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sonnet 18赏析


William Shakespeare 1564-1616
He was born on 23 April 1564 and died on 23 April 1616.
dramatist, man of theatre, and poet

Shakespeare’s Works
154 sonnets 2 long poems

Comedies 37 plays Tragedies History plays Roman plays

Shakespeare’s Four Tragedies
Hamlet 《哈姆雷特》 King Lear《李尔王》 Macbeth《麦克白》
“Othello These are often considered his greatest plays.

? Hamlet, Prince of Denmark
? The summit of Shakespeare’s art ? ? ? ? Hamlet: Prince of Denmark Claudius: the new king Gertrude: Queen of Denmark Ophelia: daughter of Polonius

? Who is Hamlet? ? 1. A humanist, free from medieval prejudices and supersitions ? Infinite love for the world rather for heaven ? Profound love and respect for man, and a firm belief in man’s power over destiny ? 2. This humanist love of man makes Hamlet turn to those around him (his father, Ophelia) with the same sincere eagerness. He loves good and hates evil. He shows a contempt for rank and wealth. A king and beggar are all one to him. His democratic tendency is based on his humanist thought. ? 3. Man of superb intelligence, a close observer of men and manners, he easily sees through people. He could penetrate below the surface of things. He is forever.

? unmasking the world. He discovers how wicked and unjust the world he lives in is. His observation of his world is summed up in a bitter sentence: “Denmark is a prison.” ? Hamlet is not a mere scholar, simply meditative by nature. On the contrary, Hamlet is a man of genius, highly accomplished and educated, a man of profound perception and sparkling wit. He is a scholar, soldier and statesman all combined. His image reflects the versatility of the men of the Renaissance.

? Hamlet’s melancholy is the result of his penetrating mind. ? An explanation of Hamlet’s hesitation: ? Hamlet gives a reason. If he kills the villain now, he would send his soul to heaven; and he would rather kill his soul. ? Real reason: Actually he is shrinking from his responsibility of premeditated killing of a king and its political result, because at that time the abrupt death of the King might cause panic to the people and danger to the state. So what he considers now is no longer his personal wrong but the fate of his country. ? A Freudian explanation: Oedipus complex

Quotations: 1)Hamlet, III:1 To be, or not to be: that is the question. 2) All's Well That Ends Well, I:2 Love all, trust a few, do wrong to none.

3) Twelfth Night, II:5 Be not afraid of greatness. Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon 'em.

4) Merchant of Venice, III:1 If you prick us do we not bleed? If you tickle us do we not laugh? If you poison us do we not die? And if you wrong us, shall we not revenge? 5) As You Like It, II, vii All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players: they have their exits and their entrances; and one man in his time plays many parts, his acts being seven ages. 6) It is a wise father that knows his own child. 7) Neither a borrower nor a lender be; For loan oft loses both itself and friend, And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry. .

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/w/williamsha166828.ht ml

8) MACBETH Out, out, brief candle! Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player That struts and frets his hour upon the stage And then is heard no more: it is a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing.

The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark
? Hamlet is regarded as Shakespeare’s most popular and greatest play on the stage. ? Hamlet is also considered the summit of shakespeares art. The story comes from an old danish legend. ? .

? The story The action of the play is laid in ? Denmark. Gertrude, queen of Denmark, widowed by the sudden death of the king, within two months marries the late kings brother Claudius who thun becomes the new king. Prince hamlet, son of the lake king, returns home from the university of Wittenberg. he suspects foul play on the part of Claudius, his uncle. Then his fathers ghost appears to him at the castle of Elsinor, and confirms hamlets suspicion. He undertakes to avenge the murder. To dull Claudiuss vigilance, hamlet pretends to have gone mad. However, his madness is taken by Polonius, an old courtier, to be an emotional disturbance due to his passion for Ophilia, daughter of Polonius.

? At this moment, a company of players visits the castle, and hamlet has a play acted, which resembles the late kings murder. Claudius is deeply disturbed by the performance and leaves the hall before the play is finished. Hamlet is summoned by his mother, who tells him that he has offended the king. Hamlet reveals Claudiuss baseness and expresses his indignation at her hasty marriage. Then hamlet becomes aware that he is being overheard in the conversation. Thinking it is Claudius that is in hiding, he runs his sword through the arras but finds the eavedropper thus killed to be Polonius.

