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高考英语概要写作之说明文 一、写作指导 说明文的概要写作一般有三种参考模板: (1) 描写某事物的性质功能。即“对象+性质功能+利弊” : (in the passage ) the writer introduces… to us,especially its….,from which we know… (2) 针对某个问题提出解决方法或措施。即“问题+解决方法” :The passage tells us….. So the author tells us how to ..,including…… (3) 介绍某现象及其原因、结果。即“现象 + 原因 +结果” : The author talks about…..It is caused by….As a result(consequently),….

在概要写作前,我们要通读短文,确定其内容是属于那种类型,然后选择确当的模板。注意:不要关注一些次要的 细节却遗漏重要的要点,尽量少使用原文语句,多用自己的概括性的语言;3 到 5 个句子即可。 二、写作训练 1. In schools and at home,most of US have been scolded(责备) or even got punished for daydreaming. The majority of people say that by daydreaming we waste our time and energy on something unproductive. But many medical studies have shown something different. They’ve stressed the fact that daydreaming works wonders on our imagination,creativity and situation-handling techniques. In fact,many problems can be easily solved if we daydream. The topmost benefit of daydreaming is that your mood gets the right improvement. By separating yourself from the world around you,you tend to enjoy the loneliness in your mind and get peace from daydreaming as you think about something that calms your senses. When you start imagining things,you will forget all the stress and tension(紧 张) .Instead,you will get happiness from it and this happiness will turn into a source of energy that helps you work in a good mood. Many psycologists have said that people who daydream tend to have a sharper memory. It ’s true. When you’re daydreaming,you’ll tend to get carried away to imagine various situations,either real or unreal. You tend to act differently in different situations,trying to satisfy your mind by doing what you want in your dreams. When your mind gets satisfied,you’re in a better position to concentrate more on your work. Since daydreaming activates (激活) the nerves of your brain,you tend to have higher attentiveness and your ability to remember things will develop. When you daydream,you automatically imagine yourself as your heart says and therefore,you get to know yourself better. You also start realizing the mistakes you’ve made in life and trying your best to avoid repeating them. Such imagination techniques help you to connect yourself with your soul.

___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. The poaching,or illegal(非法) killing,of rhinos(犀牛) in South Africa is growing worse each year.The government recently reported that a record number of rhinos were poached in 2014,a year which had more

rhino killings in South Africa than ever before. The World Wildlife Fund,or WWF,says about 20,000 rhinos live in South Africa.That is more than 80 percent of the rhinos in the world. Edna Molewa, South Africa’ s environmental issues minister, says, “During 2014, we are sad to say this: 1, 215 rhinos were killed. This is a rise in the number of poached rhinos from 1004 in 2013 and indeed very worrying. ”The animals are hunted for their horns(犀牛角).Many people in Asia believe the horn has curing power,which drives poachers,at all costs,mad for more horns.But there is no scientific evidence for this belief.The horn is made of keratin.That is the same thing as human hair, fingernails and toenails. Ms. Mo1ewa said 386 suspected poachers were arrested last year, an increase from the year before. But rhino protection workers say poachers often go unpunished after arrest .South Africa’s legal system is ineffective.Ms.Molewa said more needs to be done and South Africa is taking strong measures to protect rhinos.The efforts include moving some of the animals to secret places in neighboring countries. “Now approximately 100 rhinos have been moved to neighboring states in the SADC region during 2014 and 200 more rhinos will be moved this year”Molewa said. Jo Shaw,the rhino program manager at the WWF,said, “we’re talking about a loss of a hundred rhinos a month.Or more than three a day.We really need to see effective action not just at a national level but internationally. ”She says officials should find the criminal groups responsible for the poaching and punish them. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________

