Lecture 11: Unit 7 (Ⅰ)
Space across Culture Teaching objectives: 1. Nonverbal communication in Japanese culture; 2. Functions of nonverbal communication; 3. Concept of space in different
Part 1. Review
Questions: 1. What important means of nonverbal communication can you think of? 2. Among Latin America, North America, and Japan, which has the highest-touch culture, and which the lowest-touch one?7 3. Case 22 （P.216）
Case 22 (P. 216)
In Puerto Rican(波多黎各) culture, as in some other Latin American and Eastern cultures, it is not right for a child to keep an eye-contact with an adult who is accusing him, and avoiding eye-contact with others may signify respect for authority and obedience in the culture. As a contrast, in the United States, avoiding eye contact with others would be taken as a sign of guiltiness, shyness, lack of confidence, etc.
? Matching Task (P. 200):
Part 2: Sharing Knowledge (P. 202)
Baptics (体触学) is the study of how we touch in communication. (体触学研究如何以身体接触来传达信 息。) As a means of non-verbal communication, human touch can be analyzed from the perspective of context aspects. The meaning of a touch can be interpreted from 8 factors. In China today, it seems that people of the younger generation tend to use touch much more than people of older generations in communication, especially in public places.
Part 3: Cultural information e (P. 212)
Term explanation: kinesics (Para 3, P. 213) Kinesics (体态学) is the study of body movements, gestures, facial expressions, etc., as a means of communication. Questions 1. Why there usually exists a bowing contest in communication between Japanese? 2. How can we know that bowing is almost an automatic movement to Japanese?
Exploration (P. 214)
One of the most important nonverbal communications in Japan is the bow. Japanese bow very often in their daily life, and bowing involves several repeats, and the angle at which the trunk of human body moves downward from the vertical position is also of great importance. In Japanese culture, bowing is more than a way of greeting, serving more functions than handshaking or embracing in some other cultures. In Japan, bowing is the beginning of human relations. Furthermore, it enhances relations between communicators and can finally be used to end the interaction. To Japanese, whether to bow or to shake hands with Westerners can be a difficult choice. One compromise is to shake hands while bowing at the same time.
Part 4. Further reading (P. 218)
? A question: ? According to the text, why nonverbal communication is important?
Functions of Nonverbal Communication
– – – – – Repeating(重复) Complementing(补充) Substituting(替代) Regulating(调节) Contradicting(否定)
A question: Can you give examples of nonverbal behaviors to illustrate each of the functions mentioned in the text？
Part 5. The Language of Space (239)
?People erect flags, fences, and walls to claim their territory.
? People may have public territories that are open to all, such as a table in a library, a seat in such public places as banks, post offices, parks, or a parking lot.
?You drew a line on the classroom desk to signal your ownership of your space.
?What about animals?
? Intimate space for embracing, touching or whispering; ? Personal space for interactions among good friends or family members; ? Social space for interactions among acquaintances; ? Public space used for public speaking.
? Personal Space (P. 239)
?The personal space is the portable (便携的) territory with invisible boundaries that expand or contract, depending on the situation.
? In other word, we carry body bubbles with us which are like invisible walls that defined our personal space.
?What might be the factors that will affect personal space of people? Decisive factors : their gender, age, cultural setting and relationship to their partners.
Which group of people among Latin Americans, Northern Europeans, and Japanese have the biggest body distance (personal space) ? And the smallest?
The variation of body distance
Latin Americans Mediterranean Europeans Middle eastern people
Americans Northern Europeans The English
Japanese (mental creation)
Chinese tall enclosing wall VS Western low fence
“Large” personal bubble in Japanese culture is nothing but a mental creation.
? A public space is a social space such as a town square that is generally open and accessible. For example, no fees or paid tickets are required for entry.
In the United States the right of the people to engage in speech and assembly in public places may not be unreasonably restricted by the federal or state government. The government cannot usually limit one's speech in a public space.
Public space in front of the Capitol Hill
Public space outside the White House
Speaker’s corner in Hyde Park : public place for free speeches
“Public” space in Zhongnanhai
? 1. Cultural information (P. 244) ? 2. Case 28 （P. 253） ? 3. Further reading Ⅰ(P. 253);