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初高中英语衔接教材


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初高中英语衔接 同学们,为了让你们更好的适应高中阶段的英语学习,将初 中和高中的英语学习有机的结合起来,特编写了以下的内容,希 望对大家能够有所帮助。 一. 解读高中英语教材 目前我们用的这套教材是由人民教育出版社出版的《普通高 中课程标准实验教科书 英语》 (New Senior English For China) , 简称为人教新课标版教材。这套

教材和以往的教材相比,更加符 合中国学生的认知特点和思维方式。教材把话题、结构、功能和 任务型活动有机地结合在一起,既符合中国学生英语学习的规律 和特点,又体现了新的教育教学理念。教材系统性强,同时该教 科书以话题为核心,以结构和功能项目为主线,组织和安排听、 说、读、写的活动,有利于我们从整体上进行把握。 本套教材又分为必修和选修两个部分, 必修部分共分为 5 个模 块(即必修 1-必修 5) 。高中英语课程设计为学生提供了若干模 块的选修课程,学生可以根据自己的兴趣、特长和对未来发展的 设计进行选修,分为两个不同的系列课程,即 B 系列和 C 系列课 程。 B 系列课程为顺序选修课程,应在完成 A 系列课程后顺序选 修。B 系列课程的内容和结构与 A 系列基本相同,在继续发展学 生听、说、读、写的综合语言技能的同时,重点发展学生的阅读
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与表达能力。共设 6 个模块即(即选修修 6-选修 11) 。我们一般 选修的是 B 系列的课程。 C 系列课程又分为三种类型的课程:语言知识与技能类、语言 应用类和欣赏类。其目的是为培养学生的专项语用技能,发展特 长、爱好,满足兴趣和需求而开设的,为学生进一步学习或就业, 特别是终身发展打好基础。由于这一系列的要求较高,我们一般 不选修这一系列的课程。 本套教材的必修部分和顺序选修部分的每册中都以话题为重 点,以单元为顺序进行编排,每一模块包含 5 个单元,每一单元 又包含了一个话题。教材 Contents(目录)部分列出了每个单元 的 Topics(话题) ,Functional items(功能项目) ,Structures(结 构,即语法) , Reading ( 阅 读 内 容 ) , Writing( 写 作 ) 以 及 workbook(练习簿),还具体列出条目供给我们自主学习。 每 一 单 元 主 要 有 以 下 及 部 分 构 成 的 : Warming Up , Pre-reading , Reading , Comprehending , Learning about Language,Using Language,Summing Up,Learning Tip 八项。 Workbook 中 包 括 Listening , Talking , Using words and

expressions,Using structures,Listening task,Reading task, Speaking task,Writing task,Project,Checking yourself 十项。 当然,在平时的学习中老师会根据具体的情况对这些项目进行整 合或者适当删减的。 总之,这套教科书中的语言材料基本源自当代社会生活,语言
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真实、地道、自然,以英式英语为主,也介绍了世界上主要英语 国家的英语,如美国、澳大利亚等国家的英语,可以增进我们对 英语的全面了解。相信经过我们的努力,在这套教材的帮助下, 我们可以更好的感悟和体验英语,发展语言技能,进而逐步获得 综合语言运用能力。 祝愿同学们在高中英语学习中取得理想的成绩! 二.高中英语学法指导 迈进高中的校门,面对全新的学习环境,同学们进入了一个新的 学习阶段。学习内容及难度与过去初中有了很大的改变,因而学 习方法也应当相应地有所改变。在初中阶段,英语学习主要重视 对于简单英语知识和语法的学习,而到了高中阶段则侧重于培养 英语的的综合能力,这就需要我们把学到的知识灵活运用到对语 言、文章的理解中,不断提高分析判断能力、逻辑思维能力和语 言运用能力。因此我们应当讲求学习策略,制定符合自己的学习 方法和目标,力争从一开始就养成一个良好的学习习惯,使自己 充满信心,学好英语。 一、学习英语首先从总体上中要注意的几点: 1、要点滴积累,不要急于求成。 记住:Rome isn?t built in one day! (罗马不是一天就建成的)。 急于求成就可能会造成消化不良,或者一事无成的结果。急于求 成往往表现为对自己提出过高的要求。这样做往往会给自己很大 压力,进而对自己逐渐失去信心,失去兴趣。只有逐步的积累,
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才能聚沙成塔、集腋成裘,由量的积累进而实现质的变化,从而 实现英语成绩的飞跃提升和自己语言运用能力的提高。 2、要把握英语学习的规律,善于积累。 语言的学习应听、说、读、写全面发展,在开始阶段应侧重 以听说为主。然后逐步加大阅读,毕竟高中英语学习阶段主要以 阅读理解是主要的培养目标。养成每天阅读一定的英文的好习惯 会让你终身受益。 记住:Ten mimutes every day is better than ten hours in a day! 我们要尊重记忆规律,利用点滴时间,与其他学科穿插进行。特 别是早晨是学习英语的大好时光。 3、要树立信心,不要妄自菲薄。 “有的同学在初中阶段英语学习的并不是很好, 对高中学习也失去 了信心。其实,语言学习就是一个积累的过程,只要我们在高中 阶段认真学习,把握英语学习的规律,就一定能够将这一学科学 好。无数的实践也反复证明了这一道理,很多在初中阶段英语基 础并不是很好的同学,到了高中之后掌握了正确的学习方法并且 努力学习,一样可以将英语学得很好。 4、要做到博闻强识,加强背诵。 许多语言教育专家指出:语言能力的强弱与掌握语言材料的多 寡成正比。语言材料输入量越大,语言能力提高越快,其中背诵 是一种强化语言材料输入的好方法, 是不可缺少的语言学习环节。 另外还要学会主动出击,不要坐等人教;要持之以恒,不要三天
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打鱼两天晒网。 二、高中阶段具体的学习方法 1、把握好课堂学习这一主阵地。 课堂上要积极参与,不能做被动的听众。提高课堂效率,珍惜每 一次练习机会。要想在课堂上提高效率,那课前的预习就显得尤 为重要了。在预习时,我们要结合课后的 notes(注释)熟读课文, 了解生词在文章中的使用,标出难点。同时在课堂上要做到认真 听讲,积极回答;我们还要学会记笔记,因为理解≠记住≠灵活运 用。因此,对好的例句、词语辨析、常用句型、文化差异,中英 文差异,习俗差异都可作些笔录。既可以在课上去记,同时课下 还要进行认真的补充和整理,要将英语笔记作为我们学习英语的 一笔宝贵的财富。语法的框架。 关于语法知识的学习:掌握一定的语法知识是必要的,它是基础, 也是高中英语模块教学的重点。中国人学习外语应该学点语法, 但是过分地研究语法是不利于能力的培养的,这也是中国人学习 英语的误区。因此我们学习语法的时候,不是单纯的记忆语法的 条文,而是看语法在实际语境中是如何应用的。语法会对其他能 力的形成有很大的影响,缺乏的扎实的语法基础就无法读懂结构 复杂的长句,阅读能力和书面表达的能力也因此而受到牵制和影 响。切记:语言的意义决定语言的形式。我们在学习时一定要再 具体的语境中去分析句子,认真分析并总结错题,我们就一定能 够掌握好语法的。
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3、注重阅读训练,提高自己的阅读能力 阅读应该是高中三年中最应重视的部分了。 因为它是培养英语语 感,巩固和熟悉所学知识的最有效途径。在高中阶段,我们的阅 读不能仅仅满足于课文了,还要做到进行大量的课外阅读。要记 住,用一本教科书学英语是绝对不够的。泛读时可以选择一些与 高中学习有关的书报杂志。读不同题材、体裁的文章,理解跨学 科知识。读时注意对运用精妙的词汇,短语或句子做些摘抄。 除此之外,同学们也要更加重视听说能力的培养。能说出一 口流利的英语,不仅培养了成就感,也促进了语言的学习。开始 时可跟录音读,保证发音正确。因为许多同学听力差并不是因为 掌握的语言知识不够,而是听到的正确的语音与自己所说熟悉的 不正确的读音不能联系起来,因此影响了理解。 英语音标发音表 英语国际音标共 48 个音素, 其中元音音素 20 个, 辅音音素 28 个。 对于初学者来说,若采用集中教学,要学会 48 个音素的发音并区 别开。确实不易。笔者对音标的教学采用了相对集中的方法,即 从字母名称教学过渡到部分音标教学。

国际音标(英语语音) 前元音 元音 单元音 中元音 [? ]
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[i:]

[i] [?:]

[e] [?]

[?]

后元音 开合双元音 双元音 集中双元音 清辅音 爆破音 浊辅音 清辅音 摩擦音 浊辅音 辅音 破擦音 浊辅音 鼻音 舌则音 半元音 (浊辅音) (浊辅音) (浊辅音) 清辅音

[u:] [ei]

[u] [ai]

[?:]

[? ]

[a:]

[?i] [?u] [au]

[i?] [ε ?] [u?] [p] [b] [f] [v] [t?] [d?] [m] [l] [w] [t] [d] [s] [z] [tr] [dr] [n] [r] [j] [k] [g] [? ] [? ] [ts] [dz] [?] [θ ] [?] [h]

