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朱顶红的养殖资料


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(subclass Monocotyledonae) (Amaryllidaceae) (Hippeastrum) (Tunicated bulb) 50-60 1 2

2

Amaryllis
1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

,

/>Red Lion

3

Amaryllis

4

Amaryllis
1.

(2007.04)

2.

2001

3.

5

Amarylis

(2n=22)

H. reginae

H. psittacinum

H. reticulatum

H. aulicum

H. vittatum

H. striatum

H. puniceum
6

Worsleva rayneri Brazilian blue amaryllis

Rhodophidla(

)

Sprekelia formosissima Aztec lily

H. angustifolium

H. cybister

7

History of amaryllis breeding
1979 England

Johnsonii

Hippeastrum

johnsonii

H. vittatum

H. reginae (Traub, 1934a)

8

Reginae group

H. vittatum

H. striatum

H. psittacinum

Leopodii group

Large- and very openflowered progeny were developed.

H. leopoii

H. pardinum

9

Vittatum group

The majority originated in France, England.

H. vittatum

Riticulatum group
Were generally smaller in stature than other hybrids, evergreen, and featured a white or yellowish stripe down the midrib of the leaf H. riticulatun var. striatifolium
H. riticulatun var. striatifolium 10

American: the late nineteenth to early twentieth centuries (Reginae, Leopodii)
– Faded due to disease, competition, and failures in quality control, much of this germplasm was lost.

Europe: declined—the two world wars

11

Netherland—today is the center of modern amaryllis production and breeding.
– Large-flowered Ludwig cultivars
Ludwig cultivars

--Gracilis dwarf, multiflora types
Gracilis cultivars

White Christmas Apple Blossom Gracilis
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South Africa has also become an important breeding center and exporter of amaryllis.

Hadeco group (Barnhoorn, 1991)
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The breeding objectives
1.Flower form (trumpet or long -tubed perianth, novel pigmentation patterns) (yellow, blue and purple system) 2.Reintroduction of fragrance 3.Evergreen foliage 4.Repeat bloom 5.More strictly cultural criteria (resistance to hippeastrum mosaic virus and red scorch) 6.Tolerant cold temperature

14

breeding and ploidy level
The majority of Hippeastrum species are diploid, with a somatic chromosome number of 2n=22.

Virtually all the complex hybrid materials presently in cultivation are tetraploid.

a few species of Hippeastrum have been reported with higher ploidy levels than 4n.

15

The concertration of recent commerical breeding efforts among the various populations of tetraploids may exist for several reason:
1.Desirable characteristics of flower size, scape number, and plant vigor are already stabilize in the hybrid races.

2.Sterile triploid progeny result when diploid species are crossed with tetraploid hybrids.

3.Many of the diploid species are not readily available.

4.self-incompatibility, which occurs in most diploid species and diploid hybrids, generally breaks down in the tetraploid hybrid.
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( 1 2 3 4

) novel trait 18 F1

1

2 Leopoldii group
17

10

2n=2x=22

2n=4x=44

0x

1x

2x

2x

4x

0x

3x

1x

3x

4x

18

1.

diploid X tetraploid

Sterile (selfed and crossed)

2.Triploid X diploid

embryo rescue

3.Triploid X tetraploid perhaps due to some degree of random assortment of the third set of chromosomes during gamete formation

19

(
1.Readily self-pollinated 2.Intercrossed

)

3.Easiest breeding program This has largely been the source of today 's commercial amaryllis cultivars.

20

Lesser known species and species groups useful for breeding prograns
Hippeastrum papilio 1.1970 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. F1 7. F1 4-5 ( 20

F1 papilio )

21

Lesser known species and species groups useful for breeding prograns
Trumpet-flowered White Species 1. 2-4 2. 3. H. brasilianum 4. H. fragrantissinum 5. H. solandriflorum
H. brasilianum

H. candidum

H. fragrantissinum

H. candidum

H. solandriflorum
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Lesser known species and species groups useful for breeding prograns
H. reticulatum var. striatifolium

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 3 ( 8. 9.
H. reticulatum var. striatifolium

(

)

1 )

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Lesser known species and species groups useful for breeding prograns
breeding for yellow amaryllis

H. evansiae(

)

H. parodii(

)

Lemon Lime

1. 2.