? To get ride of hamlet, claudius send him to england and sends assasins to kill him on the voyage. But hamlet succeeds in coming out of it alive and returns to denmark again. Heart-broken at the death of her father, poor ophelia goes mad and then is drowned in a stream. Hamlet returns just at the time of ophelias funeral. In the grave-yard he has a quarrel with laertes, ophelias brother.

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Latertes vows to avenge the death of his sister and father. With him claudius arranges that laertes is to challenge hamlet to a friendly duel and kill him with a poisoned rapier. In the sword play, laertes wounds hamlet but is himself struck with the same poisoned rapier by hamlet. Before death, laertes reveals the plot to hamlet. The queen, at this moment, has drunk from a poisoned cup intended for hamlet. Hamlet then, in a passion, stabs claudius. The queen dies, claudius dies, laertes dies, hamlet dies. And hamlets body is borne off with military ceremonial, by fortinbras his successor. The rest is silence.

?

The tragical history of hamlet, prince of denmark (1601)《丹麦王 子哈姆雷特的悲剧故事》是根据13世纪初丹麦历史学家 saxo grammaticus 的记载,叙述丹麦王子哈姆雷特替父亲报仇,杀死他 的篡夺王位的叔父的故事。莎士比亚在剧本中改造了丹麦的历史 故事,改造了故事中主人公的性格,创造了哈姆雷特这个复杂深 刻的人物。通过这个人物和他周围环境之间的冲突,莎士比亚反 映了文艺复兴时期人文主义思想家的理想与资本主义原始积累时 期社会现实之间的无法调和的矛盾。剧本中所描述的中世纪的丹 麦实际上就是指的16、17世纪的英国,丹麦王子哈姆雷特实际上 就是文艺复兴时期英国社会进步青年的代表。对于这些青年来说, 当时英国的政治、英国的社会真是太黑暗了。难怪哈姆雷特说: 丹麦是一所监狱,丹麦是一间最坏的囚室。

Hamlet’s soliloquy
For such a figure as Hamlet, soliloquy is a natural medium, a necessary release of his anguish; and some of his questioning monologues possess surpassing power and insight, which have survived centuries of being torn from their context. The most famous soliloquy is perhaps “to be or not to be” in Act III, Scene I, Hamlet. Hamlet.

Soliloquy
Soliloquy: 1. an utterance or discourse by a person who is talking to himself/ herself or is disregardful of or oblivious to any hearers present (often used as a device in a drama to disclose a character’s innermost thoughts); 2. the act of talking while or as if alone Soliloquy: or monologue, a dramatic or literary form of discourse in which a character reveals his or her thoughts when alone or unaware of the presence of other characters.

The form of soliloquy
Soliloquy is often used in Blank verse (无韵诗, 无韵诗, 素体诗). 素体诗). Blank verse consists of five feet (ten syllables) in iambic(抑扬格) pentameter(五 iambic(抑扬格) pentameter( 音步诗行) rhyme. 音步诗行) without end rhyme. This form has generally been accepted as that best adapted to dramatic verse in English and is commonly used for long poems whether dramatic, philosophic, or narrative.

Soliloquy’s function
1. to give free and complete expression to a complicated state of mind and feeling of a character 2. to provide a point of view on the events of the play.

? 哈姆雷特的著名独白探索生和死的问题,指出思想和 行动之间的矛盾。这段独白并不是说明哈姆雷特想借 自杀来逃避替父报仇的责任,而是表达了人文主义思 想家对生死问题的思考。在这段独白之前,哈姆雷特 已和演员们约好当天夜间在宫中上演一出小戏,特请 国王和王后观赏。他叫演员们演的戏很象他叔父谋害 他父亲、娶他母亲的内容,目的在于观察他叔父对这 出戏的反应,用以证实鬼魂所说关于谋杀的罪行。若 经证明他叔父果然是凶手,那么他就要立刻采取行动 替父报仇。他焦急地等待着夜晚的来临,以便进行这 个关键性的试验。在这段无事可作的等待期间,他心 情更加沉重了。他想到死是一条出路,但是他并未下 决心自杀。