句子成分及结构 一:句子成分由词或词组充当, 英语的基本成分有七种 主语( subject ) 、谓语( predicate ) 、宾语( object ) 、表语 ( predicative ) 、 定 语 ( attribute ) 、 状 语 (adverbial) , 补 语 (complement) 。 (1). 主语 S 主语 (Subject) 是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首。表示 句子说的是什么人或什么事。但在 there be 结构、疑问句(当主 语不是疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语、助动词或情态动
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词后面。主语可由名词、代词、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化 的形容词和主语从句等表示。例如: 1.During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular. 名词 2.We often speak English in class. 代词 3.One-third of the students in this class are girls. 数词 4.To swim in the river is a great pleasure. 不定式 5.Smoking does harm to the health. 动名词 6.The rich should help the poor. 名词化的形容词 7.When we are going to have an English test has not been decided. 主语从句 8.It is necessary to master a foreign language。it 为形式主语,不 定式为真正的主语 (2). 谓语 (V) 谓语 (Predicate) 说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动 词在句中作谓语,一般放在主语之后。谓语的构成如下: 1、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。如: He practices running every morning. The plane took off at ten o?clock. 2、复合谓语: 由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。如: You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. 注意:谓语与主语在人称与数方面要保持一致。 (3)表语 (P) 表语(Predicative)用以说明主语的性质、特征、状态与身份,它一 般位于系动词之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、数词、 副 词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语及表语从句表示。例如: 1.Our teacher of English is an American.(名词) 2.Is it yours?(代词) 3.The weather has turned cold.(形容词) 4.The speech is exciting.(分词) 5.Three times seven is twenty one?(数词) 6.His job is to teach English.(不定式) 7.His hobby is playing football.(动名词)
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8.The meeting is of great importance.(介词短语) 9.Time is up. The class is over.(副词) 10.The truth is that he has never been abroad.(表语从句) 注意:系动词(Linking verb)用于连接主语和表语,说明主语的 状态,性质特征和身份等。 1)状态系动词用来表示主语状态,只有 be 一词,例如: He is a teacher. 2)持续系动词用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有 keep, remain, stay, stand, 例如: He always keep silent at meeting. 3)感官系动词主要有 feel, smell, sound, taste, 例如: This kind of cloth feels very soft. 4)变化系动词表示主语变成什么样,主要有 become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run.例如: He became mad after that. 除此之外,还有 prove, turn out, appear, seem 等。 The rumor proved false. His plan turned out a success。 (4)宾语 (O) 宾语(Object)表示动作的对象或承受者,一般位于及物动词和 介词后面。例如: 1.They visited an exhibition yesterday.名词 2.The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time. 代 词,动名词 3.How many dictionaries do you have? I have five. 名词,数词 4.They helped the old with their housework yesterday. 名词化形 容词,名词 5.He pretended not to see me. 不定式 6.I enjoy listening to popular music. 动名词 7.I think(that)he is fit for his office. 宾语从句 宾语种类: 1)双宾语(间接宾语 O+直接宾语 O) Lend me your dictionary, please. He gave me a book yesterday. 2)复合宾语(宾语 O+宾补 C)
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1. They elected him their monitor. 名词 2.They painted their boat white. 形容词 3.Let the fresh air in. 介词 4.You mustn?t force him to lend his money to you. 不定式 5.We saw her entering the room. 动名词 6.We found everything in the lab in good order. 介词短语 7.We will soon make our city what your city is now. 从句 以上几种是句子的必要成分,不可缺少,否则句子意义就不 完整。句子除了必要成分外,还可以有定语,状语,同位语和插 入语。 (5)定语 修饰,限制,描述或补充说明名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为 定语(Attribute)。 1.Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词) 2.China is a developing country; America is a developed country. (分词) 3.There are thirty women teachers in our school.(名词) 4.His rapid progress in English made us surprised.(代词) 5.Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom. (不定式短 语) 6.The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.(动名词) 7.He is reading an article about how to learn English.(介词短语) 8.Farmers who saw us stared at us as if we are walking skeletons. (定语从句) (6)状语 修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作或状态特征的句 子成分。从情况,时间,处所,方式,条件,对象,肯定,否定,范围和程度 等方面对谓语中心进行修饰或限制,状语一般由副词充当,也可 由名词,介词短语,非谓语动词,从句等充当。 1.Light travels most quickly. 副词及副词性短语 2.He has lived in the city for ten years. 介词短语 3.He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination. 不定式 4.He is in the room making a model plane. 分词短语 5.Wait a minute. 名词
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6.Once you begin, you must continue. 状语从句 9 种状语种类如下: 1. How about meeting again at six? 时间 2.Last night she didn?t go to the dance party because of the rain. 原因 3.I shall go there if it doesn?t rain. 条件 4.Mr Smith lives on the third floor. 地点 5.She put the eggs into the basket with great care. 方式 5. She came in with a dictionary in her hand. 伴随 6.In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder. 目的 7.He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately. 结果 8.She works very hard though she is old. 让步 9.I am taller than he is. 比较 (7)同位语(Appositive)对前面的名词或代词做进一步的解释, 通常由名词、数词、代词或从句担任,如: This is Mr. Zhou, our headmaster. We students should study hard. We all are students. (8)插入语(Parenthesis)对一句话做一些附加的解释,通常有 to be honest , I think (suppose, believe---)等,如: To be frank, I don?t quite agree with you. 二:英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组 合、省略或倒装。 掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。 1: S V (主+谓) 2: S V P (主+系+表) 3: S V O (主+谓+宾) 4: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) 5: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补) 基本句型一:S │ V (不及物动词) 1. The sun │ rose. 2. Who │cares? 3. What he said │does not matter. 4. They │talked for half an hour.
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5. The pen │writes smoothly 此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的谓语动词 都能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做不及物动词, 后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等。 基本句型二:S │V(是系动词)│ P(表语) 1. This │is │an English-Chinese dictionary. 2. The dinner │smells │good. 3. He │fell │in love. 4. Everything │looks │different. 5. He │is growing │tall and strong. 6. Our well │has gone │dry. 7. His face │turned │red. 基本句型 三: S V O (主+谓+宾) 此句型句子的共同特点是:谓语动词都具有实义,都是主语产生 的动作,但不能表达完整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语,即动作的 承受者,才能使意思完整。这类动词叫做及物动词。 S │V(及物动词)│ O(宾语) 1. Who │knows │the answer? 2. He │has refused │to help them. 3. He │enjoys │reading. 4. He │said │"Good morning." 5. He │admits │that he was mistaken. 基本句型 四: S V O O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) 有些及物动词可以有两个宾语。这两个宾语通常一个指人(间接宾 语);一个指物(直接宾语)。 S │V(及物)│ O(多指人) │ O(多指物) 1.She │ordered │herself │a new dress. 2. He │brought │you │a dictionary. 3. I │showed │him │my pictures. 4. I │told │him │that the bus was late. 5. He │showed │me │how to run the machine. 基本句型 五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补) 此句型的句子的共同特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一 个宾语还不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾 语,才能使意思完整。
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S │V(及物)│ O(宾语) │ C(宾补) 1. They │painted │the door │green. 2. This │set │them │thinking. 3. They │found │the house │deserted. 4. He │asked │me │to come back soon. 5. I │saw │them │getting on the bus. 三:Practice makes perfect. (一) 选择句子结构 a,S V b, S V P c,S V O d,S V o O e,S V O C 1. Please tell us a story._______ 2. She smiled.______ 3. I have a lot work to do._____ 4. His job is to train swimmers._____ 5. He noticed a man enter the room._____ 6. Please look at the picture._____ (二).指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分: ? 1. The students got on the school bus. ? 2. He handed me the newspaper. ? 3. I shall answer your question after class. ? 4. What a beautiful Chinese painting! ? 5. They went hunting together early in the morning. ? 6. His job is to train swimmers. ? 7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing. ? 8. There is going to be an American film tonight. ? 9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow. ? 10. His wish is to become a scientist. ? 11. He managed to finish the work in time. ? 12. Tom came to ask me for advice. ? 13. He found it important to master English. ? 14. Do you have anything else to say? ? 15. To be honest,your pronunciation is not so good. ? 16. Would you please tell me your address? ? 17. He sat there, reading a newspaper. ? 18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy.
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? 19. He noticed a man enter the room. ? 20. The apples tasted sweet. (三)翻译下列句子 主谓结构 ( 主语 + 不及物动词 )

1.你应当努力学习。 2.她昨天回家很晚。 3.那天早上我们谈了很多。 4.会议将持续两个小时。 5.在过去的十年里,我的家乡已经发生了巨大的变化。 主谓宾结构 (主语 +及物动词 +宾语 1.昨晚我写了一封信。 2.今天下午我想同你谈谈。 3.这本书他读过多次了。 4.他们成功地完成了计划。 5.那位先生能流利地说三种语言。 主系表结构 (主语 +系动词+表语 ) 1.我的兄弟都是大学生。 2.冬季白天短,夜晚长。 3.孩子们,请保持安静。 4.树叶已经变黄了。 5.这个报告听起来很有意思。
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双宾语结构 (主语+双宾动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 ) 1 Johnson 先生去年教我们德语。 2. 奶奶昨晚给我们讲了一个有趣的故事。 3. Mary 把钱包交给校长了。 4. Robinson Crusoe 给自己做了一只小船。 5. 我替你叫辆出租汽车好吗? 复合宾语结构 (主语 +动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语 ) 1.我们叫她 Alice. 2.我们大家都认为他是诚实的。 3.我们要使学校变得更美丽。 4.每天早晨我们都听到他大声朗读英语。 5.我们不会让她在晚上外出的。 There be 句型 1.今晚没有会。 2.这个村子过去只有一口井。 3 这个学校有一名音乐老师和一名美术老师 4.灯亮着,办公室里肯定有人。 5.恰好那时房里没人。 初中英语语法 一.名词 I. 名词的种类:
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专有名词

普通名词

可数名词 不可数名词 国名地名人 名,团体机构 个体名 集体名词 抽象名词 物质名词 名称 词 Beijing, gun family work air China II. 名词的数: 1. 规则名词的复数形式:名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面 加-s 或-es。现将构成方法与读音规则列表如下: 规则 例词 1 一般情况在词尾加-s 2 map-maps, sea-seas, girl-girls, day-days

以 s, x, ch, sh 结尾的名词 class-classes, box-boxes, 后加-es watch-watches, dish-dishes leaf-leaves, thief-thieves, 变-f 和-fe 为 v 再加 knife-knives, -es wife-wives, half-halves 加-s chief-chiefs, proof-proofs, roof-roofs

以-f 或-fe 3 结尾 的词 4

以辅音字母加 y 结尾的名 party-parties, family-families, 词,变 y 为 i 加-es story-stories, city-cities

以元音字母加 y 结尾的名 toy-toys, boy-boys, day-days, 5 词,或专有名词以 y 结尾 ray-rays, Henry-Henrys 的,加-s 以辅 音字 母加 6 -o 结 尾的 名词 一般加-es 不少外来词加-s 两者皆可 Negro-Negroes, hero-heroes, potato-potatoes, tomato-tomatoes piano-pianos, photo-photos, auto-autos, kilo-kilos, solo-solos zero-zeros/zeroes,
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volcano-volcanoes/ volcanos 7 以元音字母加-o 结尾的名 radio-radios, bamboo-bamboos, 词加-s zoo-zoos truth-truths, mouth-mouths, month-months, path-paths,

8 以-th 结尾的名词加-s

2. 不规则名词复数:英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,现 归纳如下: 规则 例词 1 改变名词中的元音字母或 man-men, woman-women, 其他形式 foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice sheep, deer, means, works, fish, yuan, jin, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses,

2 单复数相同 3 只有复数形式 4

一些集体名词总是用作复 people, police 数

部分集体名词既可以作单 class, family, crowd, couple, 5 数(整体)也可以作复数 group, government, population, (成员) team, public, party customs(海关), times(时代), spirits(情绪), drinks(饮料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), looks(外表), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜) Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese Englishmen, Frenchwomen
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6 复数形式表示特别含义

表示 加-s “某 7 国 单复数同形 人” 以-man 或-woman

结尾的改为 -men,-women 将主体名词变为复 数 sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches women singers, men servants

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合成 名词 无主体名词时将最 后一部分变为复数 将两部分变为复数

III. 名词的所有格: 名词在句中表示所有关系的语法形式叫做名词所有格。所有格分 两种:一是名词词尾加?s 构成,二是由介词 of 加名词构成。前者 多表示有生命的东西,后者多表示无生命的东西。 1. ?s 所有格的构成: the boy?s father, Jack?s book, her 单数名词在末尾加?s son-in-law?s photo, 一般在末尾加? the teachers? room, the twins? mother, 复数名 不规则复数名词 词 the children?s toys, women?s rights, 后加?s 以 s 结尾的人名所有格 加?s 或者? 表示各自的所有关系时, 各名词末尾均须加?s 表示共有的所有关系时 在最后一词末加?s Dickens? novels, Charles?s job, the Smiths? house Japan?s and America?s problems, Jane?s and Mary?s bikes Japan and America?s problems, Jane and Mary?s father

表示"某人家""店 the doctor?s, the barber?s, the tailor?s, 铺",所有格后名词省略 my uncle?s 2. ?s 所有格的用法: 1 表示时间 today?s newspaper, five weeks? holiday 2 表示自然现象 the earth?s atmosphere, the tree?s
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branches 3 4 5 6 7 表示国家城市等 the country?s plan, the world?s population, 地方的名词 China?s industry 表示工作群体 the ship?s crew, majority?s view, the team?s victory

表示度量衡及价 a mile?s journey, five dollars? worth of 值 apples 与人类活动有特 the life?s time, the play?s plot 殊关系的名词 某些固定词组 a bird?s eye view, a stone?s throw, at one?s wit?s end(不知所措)

3. of 所有格的用法: 用于无生命的东西:the legs of the chair, the cover of the book 用于有生命的东西,尤其是有较长定语时:the classrooms of the first-year students 用于名词化的词:the struggle of the oppressed 二.冠词 冠词分为不定冠词(a, an),定冠词(the),和零冠词。 I. 不定冠词的用法: 指一类人或事, 相当于 a 1 A plane is a machine that can fly. kind of 2 3 4 第一次提及某人某物, A boy is waiting for you. 非特指 表示“每一”相当于 every,one 表示“相同”相当于 the same We study eight hours a day. We are nearly of an age.

用于人名前,表示不认 A Mr. Smith came to visit you when 5 识此人或与某名人有类 you were out 似性质的人或事 That boy is rather a Lei Feng.
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6 用于固定词组中 用于 quite, rather, 7 many, half, what, such 之后 8

A couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk, many a time This room is rather a big one.

用于 so(as, too, how)+形 She is as clever a girl as you can 容词之后 wish to meet. II. 定冠词的用法: 1 表示某一类人或物 The horse is a useful animal. 2 3 用于世上独一无二的事物名 the universe, the moon, the 词前 Pacific Ocean 表示说话双方都了解的或上 Would you mind opening the 文提到过的人或事 door? play the violin, play the guitar 用于形容词和分词前表示一 the reach, the living, the 类人 wounded the Greens, the Wangs 用于序数词和形容词副词比 He is the taller of the two 较级最高级前 children.

