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羊驼养殖业的现状与发展对策


Agri ultural Sc i nce& Techno l gy 2011, 12( 5): 733- 736 c e o , Copyright 2011, Infor mation Ins titute of HAAS. All ri hts r g eserved.

Anm al Science i

Current S

ituation and Development Countermeasures of A lpaca Breeding
SHE Q iu-sheng, ZHANG Hong-bo LOU Peng , -yan JI X iao , -na, ZHAO Zhen
*

Department ofB iol gical Engineering Henan University of Urban Cons tructi n P ingdingshan 467036 o , o, Abstract This paper bri fl introduces the biologica l char e y acteristi s and va l e of alpaca breed i g, r i w s the developm ent ofa l aca breeding, c u n ev e p describes the globa l distri ution ofa l aca and the current s ituation ofa l aca breeding in the introduc tion ofwel-bred, i d i ates the technology of b p p l n c feeding, managing and deep process ing And finally some counter . measures for future devel pment of alpaca breeding in China ar put for o e ward. Key w ords A l aca; Breeding; Curr p ent s itua ti n Development counter o; measures

A lpaca ( scien tific na : Lam a P a ce s ) also ca lled ll me a mas be longs to mamma li , arti dacty l , ca lidae genus , a o a me , lla ma in anm a l taxono y A ccord ing to the ma ter i l ana l sis i m. a y o f its fossil 16 m illi n yea rs ago the ancestors of ca l ( or i , o me g ina l so ft hoo fed an m a ls) came to As i n and A fr i an continen t i a c th rough the land br i ge evo l ed to B ac trian came l and d romd , v edary in A si n and A frican con tinen t and llama gene ra in the a A ndes o f South Ame rica A lpaca is ma in l used to p roduce . y h i h qua lity ha ir which is known as the " so ft go l ". A nd the g , d market de and is very exube rant in dress industry and the m po ten ti l is grea t[ 1] . In v i w o f this many coun tries a re beg i a e , n n i g to introduce a l aca to deve l p the ir a lpaca b reed ing A s n p o . a re sul, the In te rna ti nal A l aca Assoc i ti n ( IAA) was foun t o p a o ded in 1984 in Pe ru a m ed a t regu l ti g a l aca ma rke,t and , i a n p guid ing the ove ra ll deve lopmen t of the a l aca industry The Up . n ited S ta tes Canada Ne Zealand B r ita i , A ustralia and , , w , n o ther government agencies have a lready estab lished a lpaca breed i g industry to promo te the deve lopment o f the ir country n and a round the wor l . In Ch ina a lot o f alpaca s ha ir shou l d , d be m po rted to mee t the rap i ly grow ing domesti marke t i d c need S hanxi Ag ricu ltu ra l Un iversity introduced the first 23 a. l pacas fro A ustralia in May 2002 to do so m me resea rches re lated to b reed ing Fro then on Ch ina star ted a new e ra o f . m , a l aca breed i g Howeve r a l aca s hair market demand is p n. , p very strong in Ch i a and demand far exceeds supp l. There n y fore it is urgent to promote the deve l p , o ment o f a l aca breed i g p n in China in order to ga in considerab l econo ic bene fit and , e m huge soci l bene fits in e a merg ing a l aca breed ing industry p .

The B io log ica l Cha racteristics and Ra is ing Va lue of A lp aca
The variet ies of alpaca Genus ll ma includes a l aca v icuna lla a p , , ma and guanaco . Among them, the vicuna and guanaco rema i in the w il and are n d pro tected by us And the lla . ma and a lpaca have been do estm i ca ted Itm ain ly is a lpaca tha twe a re breed ing A l aca gene r . . p a lly is used to produce ha ir and mea,t wh ich includes t o sub w [ 2] speci s, the l ng ired Sur i and sho r- ha ired Hua riz . e o -ha t Hua riz is the ma in a l aca i the wor l , wh ich has the pe r p n d centage o f more than 90 %. The Su ri is quite ra re in the
Rece i ed: April 5, 2011 v A ccep ted: April 18, 2011 * Correspond i g author E-ma il zhaozhen@ hnc.j edu. cn n . :