? 他权衡着生和死的得失;他想到每个人都掌握着自己 的生死命运。拚一死去和罪恶社会作战呢?还是消极 地忍受世间的不平和痛苦?在这里哈姆雷特历数英国 社会上不平等、非正义的现象。他考虑到拿起武器和 罪恶社会作斗争,采取行动替父亲报仇,都可能要付 出生命作为代价,因此他想到生存和死亡的问题。死 亡可以结束一切尘世间的痛苦,何乐而不为?但是死 亡究竟是个谜,死后可能还有来生,来生可能有更多、 更可怕的痛苦在等待着我们,如同睡眠中有恶梦一般。 由于这个顾虑,人们宁愿忍受漫长的、痛苦的一生, 而不肯轻易用一柄小小的刀子来结束自己的生命。因 此,顾虑使我们成为懦夫。哈姆雷特从生死问题转而 思索思想和行动之间的关系。思想是指导行动的,但 是想得太多却令人踌躇不前,误了大事。这是哈姆雷 特对自己的警告。

? 文艺复兴时期的人文主义者,既是思想 家,又是行动家。在这段独白里,哈姆 雷特决不是在宣传自杀。相反,他所主 张的是拿起武器和罪恶社会战斗,是思 想必须付诸行动。这正是文艺复兴时期 人文主义思想家所极力主张的。

That is a question whether to live on in this world or to die, that is, to take action or to do nothing.

To be or not to be
To be, or not to be: that is the question: Whether ‘tis([诗] it is) nobler in the mind to suffer ‘tis([诗 The slings & arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them?

生存还是毁灭,这是一个值得考虑的问题;默然忍 生存还是毁灭,这是一个值得考虑的问题; 受命运的暴虐的毒箭, 受命运的暴虐的毒箭,或是挺身反抗人世的无涯的 苦难,通过斗争把它们扫清,这两种行为, 苦难,通过斗争把它们扫清,这两种行为,哪一种 更高贵? 更高贵?

“To be or not to be” is the key sentence in this soliloquy. “To be” is to continue to live, or to take action. “not to be” is to die, or to do nothing but suffering, to end one’s life by self- destruction. It is a dilemma of trying to determine the meaning of life and death. Is it nobler to suffer the life passively or to die (seek to end one’s sufferings) actively?

To die: to sleep; No more; and by a sleep to say we end The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks That flesh is heir to, 'tis a consummation Devoutly to be wish'd.
死了;睡着了;什么都完了;要是在这一种睡眠之中, 死了;睡着了;什么都完了;要是在这一种睡眠之中, 我们心头的创痛,以及其他无数血肉之躯所不能避免 我们心头的创痛, 的打击,都可以从此消失, 的打击,都可以从此消失,那正是我们求之不得的结 局。

To die: to sleep. It is a metaphor. Hamlet spoke of suicide as an escape. His speech has become proverbial as an outpouring of utter world- weariness.

To die, to sleep; To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there's the rub; For in that sleep of death what dreams may come When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, Must give us pause. 死了;睡着了;睡着了也许还会做梦; 死了;睡着了;睡着了也许还会做梦;嗯,阻碍就在这 因为当我们摆脱了这一具朽腐的皮囊以后, 儿:因为当我们摆脱了这一具朽腐的皮囊以后,在那死 的睡眠里,究竟将要做些什么梦, 的睡眠里,究竟将要做些什么梦,那不能不使我们踌躇 顾虑。 顾虑。 Why is it “the rub”? What makes us pause? Hamlet thinks that suicide is a desirable action of escaping, but what will happen after dying? It alludes to hesitation for sleeping/ dying because Hamlet realizes that unknown dreams will make us terrified.