4 用于乐器前面 5

6 表示“一家人”或“夫妇” 7

the United States, the 用于国家党派等以及江河湖 8 Communist Party of China, the 海,山川群岛的名词前 French 9 10 用于表示发明物的单数名词 The compass was invented in 前 China. 在逢十的复数数词之前,指 in the 1990?s 世纪的某个年代 I hired the car by the hour. 用于方位名词,身体部位名 He patted me on the shoulder. 词,及表示时间的词组前
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11 用于表示单位的名词前 12

III. 零冠词的用法: 专有名词,物质名词,抽象 Beijing University, Jack, China, 1 名词,人名地名等名词前 love, air 2 3 4 5 6 7 名词前有 this, my, whose, I want this book, not that one. / some, no, each, every 等限制 Whose purse is this? 季节,月份,星期,节假日,March, Sunday, National Day, 一日三餐前 spring 表示职位,身份,头衔的名 Lincoln was made President of 词前 America. 学科,语言,球类,棋类名 He likes playing football/chess. 词前 与 by 连用表示交通工具的名 by train, by air, by land 词前 以 and 连接的两个相对的名 husband and wife, knife and 词并用时 fork, day and night

8 表示泛指的复数名词前 Horses are useful animals. 三.代词: I. 代词可以分为以下七大类: 人 主格 I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they 称 1 代 宾格 me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them 词 物 主 2 代 词 形容 词性 名词 性 my, your, his, her, its, our, their mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves this, that, these, those, such, some
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3 反身代词 4 指示代词

5 疑问代词 6 关系代词 7 不定代词

who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever, whatever that, which, who, whom, whose, as one/ some/ any, each/ every, none/ no, many/ much, few/ little/ a few/ a little,

other/ another, all/ both, neither/ either II. 不定代词用法注意点: 1. one, some 与 any: 1) one 可以泛指任何人,也可特指,复数为 ones。some 多用于肯 定句,any 多用于疑问句和否定句。 One should learn to think of others. Have you any bookmarks? No, I don?t have any bookmarks. I have some questions to ask. 2) some 可用于疑问句中,表示盼望得到肯定的答复,或者表示建 议,请求等。 Would you like some bananas? Could you give me some money? 3) some 和 any 修饰可数名词单数时,some 表示某个,any 表示 任何一个。 I have read this article in some magazine. Please correct the mistakes, if any. 4) some 和数词连用表示“大约”,any 可与比较级连用表示程度。 There are some 3,000 students in this school. Do you feel any better today? 2. each 和 every: each 强调个别,代表的数可以是两个或两个以上,而 every 强调 整体,所指的数必须是三个或三个以上。 Each student has a pocket dictionary. / Each (of us) has a dictionary. / We each have a dictionary. Every student has strong and weak points. / Every one of us has strong and weak points. 3. none 和 no: no 等于 not any,作定语。none 作主语或宾语,代替不可数名词,
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谓语用单数,代替可数名词,谓语单复数皆可以。 There is no water in the bottle. How much water is there in the bottle? None. None of the students are (is) afraid of difficulties. 4. other 和 another: 1) other 泛指“另外的,别的”常与其他词连用,如:the other day, every other week, some other reason, no other way, the other 特指两者中的另外一个,复数为 the others。如: He held a book in one hand and his notes in the other. Two students in our class failed, but all the others passed the exam. 2) another 指“又一个,另一个”无所指,复数形式是 others,泛指 “别的人或事”如: I don?t like this shirt, please show me another (one). The trousers are too long, please give me another pair / some others. Some like football, while others like basketball. 5. all 和 both, neither 和 either all 表示不可数名词时,其谓语动词用单数。both 和 all 加否定词 表示部分否定,全部否定用 neither 和 none. All of the books are not written in English. / Not all of the books are written in English. Both of us are not teachers. / Not both of us are teachers. / Either of us is a teacher. 四.形容词和副词 I.形容词: 1. 形容词的位置: 1) 形容词作定语通常前置,但在下列情况后置: 修饰 some, any, every, no 和 body, nobody absent, 1 thing, one 等构成的复合不定代词时 everything possible 2 3 以-able, -ible 结尾的形容词可置于有 the best book available, 最高级或 only 修饰的名词之后 the only solution possible alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep 等 可以后置
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the only person awake

4 和空间、时间、单位连用时 5 成对的形容词可以后置 6 形容词短语一般后置

a bridge 50 meters long a huge room simple and beautiful

a man difficult to get on with 2) 多个形容词修饰同一个名词的顺序: 代词 数词 性状形容词 冠词 指示代 冠词 词 前的 序数 基数 性质 不定代 形容 词 词 状态 词 词 代词所 有格 the a beauti all seco this one ful both nd anothe four good such next r poor your 3) 复合形容词的构成: 形容词+名词 1 kind-hearted +ed 2 3 4 5 形容词+形容 dark-blue 词

大小 长短 形状

新 旧 国籍 颜色 温 产地 度

材 料 质 地 名 词

large blac Chin silk short new k ese ston squar cool yello Lond e e w on

6 名词+形容词 world-famous 7 名词+现在分 peace-loving 词

形容词+现在 ordinary-lookin 名词+过去分 8 snow-covered 分词 g 词 副词+现在分 hard-working 词 副词+过去分 newly-built 词 9 数词+名词 +ed three-egged twenty-year

1 数词+名词 0
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II. 副词 副词的分类: soon, now, early, 时间 1 finally, once, 副词 recently 地点 2 副词 方式 3 副词 4 here, nearby, outside, upwards, above hard, well, fast, slowly, excitedly, really

频度 5 副词 疑问 副词

always, often, frequently, seldom, never how, where, when, why how, when, where, why, whether, however, meanwhile

6

连接 7 副词

程度 almost, nearly, very, 关系 8 when, where, why 副词 fairly, quite, rather 副词 III. 形容词和副词比较等级: 形容词和副词的比较等级分为原级,比较级和最高级。比较级和 最高级的构成一般是在形容词和副词后加-er 和-est,多音节和一 些双音节词前加 more 和 most。 1. 同级比较时常常用 as…as…以及 not so(as)…as…如:I am not so good a player as you are. 2. 可以修饰比较级的词有:much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, still, yet, by far, any, a great deal。 3. 表示一方随另一方变化时用“the more…the more…”句型。如: The harder you work, the more progress you will make. 4. 用比较级来表达最高级的意思。如:I have never spent a more worrying day. 5. 表示倍数的比较级有如下几种句型: Our school is three times larger than yours./Our school is four times as large as yours./Our school is four times the size of yours. 6. 表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如:favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect。 五.介词 I.介词分类: 1 简单介词 about, across, after, against, among, around, at,
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below, beyond, during, in, on 2 合成介词 3 短语介词 4 双重介词 5 6 inside, into, onto, out of, outside, throughout, upon, within, without according to, because of, instead of, up to, due to, owing to, thanks to from among, from behind, from under, till after, in between

分词转化成 considering(就而论), including 的介词

形容词转化 like, unlike, near, next, opposite 成的介词 II. 常用介词区别: 表示时间的 in, at 表示片刻的时间,in 表示一段的时间,on 1 on, at 总是与日子有关 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 表示时间的 since, from 表示时间的 in, after since 指从过去到现在的一段时间, 和完成时 连用,from 指从时间的某一点开始 in 指在一段时间之后,after 表示某一具体时 间点之后或用在过去时的一段时间中

表示地理位置的 in 表示在某范围内,on 指与什么毗邻,to 指 in, on, to 在某环境范围之外 表示“在…上”的 on 只表示在某物的表面上,in 表示占去某物 on, in 一部分 表示“穿过”的 through, across 表示“关于”的 about, on between 与 among 的区别 through 表示从内部通过,与 in 有关,across 表示在表面上通过,与 on 有关 about 指涉及到,on 指专门论述 between 表示在两者之间, among 用于三者或 三者以上的中间

besides 与 except besides 指“除了…还有再加上”, except 指“除 的区别 了,减去什么”,不放在句首
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1 表示“用”的 in, 0 with

with 表示具体的工具,in 表示材料,方式, 方法,度量,单位,语言,声音

1 as 意为“作为, 以…地位或身份”, like 为“象… as 与 like 的区别 1 一样”,指情形相似 1 in 通常表示位置(静态),into 表示动向, in 与 into 区别 2 不表示目的地或位置 六.动词 I. 动词的时态: 1. 动词的时态一共有 16 种, 以 ask 为例, 将其各种时态的构成形 式列表如下: 现在时 过去时 将来时 过去将来时 一般 ask / asks 进行 完成 am/is/are asking have/has asked asked was/were asking had asked shall/will ask shall/will be asking should/would ask should/would be asking

shall/will have should/would asked have asked

完成 have/has had been shall/will have should/would 进行 been asking asking been asking have been asking 2. 现在完成时与一般过去时的区别: 1) 现在完成时表示过去发生的动作或存在的状况,但和现在有联 系,强调的是对现在造成的影响或结果,它不能同表示过去的时 间状语连用,汉译英时可加“已经”等词。简言之,利用过去,说 明现在。如: I have already read the novel written by the world-famous writer. (已经看过,且了解这本书的内容) 2) 一般过去时只表示过去发生的动作或状态,和现在无关,它可 和表示过去的时间状语连用,汉译英时可加“过”,“了”等词。简 言之,仅谈过去,不关现在。如: I read the novel last month. (只说明上个月看了,不涉及现在是否 记住) I lived in Beijing for ten years.(只说明在北京住过十年,与现在
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无关) 3. 现在完成时与现在完成进行时的区别: 两者都可以表示“从过去开始一直持续到现在”,在含义上如着重 表示动作的结果时,多用现在完成时,如着重表示动作一直在进 行,即动作的延续性时,则多用现在完成进行时。一般不能用于 进行时的动词也不能用于现在完成进行时。 I have read that book.我读过那本书了。 I have been reading that book all the morning. 我早上一直在读那 本书。 4. 一般将来时的表达方式: 将来时 用法 例句 1 will/shall+动 表示将来发生的动作或存 词原形 在的状态 My sister will be ten next year.

含有“打算,计划,即将” It?s going to clear up. be going to+ 2 做某事, 或表示很有可能要 We?re going to have 动词原形 发生某事 a party tonight. be + doing 3 进行时表示 将来 go, come, start, move, leave, arrive 等词可用进行 时表示按计划即将发生的 动作 He is moving to the south. Are they leaving for Europe?

I was about to leave 表示安排或计划中的马上 be about to + when the bell rang. 4 就要发生的动作, 后面一般 动词原形 The meeting is about 不跟时间状语 to close. 5 be to + 动词 表示按计划进行或征求对 原形 方意见 We?re to meet at the school gate at noon.