3.Parents should think twice before rewarding their children's good behaviour with sweets, according to a leading nutritionist. Professor Susan Jebb, of Oxford University, says family attitudes should change as part of a wider strategy on tackling obesity(肥胖) - and there should be an alternative to the 'easy option' of handing out sweets to youngsters. Speaking to the Sunday Express, Prof Jebb said: 'Unless you instill(灌输) good eating habits from a young age, it is likely children will grow up to become overweight adults.But it is very difficult to persuade parents who see their children, who are a healthy weight, of the risks ahead.'Unlike with smoking, where the benefits of giving up are obvious with evidence showing that every single cigarette shortens your life, the same cannot be said for every single biscuit you eat.' She also welcomed last week's comments by David Cameron that Britain's obesity 'crisis' should be treated as seriously as smoking and that a tax on sugary drinks could be back on the agenda (议程) .The Prime Minister

hinted at an extraordinary U-turn amid growing public support for a 20 per cent levy.He said: 'I don't really want to put new taxes on anything but we do have to recognise that we face something of an obesity crisis'. Mr Cameron said the costs of diabetes, heart disease and cancer treatment for the overweight costs the NHS huge sums.He added: 'We do need to have a fully-worked-up programme to deal with this problem and address these issues in Britain and we will be making announcements later in the year'. Experts have also warned that obesity - fuelled by large amounts of sugar - is escalating at such a rate that it will cause almost 700,000 additional cases of cancer within the next 20 years, experts have warned.They say that being overweight is already 'the new norm' and predict that four in ten adults will be obese by 2035. Estimates also show that by this time obesity-related illnesses, including diabetes and heart disease, will cost the NHS more than ?7.5billion a year. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.The expression, “everybody’s doing it,” is very much at the center of the concept of peer pressure(同伴压力). It is a strong influence of a group, especially of children, on members of that group to behave as everybody else does. It can be positive or negative. Most people experience it in some way during their lives.People are social creatures by nature, and so it is hardly surprising that part of their self-respect comes from the approval of others. This instinct (天性) is why the approval of peers, or the fear of disapproval, is such a powerful force in many people’s lives. It is the same instinct that drives people to dress one way at home and another way at work, or to answer “fine” when a stranger asks “how are you?” even if it is not necessarily true. There is a practical aspect to this: it helps society to function efficiently, and encourages a general level of self-discipline that simplifies day-to-day interaction. For certain individuals, seeking social acceptance is so important that it becomes like an addiction; in order to satisfy the desire, they may go so far as to abandon their sense of right and wrong. Teens and young adults may feel forced to use drugs, or join gangs that encourage criminal behavior. Mature adults may sometimes feel pressured to cover up illegal activity at the company where they work, or end up in debt because they are unable to hold back the desire to buy a house or car that they can’t afford in an effort to “keep up with the Joneses.”However, peer pressure is not always negative. A student whose friends are good at academics may be urged to study harder and get good grades. Players on a sports team may feel driven to play harder in order to help the team win. This type of influence can also get a friend off drugs, or to help an adult take up a good habit or drop a bad one. Study groups and class projects are examples of positive peer groups that encourage people to better themselves. Schools try to teach kids about the dangers of negative peer pressure. They teach kids to stand up and be themselves, and encourage them to politely

decline to do things that they believe are wrong. Similarly, it can be helpful to encourage children to greet the beneficial influence of positive peer groups. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

Keys: 1. Many people regard daydreaming as a waste of time and energy. However,that is not the case.Many medical Studies have found that daydreaming has a lot of benefits. First of all, daydreaming can improve your mood. What ’s more, it helps develop your memory. Last but not least,daydreaming helps you to know yourself better. 2. The poaching of rhinos is getting worse in South Africa each year, according to the government and WWF. Many rhinos are killed for their horns ehich is believed to have curing power. Althouh more poachers are arrested, they hardly get punished.So the members of WWF are calling on more meassures which should taken by the government and the whole world to protect rhinos.,including effective legal system,rhinos living place and even international cooperation. 3. Professor Susan Jebb, of Oxford University,urges parents to seek healthier alternative to handing kid’s obesity rather than adopt easymethods. Addtionnally, David Cameron said obesity crisis was as serious as smoking. So families are required to introduce good eating habits to help avoid obesity issues.Add parents are told to stop giving their children sweets as rewards for good behavior in latest bid to tackle Britain obesity crisis. 4. Peer pressure refers to strong feeling that you must do things the way other people of your age do.People expect te approval from others, which helps society function efficiently.Peer pressure has positive influence like bringing good grades, but it also has negative influence like lack of moral sence. To avoid the influence of negative peer pressure, kids should be encouraged to be themselves and decline to do wrong thing.


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