There's the respect That makes calamity of so long life; For who would bear the whips and scorns of time, The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely, The pangs of despised love, the law's delay, The insolence of office and the spurns That patient merit of the unworthy takes, When he himself might his quietus make With a bare bodkin?
人们甘心久困于患难之中, This speech人们甘心久困于患难之中,也就是为了这个缘 confirms Hamlet’s suspicion of afterlife. 谁愿意忍受人世的鞭挞和讥嘲、 故;谁愿意忍受人世的鞭挞和讥嘲、压迫者的 People would rather suffer life- long miseries than、 to 凌辱、傲慢者的冷眼、被轻蔑的爱情的惨痛、 凌辱、傲慢者的冷眼、被轻蔑的爱情的惨痛 sleep to undergo the unknown dreams. Because 法律的迁延、 法律的迁延、官吏的横暴和费尽辛勤所换来的 comparatively the要是他只要用一柄小小的刀子, 小人的鄙视,要是他只要用一柄小小的刀子, 小人的鄙视, latter is more fearful. 就可以清算他自己的一生? 就可以清算他自己的一生?

who would fardels bear, To grunt and sweat under a weary life, But that the dread of something after death, The undiscover'd country from whose bourn No traveller returns, puzzles the will And makes us rather bear those ills we have Than fly to others that we know not of? To be is more difficult and fearful than not to be. The ?谁愿意负着这样的重担,在烦劳的生命的压迫下呻 谁愿意负着这样的重担, 谁愿意负着这样的重担 speech indirectly gives Hamlet a reason why he has 吟流汗,倘不是因为惧怕不可知的死后, 吟流汗,倘不是因为惧怕不可知的死后,惧怕那从 always been hesitating for taking revenge. 来不曾有一个旅人回来过的神秘之国,是它迷惑了 来不曾有一个旅人回来过的神秘之国, Hamlet has to live a suspected life between fact and fiction, 我们的意志,使我们宁愿忍受目前的磨折, 我们的意志,使我们宁愿忍受目前的磨折,不敢向 language and action. It 我们所不知道的痛苦飞去? 我们所不知道的痛苦飞去?is his speculation and vulnerability as well.

Thus conscience does make cowards of us all; And thus the native hue of resolution Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought, And enterprises of great pitch and moment With this regard their currents turn awry, And lose the name of action. 这样,重重的顾虑使我们全变成了懦夫,决心的 这样,重重的顾虑使我们全变成了懦夫, 赤热的光彩,被审慎的思维盖上了一层灰色, 赤热的光彩,被审慎的思维盖上了一层灰色,伟 大的事业在这一种考虑之下,也会逆流而退, 大的事业在这一种考虑之下,也会逆流而退,失 去了行动的意义。 去了行动的意义。 Hamlet thus concludes that the dread of the afterlife leads to excessive moral sensitivity that makes action impossible.

?-- Soft you now! The fair Ophelia! Nymph, in thy (your) orisons Be all my sins remember'd.

且慢!美丽的奥菲利娅! 女神, 且慢!美丽的奥菲利娅!——女神, 女神 在你的祈祷之中, 在你的祈祷之中,不要忘记替我忏悔 我的罪孽。 我的罪孽。

Hamlet’s theme
Taking of revenge. The revenging theme is interrelated with themes of faithlessness, love and ambition. Contrast is an important structural principle in Hamlet. The suspicion between fact and fiction, language and action. Procrastination.

Notes on the soliloquy
? Line or not to be: to end ones life by self-destruction. Hamlet has already spoken of suicide as a means of escape, and he dwells on it in a later part of this very speech, giving, however, a different reason for refraining. The whole drift of the speech shows his belief in a future life. Practically the whole of hamlets speech has become proverbial as an outpouring of utter worldweariness. Of course, much of the imagery is not peculiar to shakespeare or any writer, e.G., the likening of death to starting on a long journey. Slings: i.E. Missings thrown by slings Take arms against a sea of troubles: to take up arms and rush upon the waves of the sea was a custom attributed by several classical writers to the celts. The troubles are pictured as advancing like some overwhelming tide. No more: just that, only that, i.E. Falling on sleep

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Consummation: a completion of ones life, a crowning and fitting end What dreams: i.E. The thought of what dreams may come Mortal coil: turmoil of mortality, confused trouble of mortal life Respect: consideration= regard Of so long life: so long-lived

?