The meeting starts at 时刻表上或日程安排上早 一般现在时 five o?clock. 6 就定好的事情, 可用一般现 表示将来 The plane leaves at 在时表示将来 ten this evening. II. 动词的被动语态: 常用被 构成 常用被动 构成
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动语态 1 2 3 4 5 一般现 在时 一般过 去时 一般将 来时 过去将 来时 现在进 行时 am/is/are asked was/were asked shall/will be asked should/would be asked am/is/are being asked 6 7 8 9

语态 过去进行 was/were being 时 asked 现在完成 have/has been 时 asked 过去完成 had been asked 时 将来完成 will/would have 时 been asked

1 含有情态 can/must/may be 0 动词的 asked

被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加 not,短 语动词的被动态不可漏掉其中介副词。固定结构 be going to, used to, have to, had better 变为被动态时,只需将其 后的动词变为被动态。 如: Trees should not be planted in summer. / The boy was made fun of by his classmates. Newspapers used to be sent here by the little girl. 汉语有一类句子不出现主语, 在英语中一般可用被动结构表示。 如: 注 It is believed that… 意 It is generally considered that… 事 It is said that… 项 It is well known that… It must be pointed out that… It is supposed that… It is reported that… It must be admitted that… It is hoped that… 下面主动形式常表示被动意义:如: The window wants/needs/requires repairing. The book is worth reading twice.
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The door won?t shut. / The play won?t act. The clothes washes well. / The book sells well. The dish tastes delicious. / Water feels very cold. 下面词或短语没有被动态: leave, enter, reach, become, benefit, cost, equal, contain, last, lack, fit, fail, have, appear, happen, occur, belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, keep up with, consist of, have on, lose heart 等等 七.情态动词 I. 情态动词基本用法: 情态动 用法 否定式 疑问式与简答 词 can 能力(体力,智力,技 能) 允许或许可 (口语中常 用) 可能性(表猜测,用于 否定句或疑问句中) can not / cannot /can?t do couldn?t do Can…do…? Yes,…can. No,…can?t. May…do…? Yes,…may. No,…mustn?t/can ?t. Might…do…? Yes,…might No,…might not. Must…do…? Yes,…must. No,…needn?t/don ?t have to. Do…have to do…?

could

may

might

可以(问句中表示请 may not do 求) 可能,或许(表推测) 祝愿(用于倒装句中) might not do 必须,应该(表主观要 must 求) not/mustn?t 肯定,想必(肯定句中 do 表推测) 只好,不得不(客观的 don?t have to 必须,有时态人称变 do
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must

have to

化)

Yes,…do. No,…don?t.

ought to

ought not Ought…to do…? 应当(表示义务责任, to/oughtn?t to Yes,…ought. 口语中多用 should do No,…oughtn?t. 将要,会 用于一三人称征求对 方意见 shall 用于二三人称表示许 not/shan?t do 诺、命令、警告、威胁 等 Shall…do…? Yes,…shall. No,…shan?t.

shall

应当,应该(表义务责 should should 任) not/shouldn?t Should…do…? 本该(含有责备意味) do will would will not/won?t do 意愿,决心 Will…do…? 请求,建议,用在问句 would Yes,…will. 中 would 比较委婉 not/wouldn?t No,…won?t. do Dare…do…? 敢 (常用于否定句和疑 dare Yes,…dare. 问句中) not/daren?t do No,…daren?t. 需要 Need…do…? need 必须 (常用于否定句和 Yes,…must. not/needn?t do 疑问句中) No,…needn?t. used not/usedn?t/us en?t to do didn?t use to do Used…to do…? Yes,…used. No,…use(d)n?t. Did…use to do…? Yes,…did. No,…didn?t.

dare

need

used to

过去常常(现在已不 再)

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II. 情态动词 must, may, might, could, can 表示推测: 以 must 为例。must + do(be)是推测现在存在的一般状态进行; must + be doing 推测可能正在进行的事情;must +have done 是 推测可能已经发生过的事情。 1. must“肯定,一定”语气强,只用于肯定句中。 He must be a man from America. / He must be talking with his friend. / He must have already arrived there. 2. may 和 might“也许”,后者语气弱,更没有把握。可用于肯定 句和否定句。 He may not be at home. / They might have finished their task. 3. can 和 could“可能”,could 表示可疑的可能性,不及 can?t 语气 强,用于肯定、否定、疑问句中。 The weather in that city could be cold now. We could have walked there; it was so near. (推测某事本来可能发 生,但实际上没有发生) Can he be in the office now? No, he can?t be there, for I saw him in the library just now.(语气很强,常用于疑问句和否定句中) III. 情态动词注意点: 1. can 和 be able to: 都可以表示能力。但 be able to 可以表达“某 事终于成功”,而 can 无法表达此意。Be able to 有更多的时态。 另外,两者不能重叠使用。 2. used to 和 would: used to 表示过去常常做现在已经不再有的习惯,而 would 只表示 过去的习惯或喜好,不涉及现在。 3. need 和 dare 作情态动词和实义动词的区别: 两者作情态动词时常用于否定句和疑问句。其形式为: needn?t/daren?t do;Need/dare…do…? 做实义动词时可用于肯定句,否定句和疑问句。其形式为: need(needs/needed)/dare(dares/dared) to do, don?t(doesn?t/didn?t) need/dare to do 八.非谓语动词 I. 非谓语动词的分类、意义及构成: 非谓语 构成 特征和作用
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形式

时态和语态 to be done to have been done

否定 复合结 式 构 具有名词,副词和形 for sb. 容词的作用 to do 在句中做主、 宾、 定、 sth. 表和状语

to do to be 不定式 doing to have done

现 being doing 在 done having 在非 分 having done 词 been done 谓语 分 前加 词 过 not 去 done 分 词 doing 动名词 having done being done having been done

具有副词和形容词的 作用 在句中做定、表、宾 补和状语

具有名词的作用 sb?s 在句中做主、宾、定 doing 和表语

II. 做宾语的非谓语动词比较: 情况

常用动词

只接不定式 hope, want, offer, long, fail, expect, wish, ask, 做宾语的动 decide, pretend, manage, agree, afford, determine, 词 promise, happen mind, miss, enjoy, imagine, practise, suggest, finish, escape, excuse, appreciate, admit, prevent, keep, 只接动名词 dislike, avoid, risk, resist, consider 做宾语的动 can?t help, feel like, succeed in, be fond of, object to, 词或短语 get down to, be engaged in, insist on, think of, be proud of, take pride in, set about, be afraid of, be tired of, look forward to, devote oneself to, be worth,
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be busy, pay attention to, stick to begin, start, like, love, hate, prefer, continue (接不定 意义基 式多指具体的动作,接动名词多指一般或习惯行为) 本相同 need, want, require(接动名词主动形式表示被动意 义,若接不定式则应用被动形式) 意义相 stop to do 停止手中事,去做另一件事 反 stop doing 停止正在做的事 remember/forget/regret to do(指动作尚未发生) remember/forget/regret doing(指动作已经发生) go on to do(接着做另 外一件事) go on doing(接着做同 一件事)

两 者 都 可 以

意义不 try to do(设法,努力去做, mean to do(打算做, 同 尽力) 企图做) try doing(试试去做,看有 mean doing (意识是, 何结果) 意味着) can?t help to do(不能帮忙做) can?t help doing(忍 不住要做) III.非谓语动词做宾语补足语的区别: 与宾语的逻辑关系 常见动词 例句 及时间概念 ask, beg, expect, get, order, tell, want, wish, 不定 encourage 式 have, notice, see, watch, hear, feel, let, make

主谓关系。强调动 I heard him call 作将发生或已经完 me several times. 成

主谓关系。强调动 I found her 现在 作正在进行,尚未 listening to the 分词 notice, see, watch, radio. hear, find, keep, 完成 过去 have, feel 动宾关系。动作已 We found the
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经完成,多强调状 village greatly 态 changed. IV. 非谓语动词做定语的区别: 区别 举例 与被修饰词往往有动宾关系,一 不定 般式表示将来,进行式表示与谓 式 语动作同时发生,完成式表示在 谓语动词之前发生 I have a lot of papers to type. I have a lot of papers to be typed.

分词

动名 通常指被修饰词的用途,无逻辑 Shall we go to the 词 上的任何关系 swimming pool? 现在 与被修饰词之间是主谓关系,表 the boiling water / the 分词 示动作与谓语动作同时发生 boiled water the developing 与被修饰词之间是被动关系,表 country/the developed 过去 示动作发生在谓语动作之前,现 country 分词 the falling leaves / the 已经完成 fallen leaves V. 非谓语动词做主语和表语的区别: 区别 举例 My dream is to 多表示一个特定的具体的将来的动作,become a teacher. 做主语时可以借助于 it 把不定式移到 To obey the law is 句子后面。 做表语有时可和主语交换位 important. 置,而且意义不变,并且还能用 what (dream, business, 来提问主语或表语。 wish, idea, plan, duty, task 做主语时常用) 与不定式的功能区别不大, 然而它更接 近于名词, 表示的动作比较抽象, 或者 It is no use saying 泛指习惯性的动作,有时也可以用 it that again and again. 做形式主语, 做表语时可以和主语互换 Teaching is my job. 位置。 无名词的性质, 不能做主语。 但是有形 The situation is
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不 定 式

动 名 词 分



容词的性质, 可以做表语, 多表明主语 的特征性质或者状态等,可被 very, quite, rather 等副词修饰。 现在分词多含有“令人…”之意, 说明主 语的性质特征, 多表示主动, 主语多为 物。 过去分词一般表示被动或主语所处 的状态, 含有“感到…”之意, 主语多是 人。

encouraging. The book is well written. (常见分词有 astonishing, moving, tiring, disappointing, puzzling, shocking, boring, amusing 及其 -ed 形式)

九.定语从句 I. 定语从句起了形容词的作用,在句中修饰一个名词或代词。被修 饰的词叫做先行词,引导定语从句的词叫关系词,他的作用一是 放在先行词与定语从句中间起了连接作用,二是在从句中担当一 个成分,并与先行词保持数的一致。 先行 从句 关系词 例句 备注 词 成分 who 人 主语 Do you know the man who is talking with your mother?

whom, Mr. Smith is the person with which 和 who whom I am working that 在从 人 宾语 m The boy (whom) she loved 句中做宾 died in the war.. 语时,常 关 I like those books whose 可以省 系 whos 人, topics are about history. 略,但介 代 定语 e 物 The boy whose father works 词提前时 词 abroad is my deskmate. 后面关系 代词不能 A plane is a machine that 省略,也 人, 主语, can fly. that 不可以用 物 宾语 She is the pop star (that) I that want to see very much. whic 物 主语, The book (which) I gave you
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h

宾语

was worth $10. The picture which was about the accident was terrible.

as

He is such a person as is as 做宾语 人, 主语, respected by all of us. 一般不省 物 宾语 This is the same pen as I lost 略 yesterday. 时间状 I will never forget the day 语 when we met there. This is the house where I was born. 可用 on which 可用 in which

when 时间

关 wher 地点状 系 地点 e 语 副 词 原因状 why 原因 语

I can?t imagine the reason 可用 for why he turned down my which offer. II. that 与 which, who, whom 的用法区别: 情况 用法说明 例句 1. 先行词为 all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much, 等不定代词时。 2. 先行词被 all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, few 等修 只用 that 饰时 的情况 3. 先行词有形容词最高级和序数 词修饰时 4. 先行词既指人又指物时 5. 先行词被 the only, the very 修
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1.He told me everything that he knows. 2.All the books that you offered has been given out. 3.This is the best film that I have ever read. 4.We talked about the persons and things that we remembered. 5.He is the only man that I want to see. 6.Who is the man that is making a speech?

饰时 6. 句中已经有 who 或 which 时, 为了避免重复时 1. 在非限制性定语从句中,只能 用 which 指代物, 用 who/whom 指人 只用 2. which, 在由“介词+关系代词”引导的 who, 定语从句中,只能用 which 指 whom 的 物,whom 指人。 情况 3. 先行词本身是 that 时,关系词 用 which, 先行词为 those, one, he 时多用 who。 III. as 与 which 的区别: 定语 区别 从句 限制 性定 语从 句中

He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study. I like the person to whom the teacher is talking. Those who respect others are usually respected by others.

例句

He is not such a fool as he 名词前有 such 和 the same 修 looks. 饰时,关系代词用 as,不能用 Don?t read such books as which you can?t understand.

