齿形的计算机程序如下所示。 To acquire drawing ability , pencil sketching should be employed to illustrate every idea possible.

为培养制图能力,可将各种可行的方案用铅笔简图表示出来。 Now let's compare it with the truss below. 现在我们把它和下面的桁架作一比较。 In response to the load applied,the beam deforms to the shape shown. 对应于所施加的载荷,梁形变为所示的形状。 Ability in writing can be acquired by writing letters,reports,and articles. 写作能力可以通过写信、写报告、写文章来提高。 Solution annealing of type 300 stainless steels consists of raising the metal temperature above 1,850。F. 300 型不锈钢固溶热处理要加温到 l,850 。F 以上。 It is assumed that the load is uniformly distributed between the welds。 假设两焊缝间的载荷为均布的。 This method is simpler and more direct than the previous one. 这种方法比前一种更简单直接。 Ductility of a metal is usually much less when hot than when cold. 热状态的金属韧性一般要比冷状态的金属低得多。 When designing a gear set one cannot consider torque alone. 设计齿轮组时只考虑扭矩是不够的。 Energy manifests itself in many different forms. 能量有许多不同的形式。 Visible light covers a wave length range of about 0.38 to 0.78 m. 可见光的波长范围约为 0.38—0.78m。 Virtual work is very important to structural analysis. 虚功原理在结构分析中很重要。 Grain size of metal has an important effect on their mechanical properties. 晶粒度对金属组织的机械性能影响很大。 The creep strength of stabilized stainless steels is superior to that of unstabilized steels. 经稳定化处理的不锈钢的蠕变强度比未经稳定化处理的不锈钢的蠕变强度高。 Design procedures for austenitic stainless steels will be the same as for carbon-steel vessels, modified by the technical properties of austenitic stainless steels. 奥氏体不锈钢容器的设计方法与碳钢容器的设计方法是基本相同的,仅需把后者的技术特 性改为前者的技术特性。 If the elementary principles are clearly understood, the applications will be easy to grasp. 如果能完全理解这些基本原理,掌握其应用方法就不难了。 Occasionally,it is convenient to divide a matrix into parts called submatrices. 有时,为方便起见可以把一个矩阵分解成几个子矩阵。 The new products will soon be put into use. 这批新产品即将投入使用。 Internal forces at connections occur only as pairs of equal opposite forces. 节点内力总是成对出现,其大小相等而方向相反。 Forces can be classified as internal and external. 力可分为内力和外力两种。 All of the austenitic stainless steels resist hydrogen damage. 所有的奥氏体不锈钢都具有抗氢腐蚀性能。

Minimizing corrosion is a key consideration for the designer. 设计者应考虑的一个关键问题是怎样使腐蚀降至最低程度。 Diffusion of atomic hydrogen through steels depends on a number of factors such as temperature, time,and composition of the material. 钢中氢原子的扩散程度取决于温度、时间及材料成分等因素。 A transversely stressed fillet weld can sustain higher loads than one stressed longitudinally. 受横向应力的角焊缝比受纵向应力的角焊缝承载能力强。 Basically there are two directions of applied loads on the fillet welds: parallel to the weld length and transverse to the weld length. 角焊缝所受外载基本上按两个方向作用:一个与焊缝平行;另一个与焊缝垂直。 The law of conservation of matter states that matter cannot be created or destroyed. 物质守恒定律表明:物质既不能创造也不能消灭。 The total number of vibrations performed in a unit time is called the frequency. 单位时间内振动的总次数称为频率。 The methods are used regularly in engineering fields. 工程领域常使用这些方法。 Stainless steels are frequently used for construction of petrochemical processing equipment。 石油化工工艺设备通常用不锈钢制造。 The mobility of the lattice irregularities is called dislocations. 我们将晶格的不规则移动称为位错。 All structures are assumed to undergo only small deformation as they are loaded. 我们假设所有结构在承载时只受到小变形。 In laboratory testing , loads are applied to test specimens by means of testing machines. 实验室试验中,用试验机对试样加载。 The temperature was raised to 850℃. 把温度提高到 850℃。 If water is heated,the molecules move more quickly. 如果将水加热,水分子就运动得更快。 Many gears are finished by cutting,shaving,or grinding in the soft state and then hardened by nitriding. 许多齿轮是先在软化(退火)状态下经切削、 剃齿或磨齿精加工, 然后再接受渗氮硬化 处理。 The process generally is used as the initial melting process for superalloys。 该过程常被用作超耐热合金的初级熔化处理。 Hooke ‘s law states that, within certain limits, the stress in a material is proportional to the strain which produced it. 虎克定律认为:在一定范围内,材料的应力与产生该应力的应变成正比。 The surfaces that not machined are sand-blasted. 对未经机械加工的表面进行喷砂。 The quick quenching may introduce residual stresses which are too harmful for certain applications. 快速淬火处理可能会导致残余应力,这在某些应用场合中危害性很大。 A multi-purpose machine tool is one that is capable of doing a number of different types of