wor l , and the S uri in wh ite ha ir is on ly 100 000 o f wh i h d , c 2000 in Am erica 500 in A ustra li , and on ly 30 in New Zea, a l and In recen t yea rs Sur i fibe r p rice in the wor l ma rke t has . , d risen to three tm es o f the Hua riz and th is trend has stm u l i , i a ted the S uri breed i g in South Ame rica n . The biologica l characteristics of a lpaca The a lpaca has the eco log i a l advan tages o f bo th yak c and came,l wh i h can be cap tive b reed ing in e levations and c hot dese rt because o f its strong adap tab ility. In recent yea rs , the a lpaca breed i g in the Un ited S tates and A ustra li has n a proved that they can a lso ma in ta in the no r l physio l g ica l ma o functi n and producti n l ve l in var i b l zone o o e a e sub trop ica l [ 1] Ma rine we t c lm a te . Adu lt a l aca is abou t 0 9- 1 1 m high i p . . to the shou l e r 1 5 m to the head and the body leng th is d , . , abou t 2 m. It resemb l s ta ll sheep tha t its neck is l ng and e o thick, the head is sma l,l ears a re erec, back of body is t stra i h,t tail is cock a ll fours are slender its ha ir has 22 d ig , , f fe rent co lors such as pure wh ite li h t g ray b rown da rk , g , , bro and pure b l ck e tc. , life expec tancy is 20- 25 yea rs wn a , . 2 -yea r o l ma le ca e l can ma te w ith the 1 - d m -yea r o ld fe a l to m e get one baby each tm e by ho rizonta lma ting P regnancy lasts i . 342- 345 d fertility ra te can reach 85 , and the rate o f feta l , % [ 3] dea ths is 30 - 35 in the 40 d be fore b irth . The mouth o f % % a l aca is three pe ta ls lips first touchdown when eating g rass p , to avo id ea ting grass roo ts A lpaca has she ll on the sur face o f . hoo , but the underside o f the hoo f is so f, w hich has little f t da mage to vege tati n and is good for the qu ick recovery o f o vegetation The feed and water i take o f alpaca is sma l,l the . n hab it o f eating is sm il r to sheep the a l aca can eat rough i a , p feed ma in l fo rage g rass and feed utiliza tion rate is 25 , y , % h igher than tha t o fm erino sheep . A l aca be longs to herd anm a,l wh i h is easy to ensure p i c ra ising manage men t o f l rge group The a l aca is tempera te a . p , cowardly easily frightened there fore the ra ising environ , , , ment shou ld keep qu ie. M eanwh ile the a l aca are clean t , p . They de feca te in the fixed p l ce and they li e sand ba th a , k . They have the adap tive ab ility to mo ist and resistant to bad foo t d isease . The econom ic value o f a lpaca The a l aca s ha ir has d ifferen t deg ree o f bend ing and its p , fi eness is usua lly 20 - 35 m icron and 20- 22 m icron is con n sidered to be the bes.t A l aca s ha ir is ma inly wh ite which in p , cludes 6 kinds o f bas i tone and 22 d ifferen t na tura l co lors and c can form 26 d iffe rent kinds o f woo len fab rics i to ta,l w hich is n

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ea sil dyed A lso the ha ir can be p roduced to high rade ma y . -g te rial when m i ed w ith sil or woo.l The coarse ha ir is littl x k e and nonadheren,t which is the best na tural fiber The ha ir is . e l stic and flu ffy smoo th o f exce ll n t insu l ti n and hea t a , , e a o prese rva tion and hea t perfor mance wh i h is 1 /3 tm es h i he r , c i g than the sa e we igh t o fme rino ha ir and the wear m , -res isting is 4 tm es o f me rino s which does no t conta in adipose o il o r i , , ha ir fa , do no t send ou t taste A lpaca s ha ir has sil y luste r t . k , and won t l se l ster when dyed and not shrinks and tarries o u , to wa te r Therefore a lpaca s ha ir is welcomed by consu rs . , me in high -end clo th ing Every a l aca is gene ra lly sho rn once a . p year and on average 3 - 5 kg ha ir can be shorn for an , , m adu lt a lpaca a year even abou t 10 kg fro high i ld ing ind, m -y e i [ 4] [ 2] vidua ls . A lpaca s ha ir is 100- 500 do ll rs /kg , which is 7 a do llars/kg highe r than sheep woo.l The a lpaca mea t is l ane r has h i h pro te in conten , lo e , g t w fa t and cho leste ro l conten. A t the sa t me tm e its flavor is i , sm ilar to mutton A dult a lpaca we i h is about 75 kg and can i . g , [ 4] produce 35- 40 kg mea t . In add ition the skin of alpaca can o ffe r var i us supp lies , o ; the a l aca be l w 3 years i the bes.t The alpaca m ilk is edp o s i b l ; m ilk vo l me reaches 0 5 kg per day e u . . The orna ental va lue o f alpaca m The b reed ing tm e o f a l aca is shor t in Ch i a and the i p n, appea rance o f a lpaca is beau tifu,l therefore a l aca has h igh p va lue o f app reciation in tour ist spo ts and can a lso be used as a pe.t