Time: the times, the world, ones contemporaries Might his quietus make: might give himself his release from lifes troubles Thought: anxiety And lose the name of action: even as a river may lose itself in a sandy waste and so after its long course never reach the sea: wonderful symbol, indeed, of frustration and failure

Some notions
Unrhymed: without end rhyme, having no regular correspondence of sounds at the ends of lines. iambus: a metrical(诗的格律的,韵律的) foot metrical(诗的格律的,韵律的) consisting of an unstressed syllable(音节) (-) syllable(音节) followed by a stressed syllable (\), e.g.: begin (- \). (\ (A pentameter means a line of verse consisting of five metrical feet. A foot is (usually) two or three syllables that contain one strong stress.

Iambic Pentameter
- \ - \ - \ \ - \ To be, | or not | to be: | that is | the question: question: \ - \ - \ \ - \ Whether | 'tis nob | ler in | the mind | to suffer suffer

? He published 154 sonnets in 1609. ? 14 lines The Shakespearean Sonnet or English sonnet, contains 3 quatrains and a couplet (abab cdcd efef gg) – Shakespeare didn’t invent (Wyatt and Surrey did), but was most popular user of the form – Usually 3 quatrains set up the problem, couplet offers the solution – Tomas Wyatt was the first to introduce the sonnet into English literature. ? So named because Shakespeare was its greatest practioner. ? This form is adopted by many writers at the end of the 16th century. ? A number of themes

Sonnet Sequence

Sonnet:
Sonnet: a fourteen-line poem with complex rhyme scheme and structure. A Shakespearian sonnet has fourteen lines of iambic pentameters, a variable rhyme scheme, and is divided into three quatrains (a four line stanza) with a concluding couplet that usually express the theme of the Sonnet. A Shakespearian sonnet—a fourteen-line poem of iambic pentameters. This form is made up of 3 quatrains and a couplet, rhyming ababcdcdefefgg.

? A Spenserian sonnet has the rhyme scheme ababbcbccdcdee and no break between the octave (an eight line stanza) and the sestet( a six line stanza). It is named after the Elizabethan poet Edmund Spenser.

? 十四行诗 十四行诗起源于13世纪的意大利,16世纪上半叶由英 国诗人萨利和魏阿特引入英国,风靡一时。莎士比亚 的十四行诗早在1960年前发表就以手抄本的形式流传 民间,其主题思想以歌颂爱情与友谊为主。这些诗共 154首,分为三组。第一组(1~126首)写给一位青年 男子,诗人告诫他要早些结婚,生儿育女; 第二组 (127~152)描写一位姿色不佳的“黑肤女郎” (dark lady),诗人对他的态度是毫不掩饰的情欲;第 三组(153~154)与前两组毫无关系,好像是同一首 诗写了两遍。在韵脚上,莎士比亚创作了自己的诗韵, 即有名的莎士比亚十四行诗韵:abab, cdcd, efef, gg。

Sonnet 18 第一十八首
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

? Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate: ? Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, ? And summer's lease hath all too short a date: ? Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, ? And often is his gold complexion dimmed, And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance, or nature's changing course ? untrimmed: ? But thy eternal summer shall not fade, ? Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, ? Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st, ? So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, ? So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

我怎样能把你比做夏天? 我怎样能把你比做夏天? 你比它更可爱也更温和: 你比它更可爱也更温和: 五月的娇蕾有暴风震颠, 五月的娇蕾有暴风震颠, 夏季的寿命很短就度过。 夏季的寿命很短就度过。 有时候当空照耀着烈日, 有时候当空照耀着烈日, 又往往它的光采转阴淡; 又往往它的光采转阴淡; 凡是美艳终把美艳消失, 凡是美艳终把美艳消失, 遭受运数和时序的摧残。 遭受运数和时序的摧残。 你永恒的夏季永不凋零, 你永恒的夏季永不凋零, 而且长把你的美艳保存; 而且长把你的美艳保存; 死神难夸你踏它的幽影, 死神难夸你踏它的幽影, 只因永恒的诗和你同春。 只因永恒的诗和你同春。 ? 天地间能有人鉴赏文采, 天地间能有人鉴赏文采, ? 诗就流传就教你永在
? ? ——录自王佐良主编《英国诗 选》P70-71,上海译文出版社 1988年版。