H. evansiae

H. aglaiae(

)

Germa
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Lesser known species and species groups useful for breeding prograns
Spider- or Orchid-flowered Species ( )

1. 2. H. cybister 3. H. angustifolium
H. cybister( )

4.

H. angustifolium(

)

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Lesser known species and species groups useful for breeding prograns
Spider- or Orchid-flowered Species ( )

1. 2. H. cybister 3. H. angustifolium
H. cybister( )

4.

H. angustifolium(

)

26

Lesser known species and species groups useful for breeding prograns
Species with High Flower Number H. angustifolium, H. breviflorum, H. cybister, H. foster, H. reticulatum
H. angustifolium( )

H. reticulatum

6-9

H. cybister(

)

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Lesser known species and species groups useful for breeding prograns
Smaller-statured Species ( )

1. Gracilis group H. striatum

2.
H. striatum(2n=4x)

H. petiolatum H. striatum

Gracilis group 3. H. reticulatum, H. espiritense

H. petiolatum(2n=4x)

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Breeding for Specific Traits
color and pigmentation patterns

1.

2.

3.

4.

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Breeding for Specific Traits
fragrance

1. 2. 3. F1 4. 5.

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Breeding for Specific Traits
double flowers 1. form 2. 3. Double Picotee, Lady Jane, Pasadena H. puniceum

H. puniceum

4.

Lady Jane

Double Picotee

MILLENIUM STAR
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Breeding for Specific Traits
resistance to disease

1.

amaryllis mosaic virus red scorch, Stagonospora curtisii H. papilio, H. reticulatum

2.

3.

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Hybridization Mechanics
1. 2. (anther sacs) 10 50 75 (protandrous) 50 4-10 2-3 ( 4. 5. 75-80 3mm 6. 7. 2 4-6 2-3
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3. 3-7 ( ) 3-5 24-30 50

)

Hybridization Mechanics

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(

2004)

35

Hippeastrum equestre 1911

Hippeastrum reginae 1911

Hippeastrum reticulatum 1911

36

Hippeastrum vittatum 1911

1972

Hippeastrum gracile 1955

Hippeastrum hybridum 1967

1960

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90 -----96 ----

--

--

38

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Evaluating Hybrid Prpgeny 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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Breeding after the F1 generation at the diploid level
1. F2 F1 F1 F1

2. A F1 F2 C B

A B D F1

C D F2 F2

F1

3. 4.

F1 F2
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Vegetative propagation of selected clones
Propagation by the twin-scale method 1. 2. 3. ( 4~16 )

4. 5. 6. 30 7.2~3

10~20 1 80 24-27 1 21

42

Vegetative propagation of selected clones
Propagation by the twin-scale method

(

2004)

43

Vegetative propagation of selected clones
Propagation by the twin-scale method

(

2004)

44

Vegetative propagation of selected clones
Propagation by the twin-scale method

(

2004)
45

Vegetative propagation of selected clones
Tissue culture (micropropagetion) ( 1. 1999)

(Hippeastrum hybridum Hort) ( 20-26cm) 2% Clorox( ) 'Apple Blossom' 20 0% 'Best Seller' 'Red Lion' 3% Clorox 30 30% 2. 3. 'Red Lion' MS 4. 60-80g/l 5. 'Apple Blossom' 'Red Lion'
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1/4MS 30-40g/l

Vegetative propagation of selected clones
Tissue culture (micropropagetion) -6. 'Red Lion' 2mg/ l BA ( 1999)

2mg/l BA 0.75mg/l 2,4-D kinetin 0.25-2mg/l kinetin 0.1 1mg/l BA

7.

TDZ( TDZ

)

NAA 0.5-1.5mg/l

-1

-1 (380cm3) -1 (150cm3)

-2 (120cm3) -2

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Vegetative propagation of selected clones
Induction of polyploidy and mutations

1.3 to 4 days after germination 0.05% aqueous solution of colchicine mixed with 7g/L agar 24 hours induced tetraploids, unstable 2. 0.001% Herbacide oryzalin ( ingredient twin-scale explants (Nerine) )

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The end .
Thanks for your attention.

Piet Mondrian,1910
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