The Current Status o f A lp aca B reed ing in Ch ina
The distribution and liv ing conditions of alpaca The numbe r o f a l aca is about 3 5 m illion ma inly d istr i p . , b uted in South Ame rican countr i s such a s Peru B o livia e , , [ 3] e tc . In recent yea rs due to the good ma rke t outlook the , , production o f the a lpaca b reed ing in Austra lia Am erica and , New Zealand is boo ing Fro 2001 China began to i tro m . m , n duce a lpaca a fter signed alpaca i troduc tion agreement w ith n A ustra li ; they are ma in l i troduced in the prov i ces o f a y n n S handong S hanxi and X in ji ng DONG Chang , a . -sheng the , pres i ent o f Shanxi Agr icu ltura l Un i ersity hosted the " 948 d v , eng ineer ing" o f agr i ulture depa rt en,t o fw hich the key top ic c m is " the techno l gy o f introducti n b reed ing and promo tion o f o o, a l aca". Its b reed ing base is in Y uc i zone o f Zhuangz i V ip l lage Zhuangzi Town o f Shanxi P rovince The base is the , , . cooperative p ro j ct o f Shanx i Ag ricu ltura l Un iversity and e , S hanxi pa rke r LTD has bred near l 300 a lpaca the base has y ; become the As i s largest a l aca breeding and resea rch a p ba se and has begun to supp ly a l aca and a lpaca s ha ir a , p , mong wh ich the p rice o f alpaca is about 10 000 dollars Q ing . dao A nm a l Husbandry and Techno l gy Demonstra tion Ga rden i o i m po rted the second batch of 20 a lpacas in Sep tembe r 2002 from Austra li , and has bred nea rly 62 until Sep te a mbe r 2007 ; they provide a lpaca fo r zoos and o ther un its i the recen t n years p riced a t about 10 000 do llars Q inghe County , . , X ing ji n Uygur Au tonomous Reg ion in troduced 24 a lpacas in a 2004 and has bred 31 by now. N ileke Coun ty in Y ili S ta te o f S ink i ng in troduced 9 a l acas fro Austra lia in 2005 and has a p m , bred 48 now, and the coun ty is ready to increase invest en t m and p romote the deve l pment o f a l aca b reed ing They p lan o p . to deve lop 200 alpacas i 3 - 5 yea rs Zhangq ing Townsh i o f n . p