Rhyme Scheme of Sonnet 18
? Quatrain 1 A Shall I compare thee to a summer's DAY? B Thou art more lovely and more temperATE: A Rough winds do shake the darling buds of MAY,, B And summer's lease hath all too short a DATE: ? Quatrain 2 C Sometime too hot the eye of heaven SHINES,. D And often is his gold complexion DIMM'D;. C And every fair from fair sometime deCLINES, D By chance or nature's changing course unTRIMM'D;. ? Quatrain 3 E But thy eternal summer shall not FADE, F Nor lose possession of that fair thou OWEST;. E Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his SHADE, F When in eternal lines to time thou GROWEST:. ? Couplet G So long as men can breathe or eyes can SEE, G So long lives this and this gives life to THEE.

you

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? gentle You are Thou art more lovely and more temperate: strong winds charming; lovely Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, pleasing duration, time allotted has And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
我怎么能够把你来比作夏天? 你不独比它可爱也比它温婉: If I compared you to a 狂风把五月宠爱的嫩蕊作践, summer day, / I'd have to 夏天出赁的期限又未免太短:
a limited period of time

you

say you are more beautiful and serene: / By ? Extravagant praise compares a comparison, summer is summer day as less lovely and rough on budding life, / constantdoesn'tbeloved. And as the last long either:

Quatrain 2
? The sun is sometimes too hot in summer or occasionally shaded. Every beautiful thing becomes less beautiful through chance or time. the sun Sometime too hotcolor and appearance natural the eye of heaven shines, not of the skin of the face And often is his gold complexion dimmed, bright every beautiful thing or person from beauty And every fair from fair sometime declines, fortune By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed:
Untrimmed by chance, or nature’s changing course stripped of beauty

天上的眼睛有时照得太酷烈, 它那炳耀的金颜又常遭掩蔽: 被机缘或无常的天道所摧折, 没有芳艳不终于雕残或销毁。

At times the summer sun is too hot, / And at other times clouds dim its brilliance; / Everything fair in nature becomes less fair from time to time, / No one can change [trim] nature or chance;

Quatrain 3
? Transition in the sestet to counter that the beloved's beauty will not fade or die because of the poem. Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, boast wander Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st,
lose color, freshness or vigor But thy eternal summer shall not fade, owest own existing for ever

但是你的长夏永远不会雕落, However, you yourself will not fade, / 也不会损失你这皎洁的红芳, Nor lose ownership of your fairness; / 或死神夸口你在他影里漂泊, Not even death will claim you, / Because 当你在不朽的诗里与时同长。 these lines I write will immortalize you:

thou grow’st to time grow—growest

Sonnet 18
? Couplet: The poem will be read as long as man lives and the beloved will live on.
So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
this poem

只要一天有人类,或人有眼睛, 这诗将长存,并且赐给你生命。
Your beauty will last as long as men breathe and see, / As Long as this sonnet lives and gives you life



Analysis of Summary of 18

Sonnets 18 and 29

The speaker opens the poem with a question addressed to the beloved: "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?" The next eleven lines are devoted to such a comparison. In line 2, the speaker stipulates what mainly differentiates the young man from the summer's day: he is "more lovely and more temperate.“ Summer's days tend toward extremes: they are shaken by "rough winds"; in them, the sun ("the eye of heaven") often shines "too hot," or too dim. And summer is fleeting: its date is too short, and it leads to the withering of autumn, as "every fair from fair sometime declines." The final quatrain of the sonnet tells how the beloved differs from the summer in that respect: his beauty will last forever ("Thy eternal summer shall not fade...") and never die. In the couplet, the speaker explains how the beloved's beauty will accomplish this feat, and not perish because it is preserved in the poem, which will last forever; it will live "as long as men can breathe or eyes can see."



Commentary of 18

?

This sonnet is certainly the most famous in the sequence of Shakespeare's sonnets; it may be the most famous lyric poem in English. Among Shakespeare's works, only lines such as "To be or not to be" and "Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo?" are better-known. This is not to say that it is at all the best or most interesting or most beautiful of the sonnets; but the simplicity and loveliness of its praise of the beloved has guaranteed its place.