They won the game, as we as 和 which 都可以指代前面 非限 had expected. 整个主句。如果有“正如,象” 制性 They won the game, which 的含义,并可以放在主句前, 定语 we hadn?t expected. 也可以放在后面,那么用 as; 从句 As is well known, he is a 而 which 引导的从句只能放 中 famous film star in the 主句后,并无“正如”的意思。 1980s. IV. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别: 类别 语法意义及特征 例句
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限制性 定语从 句

对先行词起修饰限制作用,如果 The accident 去掉,主句意思就不完整明确, happened at the time 这种从句与主句的关系十分密 when I left. 切,写时不用逗号分开。

对先行词作附加的说明,与主句 非限制 的关系不十分密切,较松散。从 His mother, whom he 性定语 句和主句之间用逗号分开,相当 loved deeply, died ten 从句 于一个插入语, 不能用 that 引导,years ago. 关系代词做宾语时也不能省略。 十.名词性从句 常用关联 种类 作用 例句 词 在复合句中做主语, 相当于名词,一般置 that, 主语 谓语之前,也可用 it whether, 从句 作形式主语,主语从 if, as if, as 句放主句之后 though, 在复合句中做表语, who, 表语 相当于名词,位于系 whose, 从句 动词之后 which, how, 宾语 在复合句中做宾语, when, 从句 相当于名词 where, why, what, 放在名词之后(news, whatever, 同位 problem, idea, whoever, 语从 suggestion, advice, wherever 句 thought, hope, fact 等) 表明其具体内容 十一。状语从句 种类 连接词 时间 状语 Whether he will come or not doesn?t matter much. Whoever comes here will be welcome. It looks as if it is going to snow. He asked me which team could win the game. You have no idea how worried we are. The fact that he lied again greatly surprised us. 注意点

when, whenever, while, as, 主句表示将来意义时,从句 before, after, until, till, by the 须用一般现在时;while 引
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time, as soon as, hardly…when, no sooner…than, the moment, the minute, immediately, directly, instantly 地点 状语 原因 状语 条件 状语 目的 状语 结果 状语 比较 状语 方式 状语 where, wherever because, as, since, now that if, unless, once, in case, as long as, on condition that

导的从句中动词一般是延 续性的; until 用在肯定句中 主句动词是延续性的,而否 定句中主句动词为短暂性 的。

because 语气最强,since 较 弱,表示大家都明了的原 因,as 又次之。 从句中动词时态不可用将 来时,常用一般时代替

so that 和 in order that 后常 so that, in order that, for fear 接 may, should, could, that would 等情态动词 so…that, such…that than, as…as, not so/as…as, the more…the more as if, as though, as though, although, even if, even though, as, no matter what, whatever, no matter who, whoever, no matter which, whichever, no matter how, however, no matter when, whenever as if 和 as though 引导的从 句一般用虚拟语气。 as 在让步状语从句中常用 倒装形式;although 和 though 用正常语序,可和 yet 连用,但不可和 but 连 用

让步 状语

十二。倒装句 种 倒装条件
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例句

类 here, there, up, down, in, out, off, away 等副词开头的句子表 Out rushed the children. 完 示强调 全 表示地点的介词短语作状语位 Under the tree stood two 倒 于句首 tables and four chairs. 装 强调表语,置于句首,或为保 Present at the meeting were 持句子平衡 1,000 students. never, hardly, scarcely, seldom, Hardly did I know what had little, not until, not 等表示否定 happened. 意义的副词放于句首 only 和修饰的状语放于句首 Only then did he realized the importance of English.

Not only does he know not only…but also 连接并列的 French, but also he is expert 句子,前倒后不倒 at it. 部 分 倒 装 neither…nor…连接并列的句 子,前后都倒装 Neither do I know it, nor do I care about it.

so…that, such…that 中的 so 或 So busy is he that he can not such 及修饰的成分放于句首时 go on a holiday. 前倒后不倒 as 引导的让步状语 Child as he is, he has learned a lot.

so, neither 或 nor 表示前句内容 He can play the piano. So 也适用于另外的人或事。 can i. 用于表示祝愿的祈使句中 省略 if 的虚拟条件 十三。虚拟语气 类别 May you be in good health! Were I you, I would not do it in this way. 用法
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例句

从句动词: 过去式 (be 用 were) If he were here, 与现在事 主句动词: he would help 实相反 should/would/could/might+动 us. 词原形 从句动词:had+过去分词 If 引导 与过去事 主句动词: 的条件 实相反 should/would/could/might+ha 从句 ve+过去分词 从句动词:过去式 / should+ 动词原形 / were+不定式 与将来事 主句动词: 实相反 should/would/could/might+动 词原形 If I had been free, I would have visited you. If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go camping. They are talking as if they had been friends for years.

as if 引导的状语从句中动词用过去式或 过去完成式 其它状 语从句

Turn on the in order that / so that 引导的状语从句中 light so that we 动词用 can / could / may / might / would can see it 等+动词原形 clearly. demand, suggest, order, insist 后接的从 句中动词为 should+动词原形 He suggested that we not change our mind.

宾语从 句

wish 后的从句中分别用过去式,过去完 I wish I could 成式和 should/would+动词原形表示与现 be a pop singer. 在,过去和将来情况相反 It is strange that such a

主语从 在 It is necessary / important / strange 句 that…, It is suggested / demanded /
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ordered / requested that… 等从句中,谓 person should 语动词用 should+动词原形 be our friends. It is time that…句型中动词用过去式或 should+动词原形 would rather 所接的从句中动词用过去 其它句 式或者过去完成式 型中 If only 句型中动词常用过去式或者过去 完成式,表示强烈的愿望 It?s high time that we left. I would rather you stayed at home now. If only our dream had come true!

英语翻译句子专项练习 1. 我们坚信什么也不能阻止历史的车轮滚滚向前。

We?re sure nothing can__________the wheel of history from _______________. 2. 无论刮风下雨,我们的老师总是第一个到校。 ________________windy or rainy,our teacher is always the first ________ school. 3. 必须采取措施使地球免受污染。

Something ________________to ________________from being polluted. 4. 我们都坚信台湾迟早会回归祖国。

We are all sure that Taiwan will________________ the motherland________________.
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5.

正是团队协作使我们越来越自信。 It is ________________ that makes us________________.

6.

本星期五晚上你能来我家吗?23 点之前我有空。 _____________________________________________________ __________________

7.

明天星期几?明天星期三。

____________________________________________________ ___________________ 8. 我打算明天看望我姑姑。

____________________________________________________ ___________________ 9. 为什么不把这些生单词记在你的笔记本上?

________ _______write down the new words in your note book? 10. 她很有耐心,非常适合教学。 She is very patient and she is________ ________ ________. 11. 我除了步行回家,什么也不能做。汽车站已经没有汽车了。 I could do________ ________walk home. There were no buses at the bus shop. 12. 我觉得每晚睡 8 小时很重要。 I think it?s ________________eight hours a night. 13. 他说自从 2000 年以来他一直当记者。

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He said he ________________a report since 2000. 14. 在很多国家狗常常做向导。 ____________________________________________________ ________________ 15. 我想听音乐而不是看电视。 ____________________________________________________ ________________. 16. 大声朗读是练习发音的好方法。 ____________________________________________________ _________________. 17. 孩子们被告诫不要用太多的时间玩电脑游戏。 The children were told ________________in playing computer games. 18. 他认为这部小说值得再读一遍。 He thinks this novel________________。 19. 你知道火星离地球有多远吗? Do you think ________________ Earth? 20. 许多对我们有文献的工作将来都能由机器人来做。 A lot of work which is dangerous to us can________________。 21. 这个男孩还没有到独立处理这样的难题的年龄。 The boy isn?t ________________such a difficult problem himself. 22. 她擅长烹饪。___________________________.
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23. 我们永远不会放弃希望。___________________________. 24. 昨天的晚会会很成功。___________________________. 25. 那个奇怪的东西是用来使茶保温的。 The ________________thing is________________ tea hot. 26. 中华人民共和国是在 1949 年 10 月 1 日成立的。 The PRC________________ October1,1949. 27. 他离开家乡大约有 20 年了。 He ________________his home ________________about 20 years. 28. 这瓶里装满了牛奶。The bottle ________________milk. 29. 如果你不知道一个生词如何读,应该查字典。 If you don?t know________________,you should________________. 30. 你应该找到自己的发展道路。 ___________________________. 31. 10 年是相当长的一段时间。___________________________. 32. 多亏了你的帮助,我通过了这次考试。 ___________________________. 33. 田野被白雪覆盖。The field________________ snow. 34. 请把他的死向他的母亲隐瞒一下。 Please ________________his death________________ his mother. 35. 这本法语书有可能属于谁的?是 Mary 的还是 Tom 的?
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________________the French book ________________Mary or Tom? 36. 如果我要听取他的建议的话,我就不会犯这样的错误了。 If I ________________his advice,I shouldn?t have ________________mistakes. 37. 我们学校学生的数字已经增加到 5000 多人了。 The __________of the students in our school ________________over 5,000 people. 38. 作为一名学生我们应该好好利用时间。 ___________________________. 39. 今日事今日毕。___________________________. 40. 汤姆不能去聚会,他得准备化学考试。 _____________________. 41. 一个 16 岁的女孩放弃了她的学业。 A________________ girl_______________ _her_______________. 42. 我来这儿已有两周了。I ________________two weeks. 43. 他不但会说日语,而且还会说法语。 He can ________________Japanese ________________French. 44. 在市冲浪比赛中,我获得头等奖。 I________________ already ________________the city. 45. 我喜欢住在南方,特别是夏天。I like_____________________ ________summer.
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46. 无论什么样的天气,你总是可以看见他在踢足球。 __________the weather____________,you can always find him _________ football. 47. 别称赞他,他会骄傲的。 Don?t________________.He________________. 48. 我们的朋友遍天下。We ________________the world. 49. 我起床后要进行运动。I ________________after I get up. 50. 我们不允许在学习日外出。 We are not allowed to go out on________________。 51. 我们过去常常在周末看电影。We often ________________on weekends. 52. 了不起!他能用好几种方法解答这道练习题。 How great! He can work out the problem in several ________________ways. 53. 星期五下午我们通常要做两个小时的作业。We usually do our homework ________________on Friday afternoon. 54. 昨晚街上没什么人。___________________________. 55. 如果有问题,请举手。___________________________. 56. 你有什么有趣的事要告诉我们吗? ___________________________. 57. 你还有别的什么忘在家里了吗?Do you have anything________________? 58. 孩子们将那猴子团团围住,然后抓住它,送它到了动物园。

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The children ________________the monkey, ________________and sent to the zoo. 59. 你最好在他改变注意之前把机票费帮他付了。 You?d better _______________the air ticket for him before he________________. 60. 图书馆仅这个月就借给学生两千多本书。 Only this___________,the library has lent over ________________ to the students. 61. 自从我们上次见面以后,已经有 10 个多月了。 It has been ________________we met last. 62. 布鲁斯太太对我们非常亲切,以至于学生们把她当作自己的

母亲。 Mrs Brucc was_____________her students so that

they_______________ their mother. 63. 64. 在网页顶端,打上网址。___________________________. 当走到收银台时,我才发现我把钱包忘家里了。

___________________________. 65. 请 告 诉 我 那 是 不 是 一 辆 快 车 。

___________________________. 66. 无 论 冬 夏 , 海 南 岛 都 是 个 值 得 去 的 地 方 。
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___________________________. 67. 我 有 一 个 大 眼 睛 的 漂 亮 妹 妹 。

___________________________. 68. 费兰克在业余时间去钓鱼或者去划船。 Frank goes ________________fishing

________________boating in his spare time. 69. 虽然他没多少钱,但还是给她买了礼物。 He ________________gift for her,________________he was no much money. 70. 喝 杯 咖 啡 怎 么 样 ? ________________drinking a cup of

coffee? 71. coat. 72. 格 林 一 家 经 常 坐 飞 机 去 旅 游 。 The Green often 你最好脱掉你的外套。You?d better________________ your

travel________________。 73. 74. 75. 她很虚弱,经常感冒。___________________________. 请问,去火车站怎么走?___________________________. 这本书很畅销。This kind of book________________。
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76.