operations. 多用机床是这样一种机床,它能从事很多不同类型的操作。 Aluminum surfaces which will be in contact with concrete or mortar after erection must be well protected by a protective coating. 如果铝质构件安装后与水泥等相接触,则其表面必须有一层良好的防护层。 When relaxation occurs to the extent that the total force cannot keep the joint tight, the joint leaks. 当总载荷减小到已不能维持接头连接紧密时,就会出现泄漏。 All grades of stainless steel are affected in some manner by welding heat,which modifies their resistance to corrosion and changes their mechanical properties. 任何等级的不锈钢都在一定程度上受焊接热效应的影响, 热效应导致抗腐蚀性的降低及机械 性能的改变 Reinforcement is usually provided by a separate, welded reinforcing pad, by an increased amount of weld metal, by excess thickness in the shell and the nozzle wall, or by using a heavier plate for the entire shell section or inserted locally around the opening. 补强一般有以下几种形式:1)加焊补强板;2)在补强处复上一层焊接材料:3)增加筒体和接 管的壁厚;4)在开孔附近的整体截面上或局部范围内衬上一块厚板。 An understanding of fluids is essential, not only for accurately treating problems of the movement of fluids through pipes,pumps,and all kinds process equipment but also for the study of heat flow and many separation operations that depend on diffusion and mass transfer. 为了研究建立在扩散和传质基础上的热流动及许多分离操作过程,也为了能精确地讨论管 道、泵体及各种工艺设备中流体运动方面的问题,我们必须掌握流体理论。 Aluminium remained unknown until the nineteenth century,because nowhere in nature is it found free, owing to its always being combined with other elements, most commonly with oxygen, for which it has a strong affinity. 由于铝总是和其它元素——最常见的是氧(因为铝对氧有很强的亲和力)——结合在一起, 所以在自然界任何地方都找不到游离态的铝,因而直到十九世纪铝才为人们所知道。 Since the maximum longitudinal stress (PR/2t) is only half of the maximum tangential stress, one-half the shell thickness is available for the longitudinal bending stress due to weight or other loadings at the midspan or in the plane of the saddles,assuming the vessel to behave as its own carrying beam. 将容器假设为承受自重的梁, 那么,由于其最大纵向应力(PR/2t)仅是最大环向应力的一半, 该壁厚的一半就能承担在容器跨中或鞍座部位的截面上由自重或其它载荷引起的纵向弯曲 应力。 This substance reacts three times as fast as the other one. 这种物质的反应速度是另一物质的三倍。 The voltage has dropped by five times. 电压为原来的 1/5。 The equipment under development will reduce the error probability by a fact of 7. 正在研制的设备将使误差概率降低 6/7。 The principle advantage over the old-fashioned machines is a four-fold reduction in weight. 与旧式机器相比的主要有点是重量减少了四分之三。 Switching time of the new-type transistor is shortened three times. 新型晶体管的开关时间缩短三分之二。

The result of measurement indicated that actual error probability was of the order of 1 percent. 测 量结果表明,实际误差概率约为 1%。 These figures show that the improvement of input impedance is within a factor of ten. 这些数据 表明,输入阻抗的改进值为一个数量级。 None of these metals have conductivity higher than copper. 这些金属的导电率都不及铜高。 No real structure is absolutely rigid. 实际上,没有绝对刚性的结构。 Nothing in the world moves faster than light.世界上没有任何东西比光传得更快了。 Not all metals conduct electricity equally well. 并非所有金属的导电性能一样好。 Not every electric motor here is made in Shanghai. 这儿的电动机并非每台都是上海制造的。 The value of loss in this equation is so small that we can overlook it. 在此方程中,损耗值太小,可以忽略不计。 Pure metals have few useful properties. 纯金属几乎没有可取的特性。 Unless there is motion, there is no work. 如果没有运动,也就不作功。 On freezing water expands instead of contracts. 水在结冰时膨胀而不是收缩。


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