? On the surface, the poem is simply a statement of praise about the beauty of the beloved; summer tends to unpleasant extremes of windiness and heat, but the beloved is always mild and temperate. Summer is incidentally personified as the "eye of heaven" with its "gold complexion"; the imagery throughout is simple and unaffected, with the "darling buds of May" giving way to the "eternal summer", which the speaker promises the beloved. The language, too, is comparatively unadorned for the sonnets; it is not heavy with alliteration or assonance, and nearly every line is its own self-contained clause--almost every line ends with some punctuation, which effects a pause.

? Sonnet 18 is the first poem in the sonnets not to explicitly encourage the young man to have children. The "procreation" sequence of the first 17 sonnets ended with the speaker's realization that the young man might not need children to preserve his beauty; he could also live, the speaker writes at the end of Sonnet 17, "in my rhyme." Sonnet 18, then, is the first "rhyme"--the speaker's first attempt to preserve the young man's beauty for all time. An important theme of the sonnet (as it is an important theme throughout much of the sequence) is the power of the speaker's poem to defy time and last forever, carrying the beauty of the beloved down to future generations. The beloved's "eternal summer" shall not fade precisely because it is embodied in the sonnet: "So long as men can breathe or eyes can see," the speaker writes in the couplet, "So long lives this, and this gives life to thee."

? Sonnet 29 shows us the poet at his most insecure and troubled. He feels himself unlucky, disgraced, and jealous of those around him. What is causing the poet's anguish one can only guess, but an examination of the circumstances surrounding his life at the time he wrote sonnet 29 could help us to understand his depression. In 1592, the London theatres closed due to a severe outbreak of the plague. Although it is possible that Shakespeare toured the outlying areas of London with acting companies like Pembroke's Men or Lord Strange's Men, it seems more likely that he left the theatre entirely during this time, possibly to work on his non-dramatic poetry. The closing of the playhouses made it hard for Shakespeare and other actors of the day to earn a living. With plague and poverty threatening his life, it is only natural that he felt "in disgrace with fortune".

Analysis of 29

? Moreover, in 1592 there came a scathing attack on Shakespeare by dramatist Robert Greene, who wrote in a deathbed diary: "There is an upstart crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his Tygers heart wrapt in a Players hide supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you; and, being an absolute Johannes Factotum, is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country." Shakespeare was deeply disturbed by this assault, feeling disgraced in "men's eyes" as well as fortune's. ? The poet is so forlorn that even the passion for his profession as an actor seems to have died (8). But the sonnet ends with a positive affirmation that all is not lost -- that the poet's dear friend can compensate for the grief he feels.

Literary Devices in Sonnet 18
? Rhetorical questioning: the 1st line, used to create a tone of respect, and to engage the audience. ? Personification: line 5,6 and line 11, used to elevate the sun and death. ? Parallelism: the final couplet, used to emphasize the message: the beauty of the subject will be immortalized by the power of his art

? Identify the author and the work: ? William Shakespeare’s sonnet 18. the beauty in poetry can last forever, 2 lines expressing Shakespeare’s faith in the permanence of poetry. The couplet clarify the theme: as long as humans live and breathe upon the earth , the beloved will live on

What is their relation to the other characters in the play?
Shylock:
the moneylender

Bassanio: Antonio:
the merchant of Venice
Antonio’s friend

Portia:
Bassanio’s wife

Duke:
the judge

Questions:
1. In which city does the play take place? Venice. 2. How much time passes between the beginning of the play and the end? Three months.

Three thousand ducats.

4. What must Antonio give Shylock if he can’t pay back the debt?
A pound of flesh.

莎士比亚戏剧的艺术成就
? 语言的丰富多彩 ①巨大的词汇量; 巨大的词汇量; 多样的语言形式: ②多样的语言形式 : 主要用无韵诗体写 成,其中也有散文、有韵诗和抒情歌谣。 其中也有散文、有韵诗和抒情歌谣。 个性化的语言: ③个性化的语言: 是展示人物性格发展 变化的重要手段。 变化的重要手段。

Questions of the next week.
– – – What is drama? And say something about drama or play. How do you appreciate the monologue “To be or not to be” in Hamlet? Comment on the hero, Hamlet.



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