这本字典的价格至少 50 元。 ________________the dictionary is________________ 50

yuan. 77. 在美国和英国书面语大致相同。 ________________is about the same in _______________ the UK___________the US. 78. 在过去,伦敦被人们看作是雾城。 ________________,London was known________________a city of fog. 79. 据说他去过英国两次。 ________________that he has________________ English twice. 80. 活下来的人们把毛埃推倒了。 Those who were left________________ the

Moai________________. 81. 我们相信他迟早会回来的。 We believe he will be back________________. UNIT 1
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survey add up upset ignore calm 的

调查;测验 合计 adj.心烦意乱的;不安的;不适的 vt.使不安;使心烦。 不理睬,忽视 vt.vi(使)平静; (使)镇定 adj.平静的;镇静的;沉着

calm (…)down have got to concern

(使)平静下来; (使)镇静下来

不得不;必须

(使)担忧;涉及;关系 关心;挂念

be concerned about walk the dog 遛狗 loose vet 松的;松开的 兽医

go through Amsterdam Netherlands Jewish

经历;经受 阿姆斯特丹(荷兰首都) 荷兰(荷兰国家)

犹太人;犹太族的

German 德国的;德国人的;德语的;德国人;德语 Nazi n.纳粹党人 adj.纳粹党的

set down 记下;放下;登记 series 连续;系列 一连串的;一系列;一套
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a series of

outdoors

在户外;在野外 迷住;迷惑

spellbinding

on purpose 故意 in order to 为了…

dusk 黄昏;傍晚 at dusk 在黄昏时刻 thunder v 打雷;雷鸣;n 雷;雷声 entire entirely 整个的;完全的;全部的 完全地;全然地;整个地

power 能力;力量;权力 face to face 面对面地 curtain 窗帘;门帘;幕布 dusty 积满灰尘的 no longer\not…any longer 不再 partner 伙伴;合作者;合伙人 settle 安家;定居;停留 使定居;安排;解决

suffer 遭受;忍受;经历 suffer from 遭受;患病 loneliness 孤单;寂寞

highway 公路;大路;<美>高速公路 recover 痊愈;恢复;重新获得 get\be tired of 对…厌烦
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pack 捆扎;包装;打行李 小包;包裹 pack(sth)up 将(东西)装箱打包 suitcase 手提箱;衣箱 overcoat 大衣;外套 teenager 十几岁的青少年 get along with 与…相处;发展 gossip 闲话;闲谈 fall in love 相爱 爱上 exactly 确实如此;正式;确切地 disagree 不同意 grateful 感激的;表示谢意的 dislike 不喜欢;厌恶 join in 参加;加入 tip n.揭示;技巧;尖;尖端;消费 vt. 倾斜; 翻到

secondly 第二;其次 swap 交换

item 项目;条款 1. add up 【探究】 1) Add up these figures, please. 2) Shall I add your name to the list? 3) The bad weather adds to our difficulties. 4) She added some salt to the soup.
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【归纳拓展】 add vt . _______ ;

_______ vi. _______ add _______________ add up to _________ add to ________ ; _________ ; up _______ ;

__________ add…to… ________ ________ ;

【运用】 1) This kind of music ______ _______ _______( 能增加 ) my enjoyment. 2) Her answers have only______ _______ (增加) his trouble. 3) The money that he spent on the house _________ _______ ________ (合计共达)2,000 dollars. 4) Please _______ the numbers and I?m sure they will _______
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more than 1,000. A. add; add up B. add up; add up D. add to; add up

C. add up; add up to

5) _____ is known to all, good friends ___happiness and value to life. A. It; add C. It; add up 2. upset 【例释】 1) I upset the soup all over the table. 2) He has an upset stomach. 3) Don?t upset yourself--no harm has been done. 【归纳拓展】 1)The news that his mother was ill______ him.(使他心烦意乱) 2) Tom was _______(难过)because he had lost his ticket. 3. ignore B. As; add D. As; add to

【例释】 ①Even the best of men ignored that simple rule. ②I tried to tell him but he ignored me. ③His letters were ignored.
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④Never make your students feel ignorant. 【归纳拓展】 ignore vt.__________;_____ ____ ___________n. 无知; 愚昧 ___________ adj. 无 知的;愚昧的 【运用】 1) ____________of 会带给你麻烦。 2) He is __________ (无知的) of music. 3) I stopped and smiled when I saw him, but he _____me and walked on. A. refused B. ignored C. denied D. missed law will bring you trouble.对法律的无知必

4. calm【例释】 1) It?s important to keep calm in a dangerous situation. 2) The teacher tried to calm the frightened children. 3) He lit a cigarette to calm himself down. 【归纳拓展】 【辨析】 calm/peaceful/quiet/still/silent
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1) calm 主要指“风平浪静的”,也可指人“平静的,镇定的”。 2)peaceful 指“和平的,没有战争的”。 3)quiet 指“没有吵闹声的”;“没有噪音的”;“清静的”;“平静 的”,强调“声音很低、很少或全然无声”。 4)silent 强调“沉默不语”。 【运用】 1)_____ ______ (镇静下来) and tell us what?s going on. 2) It?s bad manners to keep ________ when the teacher asks you a question. 3)The sky is blue,and the sea is ________. 4)Although she was frightened,she answered with a ________ voice. 5)We are glad to live in a ________ environment. 6)He had a ________ life. 5. concerned You?ll tell your friend that you are concerned about him/her but you will meet after class and talk then. 心他, 但你会在课后见他并告诉他。 【例释】 1) Police said they were concerned about the boy?s safety. 2) As far as I?m concerned, the problem is over. 3) He wrote an article concerning
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告诉你的朋友你很关

the

problems

of

over—crowded cities. 4) The girl?s poor health concerned her parents. 【归纳拓展】 concern vt. 涉 及 ;

使??担忧 n. 担心,关心; (利 害)关系 be concerned about 关心 as far as sb. be

concerned 就?而言 concerning 于 【运用】 1) He is never __________ about what is going on. 2) The lecture ____________the environmental protection. 3) As far as they are __________, you can go where you want. 4) His parents ________ his safety. A. concern themselves with B. show no concern about C. are concerned about D. are concerned with
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prep. 关

5) The news ______your hometown.

A. is concerned about B. is concerned in C. concerns D. concerns with 6. go through 或者你是不是担心你的朋友会嘲笑你 , 或者不理解你目前的困境 呢? 【例释】 1) Peter has lost his job, and he is going through a very difficult time. 2) He is very successful considering what he has gone through. 3) How long will it take you to go through the book? 【归纳拓展】 go through 经历 ; 浏

览 ; 通过 ( 考试等 ); 花光 (钱财) go by 走过; (时间)过 去 go over 越过;复习 go out 外出; (灯,火)
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熄灭;公布 【运用】 1) With time ______ ______, we grew up quickly. 2) He ______ _____ all his money in one week. 3) The lights______ ______ when we came in. 4) The police ___________ his bag, but found nothing. A. looked up D. searched for B. turned in D. went through

5) —Did you have a good time at the party? —As a matter of fact, I had such fun that time seemed to ______ so quickly. A. go by C. go out B. go away D. go over

7.set down 【例释】 1) Please set it down to my account. 2) You should set down the key language points in your notebook. 3) Passengers may be set down and picked up only at the official stops. 【归纳拓展】

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set down 写下;放下 set off 出发;使爆炸 set up 建立 set about doing= set out to do 着手做某事

set aside 把 …… 放在 一边;留出;不考虑 【运用】 1) I _______ the temperatures every day in the notebook. A. set about C. set up B. set out D. set down

2) I liked his paper so much that I ____ my own work and translated it into German. A. gave off B. turned down

C .took over D. set aside 3) 翻 译 : 我 已 将 发 生 的 每 件 事 都 记 了 下 来 。 ________________________________ 8. in order to in order to do 为了…….(可置于句首或句中) 【例释】 1) He arrived early in order to get a good seat.
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=He arrived early in order that he could get a good seat. 2) I agreed to her suggestion in order not to upset her. 【归纳拓展】 in order to do …= so as to do …= to do… 目的状语, 但 so as to do …不能放在句首, 可 转 化 为 in order that, so that 引导的 目的状语从句。 in order that ……以 便….(后跟句子) so that……以便….(后 跟句子) 其否定在 to 前加 not. 为 了 不 做 …in order not to; so as not to; not to. 【运用】 1)他早早动身以便按时到达。 (翻译) _______________________________________________________ ______
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2)她拼命干以便能在 6 点时把一切都准备好。 ________________________ 9. settle 【例释】 1) The bird settled on a branch. 2) The old couple planned to settle in the country after they retired. 3) You?d better settle the problem before supper. 4) He settled down in his armchair to read the newspaper. 【归纳拓展】 settle 顿 vt.使平静;解决(问 题) ;使定居 settle down 使平静下 来 【运用】 1) The family settled _____ a small town. A. in B. on C. over D. down vi. 定居;安

2) —Why do you look worried? —There are so many problems ________. A. remaining to settle
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B. remained settling C. remaining to be settled D .remained to be settled 3)他在故乡安顿下来。 _______________________________ 4)这个问题至今尚未解决。______________________________ 10. suffer from 【例释】 1) She?s suffering from loss of memory.她患有遗忘症。 2) Many cities suffered a heavy loss in the earthquake. 3) He suffered from poverty all his life. 【归纳】 suffer vt. 遭 受 ( 痛 苦、疾病、饥饿、损 失等) 后接_______、 _______、_______、 ________、 ________ 等。 suffer from 因 …… 而受损失 【 派 生 】 suffering n.疼痛;痛苦;(常
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用复数)苦难;疾苦 sufferer n.忍受苦难 的人们 【运用】 1) 我们在这次灾难中损失惨重。 _______________________________________________________ ______ 2) All the villagers ______ great damage during the fire. A. caused C.suffered B. led to D. suffered from

3) 用 suffer 的适当形式填空。 It is miserable (痛苦的) to see those patients ________ from poverty and disease and we all want to do something to release these ________ from their ________

Unit 1 ANNE’S BEST FRIEND Do you want a friend whom you could tell everything to, like your deepest feelings and thoughts? Or are you afraid that your friend would laugh at you, or would not understand what you are going through? Anne Frank wanted the first kind, so she made her diary her best friend. 安妮最好的朋友
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你想不想有一位无话不谈能推心置腹的朋友?或者你会不会 担心你的朋友会嘲笑你,会不理解你目前的困境呢?安妮.弗兰克 想要的是第一种类型的朋友,所以她把的日记视为自己最好的朋 友。 Anne lived in Amsterdam in the Netherlands during World War II. Her family was Jewish so the had to hide or they would be caught by the German Nazis. She and her family hide away for two years before they were discovered. During that time the only true friend was her diary. She said, “I don?t want to set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do, but I want this diary itself to be my friend, and I shall call my friend Kitty.” Now read how she felt after being in the hiding place since July 1942. 在第二次世界大战期间,安妮住在荷兰的阿姆斯特丹。她一 家人都是犹太人,所以他们不得不躲藏起来,否则就会被德国的 纳粹分子抓去。她和她的家人躲藏了 25 个月之后才被发现。在那 段时期,她的日记成了她唯一忠实的朋友。她说: “我不愿像大多 数人那样在日记中记流水账。我要把我的日记当作自己的朋友, 我把我的这个朋友叫做基蒂。 ”现在,来看看安妮自 1942 年 7 月 起躲进藏身处后的那种心情吧。 Thursday 15, June, 1944 Dear kitty, I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors
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for so long that I’ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature. I can well remember that there was a time when a deep blue sky, the song of the birds, moonlight and flowers could never have kept me spellbound. That?s changed since I was here. ?For example, when it was so warm, I stayed awake on purpose until half past eleven one evening in order to have a good look at the moon for once by myself. But as the moon gave far too much light, I didn’t dare open a window. Another time some months ago, I happened to be upstairs one evening when the window was open. I didn?t go downstairs until the window had to be shut. The dark, rainy evening, the wind, the thundering clouds held me entirely in their power; it was the first time in a year and a half that I?d seen the night face to face… ?Sadly?I am only able to look at nature through dirty curtains hanging before very dusty windows. It’s no pleasure looking through these any longer because nature is one thing that really must be experienced. Yours, Anne 1944 年 6 月 15 日,星期四 亲爱的基蒂: 我不知道这是不是因为我太久无法出门的缘故,我变得对一
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切与大自然有关的事物都无比狂热。我记得非常清楚,以前,湛 蓝的天空、鸟儿的歌唱、月光和鲜花,从未令我心迷神往过。自 从我来到这里之后,这一切都变了。 ??比如说,有一天晚上天气很暖和,我故意熬到晚上 11 点 半都不睡觉,为的就是能独自好好地看看月亮。但是因为月光太 亮了,我都不敢打开窗户。还有一次,就在五个月以前的一个晚 上,我碰巧在楼上,窗户是开着的,我一直呆到非关窗不可的时 候才下楼去。漆黑的雨夜,刮着大风,电闪雷鸣,乌云滚滚,我 完全被这种景象镇住了。这是我一年半以来第一次亲眼目睹的夜 晚?? ??不幸的是??我只能透过那满是灰尘的窗帘下那脏兮兮 的窗户看看大自然。只能隔着窗户看那大自然实在没意思,因为 大自然是需要真正体验的东西。 你的安妮

难句剖析 1. I wonder if it?s because I haven?t been able to be outdoors for so long that I?ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature. 译:_______________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______
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本句是一个主从复合句,if 引导的从句作 wonder 的宾语,宾语 从句中使用了 It is …that…的强调句型,被强调的是 because 引 导的原因状语从句. 2) 强调句型 It is/was+被强调部分 +that/who+原句中的其它部分, 主要是对原句中的主语、宾语和状语进行强调。 注意:①It is /was ...that... 中,is 和 was 由后面句子的时态确定。 ②除强调部分是人作主语可用 who/that 之外,其他一律用 that。 ③一般疑问句的句式为:Is/Was it ... that...? ④特殊疑问句的句式为:疑问词+is/was it that...? ⑤判断一个句子是不是强调句型的法:把句中的 It is/was 和 that 去掉,看句子结构是否仍完整,若完整就是强调句型,否则就不 是强调句型。 【运用】 1.Last Saturday her mother bought Rose a book in the bookstore.(分别对划线部分进行强调) ① _________________________________ ②_________________________________ ③_________________________________ ④_________________________________ ⑤________________________________ ⑥It was along the river_____ he spent much of his childhood. A. how B. which
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C. that

D. where

⑦ It was in the lab _____ was near the school ______they did the experiment. A. where; that B. which; that

C. which; where D. that; where 2. I can well remember that there was a time when a deep blue sky, the song of the birds, moonlight and flowers could never have kept me spellbound. 译: when a deep blue sky…是_________从句, 修饰________。常用 句式:There was a time when….“有一段时间??” There was a time when this country was one of the strongest countries in the world. 译:____________________________ 3. It was the first time in a year and a half that I?d seen the night face to face. 译 :____________________________________________________ _______ 1) It is/was the first (second, third…) time that sb. Have/had done sth.….这是某人第一次(第二次、第三次等)做某事,it 可以变 成 this/that,注意此句型中 that 从句中时态的使用。 It is/was time for sb. to do sth.
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到了干…的时候了 ①It was the third time that I _____ ______ (访问) Beijing. ②______ ______ ______ _______ _______ (这是第二次) we have come to the mountain village to see the homeless children. ③It is the second time I _____ in Hainan. It is ten years since I _______ it last time. A. had been; left C. have gone; had left B. have been; left D. went; had left

④It is time for us _____ _____ _____.(起床) 4. I am only able to look at nature through dirty curtains hanging before very dusty windows. 译:______________________________________________________ _________ hanging before very dusty windows 在句中是 _______短语做后置定语, 修饰___________. 5. It?s no pleasure looking through these any longer because nature is one thing that really must be experienced.观看这些已 经不再是乐趣,因为大自然是你必须亲身体验的。 1)it 是形式主语,动名词短语 looking through these any longer 是真正主语; 类似的有 It is no good doing…“做??没有好处” . ; It is no use doing ….“做??没有用” 2)that really must be experienced. 在句中是定语从句,修饰
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____________________.

UNIT2 subway 地下人行道;<美>地铁 elevator 电梯 直升机 petrol gas <美>汽油; (=<美>gasoline)

汽油;气体;煤气;毒气 官方的;正式的;公务的 航海;航行

official voyage

conquer 征服;占领 because of 因为;由于

native adj.本国的;本地的;n 本地人;本国人 come up 走近;上来;提出 apartment <美>公寓住宅;单元住宅 actually 实际上;事实上 AD 公元 base 以…为根据;n 基部;基地,基础 at present 现在;目前 gradual 逐渐的;逐步的

gradually 逐渐地;逐步地 Danish 丹麦语;adj. 丹麦的;丹麦的人;丹麦语的

enrich 使富裕;充实;改善
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vocabulary

词汇;词汇量;词表

Shakespeare 莎士比亚 make use of 利用;使用

spelling 拼写;拼法 latter 较后的; (两者中)后者的 identity 本身;本体;身份 fluent 流利的;流畅的 fluently 流利地;流畅地 Singapore Malaysia such as frequent 新加坡 马来西亚; 马来群岛 例如… …;想这种 频繁的;常见的

frequently 常常;频繁地 usage 使用;用法;词语惯用法 command request 命令;指令;掌握 请求;要求

dialect 方言 expression midwestern African Spanish 词语;表达;表示 中西部的;有中西部特性的

非洲的 ;非洲人的;非洲语言的 西班牙人;西班牙的 扮演一个角色;参与
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play a part (in)

eastern

东方的;东部的 东南方的;来自东南方 西北方的;来自西北的

southeastern northwestern recognize lorry Houston

辨认出;承认;公认

卡车 休斯顿

Texas 德克萨斯州 accent 口音;腔调;重音 catfish 鲶鱼 lightning 闪电 straight 直接;挺直;直的;笔直的;正直的

block 街区;块;木块;石块 cab 出租车

1. voyage (P9 L2)/because of (P9, L3) Later in the next century, people from England made voyages to conquer other parts of world and because of that, English began to be spoken in many other countries. 在 17 世纪英国人开始开拓征服世界其他地区。 1.1)The voyage from England to India used to take six months.过 去从英国坐船去印度要花六个月的时间。
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2) We made/ go on a voyage to America by air.我们乘飞机去美国。 2. Compare the two sentences: 1) We were late because it rained. 2) We were late because of the rain. 【归纳】
1. voyage n. ____;____ make a voyage = go on a voyage____ 2. because 是连词,引导______从 句。 because of 是介词短语,后接 ____和____。

【运用】 1. Fill in the blanks: 1) They are here ________ us. 2) He didn?t come to school yesterday ________he was ill. 3) He didn?t come to school yesterday ________his ill. 2.翻译: The Titanic sank on its maiden voyage. _______________________________ 2. the latter; identity (P10, L20) The latter gave a separate identity to American English spelling.
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后者体现了美国英语拼写的不同特色。 【例释】 1) This latter point was of great importance. 后面这点极为重要。 2) Here are Tom and David; the latter is my brother. 这是汤姆和戴维;后者是我的兄弟。 3) His health has been deteriorating in these latter years. 最近几年他的健康越来越差。 4)His driver's license proved his identity. 他的驾驶执照证明了他的身份。 5)Preserve the distinct identities of an old town 保留古镇的特征风貌 【归纳】
the latter: (两者中的)________,常 与 the former( 前者)连用。 latter : adj ________; _____________ identity_______;__________; identify (vt) _______ identification (n) _______;__________; identity card/paper 身份证 under identification 在鉴别中

【运用】
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Translate the following sentences: 1) The latter point is the most important. ________________________________ ________________________________ 2) John and Jim are brothers. The former is a teacher; the latter is an engineer. ________________________________________________________ __________

3) He spent his latter years of his life in America. _________________________________ 4) Their identities were kept secret . _________________________________ 5) I can?t identify this signature. _______________________________ 3. even if (P10, L5) Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don't speak the same kind of English. ( 翻译) 以英语为母语的人,即使他们所讲的语言不尽相同,他们也可以 相互交流。 【例释】
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1) Even if it takes me six weeks, I am determined to finish the job . 即使这个工作要花掉我六个星期的时间, 我仍决心要把它完成。 2) I?ll help you with English, even if/ though I don?t sleep for a night. 尽管我一夜没有睡觉,也要帮助你学习英语。 【归纳】
even if / even though ________, _______; 引导_____________从句; though/although 也引导__________ 从句,都不能和_____连用,但可以 和 yet, still 等连用。 可以放在主句前 面也可以放在主句后面。

【运用】 1.① Jack is making up his mind to get a ticket for the concert______ it means standing in a queue all night. A. as if C. in case B. even if D. as long as

② Many of them turned a deaf ear to his advice, ______ they knew it to be valuable. A. as if C. even though B. now that D. so that
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2. Even though I know there are a lot of difficulties in my way, I will never give up pursuing my dream. (翻译) ________________________________。 4. come up (P10, L8) I?d like to come up to your apartment. ( 译) ________________________________。 【例释】 1) A number of questions came up at the meeting. 会议上提出了许多问题。 2) I'll let him know if anything comes up. 如有什么事,我会告诉他的。 3) She came up and said, "Glad to meet you." 她走过来说,"很高兴见到你。" 4) The teacher asked a difficult question, but finally Tom came up with a good answer. 老师出了一道难题,但最终汤姆想出了一个很好的答案。 5) The seeds are just beginning to come up. 种子刚开始破土发芽。 6)The price of the steel is coming up all the time.钢材的价格一直 在上涨。 7)When did this idiom come up?这写习语是什么时候流行的?
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【归纳】
come up to = come to come up 意 思 为 : _____; _____; _____; _____; ____; _____。 come up with 提出(建议); [口]找到(答案, 解 决办法)

与 come 有关的短语: come about 发生 come out 出版; 出现 come up to 达到;不负( 期 望);合乎( 标准)come across 偶然碰 上 come on 加油; 得了吧 come at sb 向某人扑来 come back 回来 come into power 上台,当权

【运用】 1) 翻译下列句子。 ①Why don?t you come up to New York for the weekend? ________________________________. ②Sorry I cant go with you----something has suddenly come up. ______________________________. ③The seeds I sowed last week haven?t come up yet. ______________________________. 2)-Have you _____some new ideas? -Yeah . I will tell you.
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A. come about C. come up with

B. come into D. come out with

5. be based on (P10, L11) It was based more on German than the English we speak at present. 当时的英语更多的是以德语为基础的,而现代英语不是。 【例释】 1) The dance of Thousand-hand Guanyin was based on an ancient painting.舞蹈千手观音是基于一幅古老的绘画而创作的。 2) The machine rests on a wide base of steel.这个机器由一个很大 的钢制底座支撑。 3) Our company?s base is in Shandong, but we have branches all over the world.我们公司的总部在山东,但在全世界都有分公 司。 4) The parents based their hopes on the children.. 父母把希望寄 托在孩子们的身上。
base n.& vt. 基础,基地;以?? 为基础 如: base sth. on sth.意思是: ___.be based on 意思为: ________;

【运用】
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选择正确答案 1) We will have an exam next week _____the teaching plan. A. basing C. based on B. basing on D. based to

2) He based his idea_____ scientific experiment. A. at B. with C. on D. in

3) 成功是建立在努力工作的基础上的。 翻译:________________________________ 4)What is your____( base/basis) of your opinion? 6. at present (P10, L12) It was based more on German than the English we speak at present. 【例释】 1) At present, I don?t have any more information. 目前,我们没

有更多的信息。 2) At the present time, they are living in country. 目前,他们住在乡下。
at present 意思为: _________, present n. 现在;礼物 adj. 现在 的,当前(作前置定语) ;出席的, 到场的(做后置定语) vt. 给, 赠 送 adv.不久,此刻,现在,眼下。

【运用】

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the people present___________ the present chairman___________ be present at___________ present sb with sth=present sth to sb present sb to sb___________

1) How many people____ ____ ____(出席、参加) the meeting? 2)写出下面句中斜体字的意思 ①He gave his mother a present on Mother?s Day. ②How many people were present at the meeting? ③What is your present job? ④They presented flowers to their teacher. ⑤The people present at the meeting came from all over the world. 3) _______ plans are being made for a play at the end of the summer holiday in order to collect money for the Hope Project. A. In the past C. At present B. In future D. So far

7. such as ( P10, L25) English is also spoken in Singapore and Malaysia and countries in Africa such as South Africa. 在新加坡、马来西亚和非洲其他国
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家,比如南非,人们也说英语。 【例释】 They planted many flowers, such as roses, sunflowers.他们种了许 多种花,如玫瑰花、向日葵等。
such as 和 for example 的区别。 1)such as 用于列举事物, 所列举的事 物的数量不等同于被列举的总量, 否 则就应用 that is 或 namely; such as 只位于所列举的事物前, 其后不用逗 号。一般不与 and so on 连用。 2) for example 用于举例说明,一般 仅举同类人或物的“一个”例子。for example 可位于句首,句中,句末, 常用逗号和其他部分隔开。

【运用】 用 such as , for example 填空 1) He can speak four languages, ______ English and French. 2) Our monitor does very well in sports and games, swimming, _______. 3)___________ ,John has the same opinion. 4) Pollution, _________, is a big problem. 8. make use of (P10, L15) 【原句再现】 So by 1600?s Shakespeare was able to make use of a wide vocabulary than ever before. 所以到 17 世纪, 莎士比亚所用
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的词汇量比以前任何时期都大。 【例释】 1) We should make use of knowledge to build our country. 我们应该利用知识来建设祖国。 2) Now he can make use of money better than before. 现在,他比 以前更会花钱了。 3) He makes good use of time to study. 他充分利用时间来学习。 4)It is more necessary than ever before for all of us to work hard. 我们大家会比以往更需要努力工作。

【归纳】
1.make use of = __________; 意思是 _________; make good /full use of = make the best /most of 好好/充分利用 make nothing of 不当一回事 make much of 尊重,重视 2. than ever before_________

【运用】
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完成句子 1) He is _______________________(正充分利用) the chance to travel the world. 2) It?s raining hard____ ____ ____(比以前)

3) We should think of what use can ______ such a material (材料) A. be made of made in 4) You should make______ of the time at school or you?ll regret A. nothing C. much B. the most D. everything B. be made from C. be made up D. be

9. the largest number of (P10, L26) In fact, China may have the largest number of English learners. ( 译) ________________________________ 【例释】 1) A number of teachers are studying computers. 大量的老师在学电脑。 2) The number of the students in our school is 5,000. 我们学校学 生的数量是 5,000. 3) The number of birds has become smaller over the years.鸟的数 量近几年下降了。

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the number of 与 a number of 1)the number of “??.的数目” , 后接可数名词复数,中心词是 number,谓语动词用单数。 2)a number of “许多的, 大量的” , 后接复数名词, 中心词为其后的复 数名词, 谓语动词用复数。 在之前 可加上表示数量大小的形容词, 构 成:a great / large / small number of 。

【运用】 用 a number of 与 the number of 填空 1) There are ____________________ students in the picture. 2) _______________________ the students has reached 30,000 in our school. 3) The number of people invited______ fifty, but a number of them ______ absent for different reasons. A. were, was C. was, were B. was, was D. were, were (P12)

10. command, request

Can you find the following command and request from Reading? 你能从下面阅读找出命令和请求吗? 【例释】
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1) I command you to start at once. 我命令你立刻开始。 2) Our boss commanded that we all (should) go to collect market information. 老板命令我们都去搜集市场信息。 3) He made a request that I should help him. 他请求我能帮助他。 4) They requested us to reread the notice. 他们请求我们再读一遍通告的内容。 5) The guide requested that her visitors nor park her car at the gate. 向导要求她的游客不要把她的车停在门口。 【归纳】
command : n._______;v. _______ ; command sb to do sth:_________ ; command that-clause 命 令…command 后接 that 从句时, 从 句中用虚拟语气,动词用___形式

request: n._____________; request sb to do sth: _________ ; request that-clause 命令

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【运用】 1) The officer command that the wounded______ to hospital right now. A. to be sent C. send B. should send D. be sent

2) This is his only request that the room ______ after being used. A. be cleaned C. is cleaned B. would be cleaned D. will be cleaned

3) Visitors ______ not to touch the exhibits( 展品). A. will request C. are requesting B. request D. are requested

4) He came here ______ . A. at my request B. by my request C. by the request of me D. for my request 5) It is required that the students______ mobile phone in their school, so seldom______ them using one . A. don?t use; will you see B. shouldn?t be used; will you see C. shan ?t use; you will see D. not use; will you see
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THE ROAD TO MODERN ENGLISH At the end of the 16th century, about five to seven million people spoke English. Nearly all of them lived in England. Later in the next century, people from England made voyages to conquer other parts of the world and because of that, English began to be spoken in many other countries. Today, more people speak English as their first, second or foreign language than ever before. 通向现代英语之路 在 16 世纪末,大约有五至七百万人讲英语。几乎所有这些讲 英语的人都住在英格兰。在其后的一个世纪中,英格兰人为征服 世界航海到了世界其他一些地方,结果世界的其他地方的人们也 开始说英语了。今天,把英语作为自己的第一语言、第二语言或 外语来使用的人比以往任何时候都多。 Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English. Look at this example: British Betty: Would you like to see my flat? American Amy: Yes, I’d like to come up to your apartment.

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以英语作为母语的人,即使他们所讲不是同一种英语,他们 也能彼此听懂。请看看这个例子: 英国人贝蒂:来看看我的公寓吗? 美国人艾米:好的,我来看看你的公寓吧。 So why has English changed over time? Actually all languages change and develop when cultures meet and communicate with each other. At first the English spoken in England between about AD 450 and 1150 was very different from the English spoken today. It was based more on German than the English we speak at present. Then gradually between about AD 800 and 1150, English became less like German because those who ruled England spoken first Danish and later French. These new settlers enriched the English language and especially its vocabulary. So by the 1600’s Shakespeare was able to make use of a wider vocabulary than ever before. In 1620 some British settlers moved to America. Later in the 18th century some British people were taken to Australia too. English began to be spoken in both countries. 那么,随着时间的推移英语为什么发生了变化呢?实际上, 当不同文化相互交流渗透时,所有的语言都会有所发展和变化。 开始,英格兰人在大约公元 450 年到 1150 年之间所说的英语与
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我们今天所说的英语很不一样。当时的英语更多的是以德语为基 础的,不像我们现在说的英语。后来,大约在公元 800 年至 1150 年之间,英语慢慢变得不那么像德语,因为统治英格兰的那些人 开始是说丹麦语,后来说法语。这些新来的定居者丰富了英语语 言,尤其是丰富了英语词汇。所以到 17 世纪初的时候,莎士比亚 能够得以使用比以往任何时候都丰富的词汇。 1620 年一些英国定 居者来到了美洲,后来到了 18 世纪的时候,一些英国人还被带到 了澳大利亚。英语也就开始在这两个国家使用。 Finally by the 19th century the language was settled. At that time two big changes in English spelling happened: first Samuel Johnson wrote his dictionary and later Noah Webster wrote The American Dictionary of the English Language. The latter gave a separate identity to American English spelling. 最后到 19 世纪的时候,英语这种语言就变得稳定了。当时, 英语的拼写发生了两个很大的变化: 先是塞缪尔?约翰逊编写了他 的英语词典,后是诺亚?韦伯斯特出版了《美国英语词典》。后者 使得美式英语的拼写有了其独特的个性。 English now is also spoken as a foreign or second language in South Asia. For example, India has a very large number of fluent English speakers because Britain ruled India from 1765 to 1947. During that time English became
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the language for government and education. English is also spoken in Singapore and Malaysia and countries in Africa such as South Africa. Today the number of people learning English in China is increasing rapidly. In fact, China may have the largest number of English learners. Will Chinese English develop its own identity? Only time will tell. 现在英语在南亚地区也被作为外语或第二语言使用。比如,印 度就有很多人说英语说得很流利,因为在 1765 年到 1947 年之间 英国统治着印度。在此期间,英语成了印度政府和教育所用的语 言。在新加坡和马来西亚以及像非洲的南非,人们现在也说英语。 当今,在中国学英语的人数正在快速增加,事实上,中国可能是 学英语人数最多的国家。中国式英语是否也能发展成一种具有自 己独特个性的语言?这还有待时间去证明。 难句剖析 1、 later in the next century , people from England made voyages to conquer other parts of the world and because of that , English began to be spoken in many other countries. 在 17 世纪,英国人开始开拓征服世界其他地区。于是,许多 别的国家开始说英语了。 句中 later in the next century 在句中作___________。and 连接 两个__________。because of that 在句中作__________,意思是 __________,后接__________。
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2. At first the English spoken in England between about AD 450 and 1150 was very different from English spoken today. 起初从公元 450 到 1150 年在英格兰人们所说的英语跟今天所 说的英语就很不一样。 句中两个 English 后都有 spoken 的短语做___________,可以转 换成____/ ____引导的定语从句。 be different from 意思是 ___________. 3. Then gradually between about AD 800 and 1150, English became less like German because those who ruled England spoke first Danish and later French .然后,渐渐地,大约 在公元 800 年到 1150 年期间,英语不那么像德语了,因为那时的 英国的统治者起初讲丹麦语后来讲法语。 句中 because 引导___________从句,who ruled England 是 ______从句修饰代词_______. less like German 意思是“不那么像德语了” 。 4、Only time will tell.这只好由时间来回答。 3. To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all water supplies be examined and new methods of dealing with polluted water be found. 译:____________________________ ______________________________. 逗号前面的不定式短语作________状语。谓语动词 suggested 后
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有两个宾语从句,分别是 ___________和________________。 当 suggest 表示“建议”时,后面的宾语从句 常用“should do”形式,should 常可以_____。

KEYS to the translation of sentence patterns 主谓结构 ( 主语 + 不及物动词 )

1.You should study hard. 2. She went home very late yesterday evening. 3.That morning we talked a great deal. 4.The meeting will last two hours. 5.Great changes have taken place in my home town in the past ten years 主谓宾结构 (主语 +及物动词 +宾语 ) 1.I wrote a letter last night. 2.I want to talk with you this afternoon. 3.He has read this book many times. 4.They have carried out the plan successfully.
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5.That gentlemen can speak three languages fluently. 主系表结构 (主语 +系动词+表语 ) 1. My brothers are all college students. 2.In winter, the days are short and the nights are long. 3. Children, keep quiet please. 4.The leaves have turned yellow. 5.The report sounds interesting. 双宾语结构 (主语 + 双宾动词 +间接宾语 +直接宾语 ) 1. Mr Johnson taught us German last year. 2. Grandma told me an interesting story last night. 3. Mary handed the wallet to the schoolmaster. 4. Robinson Crusoe made himself a boat. 5. Shall I call you a taxi? 复合宾语结构 (主语 + 宾补动词 语 ) 1.We call her Alice. 2.All of us considered him honest. 3.We will make our school more beautiful. 4.Every morning we hear him read English aloud. 5.We won?t let her go out at night. There be 句型 1.There isn?t going to be a meeting tonight. 2.There was only a well in the village. + 宾语 + 宾语补

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3.There is (are) a teacher of music and a teacher of art in the school 4.The light is on. There must be someone ion the office. 5.There happened to be nobody in the room. KEYS to the translation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. stop/prevent/keep,going on No matter whether it’s;to get to must be done,stop the earth come back to, sooner or later. teamwork,more and more confident

6. Could you come to my place/house this Friday evening? I’ll be free eleven. 7. What day is tomorrow?Tomorrow is Wednesday. 8. I am planning on going to see my aunt tomorrow. 9. Why not,

10. fit for teaching 11. nothing but 12. very important to sleep for 13. had still been 14. Dogs are usually regarded as guides in many by many countries. 15. I would like to listen to music rather than watch TV.
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16. Reading aloud is a good way to practice pronounciation. 17. not to spend too much time 18. is worth reading again/once more. 19. how far it is from Mars to/how far Mars is away from 20. be done by robots in the future/in future 21. old enough to deal with 22. She is good at cooking 23. We will never give up hope 24. Yeaterday’s party was a big success. 25. strange, to keep 26. was founded on 27. has been away from,for 28. is full of/is filled with 29. how to read a strange word, look it up in dictionary 30. You should find your own way to develop 31. Ten years is quite a long time 32. Thanks to your help, I have passed the exam. 33. is covered with 34. hide from 35. Who might/may/could belong to 36. had taken made such
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37. number has increased to 38. As a student we should put time to good use/As a student we should make a good use of time 39. Don’t let yesterday use up too much of today./Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. 40. Tom can’t go to the party.He has to prepare for a chemistry test. 41. 16-year-old,gave up,study 42. have been here for 43. speak not only,but also 44. have won first prize,in,surfing competition. 45. to live in the south,especially in 46. No matter what ,is like,playing 47. speak highly of him,will be proud 48. have friends all over 49. will take exercise 50. weekdays 51. used to go to movies 52. different 53. about 2 hours 54. There is nobody in the street last night 55. Please raise your hand if you have some problem。 56. Do you have anything interesting to tell me?
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57. else left at home 58. crowed around ,then it was caught 59. pay for,changes his mind 60. month alone,two thousand books 61. more than/over ten months since 62. so kind to. regarded her as 63. At top of the page,type in the website. 64. When I got to the check-out,I realized I had left my purse at home. 65. Please tell me whether it’s a fast train. 66. Hainan Island is the place to be,whether it’s summer or winter. 67. I have a beautiful sister with big eyes. 68. either,or 69. bought,though/although 70. How about 71. take off 72. by plane/air 73. She is very weak and she often catchs cold. 74. Excuse me,how can I get to the railway station? 75. sold very well 76. The price of ,at least 77. written language ,both,and 78. In the old days,as
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79. It is said that,been to 80. knocked down 81. sooner or later

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