Shanxi P rovince coope ra ted w ith Shanx i Agr i ultura l Un iversity c to bu il the X ichangshou V ill ge A l aca Base in 2009 . W hen d a p the base is co le ted itw ill have the ab ility to breed 700 amp , l pacas . S cient ific research A fte r introducing the a l aca in 2002 we have made a p , grea t prog ress in a lpaca resea rch in Ch ina DONG Chang . sheng and his workm ates fo r ll sta rted the " 948 eng i ee r ma y n ing " of agricu lture depa rt en,t ofwh i h the key top ic is " the re m c search of introduction and b iolog ical characte ristics of a l aca ", p in 2002 and " the resea rch o f in troduction and app lica ti n o f , o embryo transfer techno l gy o f a lpaca " in 2004 . These two o , sc i n tifi resea rch pro jects go t the na tiona l m in istry o f agr i ue c c l ture o rgan iza tion s accep tance in 2006 In 2005 DONG . , Chang -sheng s team re leased the seria l nu mber AY839860 firstly o f the wo rld wh ich is the data o f Lama pacos cyto , ch ro e b ( c y tb ) gene and is included by Amer ican Hea lth m , Research Institu te Nationa lCenter fo r B i techno logy Infor , o ma ti n ( NCB I) Database wh i h is the first a l aca gene se o , c p quences wh ich is co p l ted by Ch i ese scientists and includ m e n ed by the interna tiona l nucle ic acid sequence da tabase In . 2007 the pro ject " a l aca standa rd ized p roduction system , p constructi n o fCh ina" wh ich is hosted by Shanx i Ag ricu ltu ra l o un i e rs ity co ll bora ti g w ith S hanxi p rovinci l bureau of an m a l v a n a i husbandry reached the i te rna ti na l advanced l ve,l and the n o e sub j ct constructed the a lpaca standa rd ized p roducti n sys e o tem includ ing the d isease preven tion and contro l system, breed ing management syste m, feed nu trition system and re productive b reed ing syste m. The pro ject created the a lpaca ra ising standa rds correspond ing manage en t me thod and , m system o f Ch i a Fertility rate reached m ore than 83 % and n. the a l aca artificia ll insem ina ted is h igher than the 75 o f a p y % broad The average ra te o f b reed ing e . wes rep roduction rate is [ 5] 84 5 , w hich is 4 5 h i her than i te rnationa l ave rage . . % . % g n DONG Chang -sheng stud ied the feed ing cond itions and d i es g [ 6] ti n cha racter istics o f alpaca ; FAN Ruo iwen d id a survey " the rep roducti e ac tiviti s and reproductive perfor v e mance o f [ 3] fema le a lpaca" ; CHENG M i g n -hua and h iswo rkma tes d i a d survey abou t " A rtifi i l i sem ina ti n techno l gy resea rch and ca n o o [ 7] semen characteristics o fA lpaca" ; FAN Ru-wene t a l d i a i . d [ 8] survey abou t the grav i , d i gnosis and de li ery o f a l aca , d a v p techno l gy and m anagement o f alpaca b reed ing were d is o [ 4, 9] cussed by L I D ian -chang e t a l. and L I Tao ; FAN Yao m ing d id the survey about the a l aca s ha ir fiber structure and p sp inning craf,t d iscove red the sp inning cra ft o f a l aca ha ir fp i [ 10] ber ; the d i gnosis and cure of actinomycetes d isease o faa l [ 11] paca we re stud i d by CHENG Zh-xue , p reven ti n and de i o i agnosis o f v ira l in fectious d iseases in a l aca was investi a ted p g [ 12] by REN Y u -hong e t a l . In additi n the structure of ha ir foo, l licle on m orpho log i a l was observed by YANF Gang e t a l The c . resu lts showed tha t the ce ll p ro lifera ti n o f a l aca ha ir fo llicle o p is rap i , and the ha ir pap illa is i ha ir bulb the bo ttom o f ha ir d n ; fo llicle is sea ling in degradation pe riod and the ha ir fo llicle fo r ms the ep ithe lial beam; the ha ir fo lli l organ iza ti na l is ce o shor ten i do r n mant pe riod ha ir bulb ce lls are close to stem ; [ 13] ce lls . The feed ing and manage ent of a lpaca m The feed i g o f a l aca i ou r coun try is in the for o f n p n m comb ina ti n of captive breed ing w ith g razing Accord ing to its o . d iffe rent physi log i a l sta tus such as d ifferen tmon th gende r o c , , the grow th phase and so on fo r captive b reed ing it is reason , -

SHE Q iu -shenge t a l Current Situati n and Developm entCounter . o measures o fA l aca Breeding p

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ab le to add vary ing amounts o f feed and m ine ra ls to gua rantee the nutr ition structure o f the a lpaca The ro ta ti n graz i g is . o n used and the ma i feeds are a lfa lfa forage grass lo lium pe , n , , renne and o r mosia In o rde r to make full use o f pasture 1 5 . , . a l acas a re g razed i a un it of a rea by add ing hay feed and p n , , m ine ra ls in w inte r A l aca house in b rick ground is the bes, . p t and in m o i t or co ld weathe r we can pu, rela tive ly so ft pad s , t grass w ithou t sp ines appropr i te ly in to the house In add iti n a . o, str i t d isin fecti n system should be estab lished if possib l ; ac c o e cording to a lpaca s life hab its so , me de feca tion po in t i the n fi lds and house can be se l cted to set d rink sinks and sand e e [ 14] ba th fie l . d Deep process ing of a lpaca In recent yea rs a lpaca s ha ir jerseys scarves ha ts , , , , g l ves fashion unde r o , , wea r coat and so on wh i h are fa , c vored by a vast number o f consu mers have been ma rke ted in some cities o f our country Q ingdao Baoshui anke In te rnati n . oa l Trade L td , luxin woo llen textil Ltd , Ta,i an P i naW oo ll n . e . n e Textil Ltd , Shangha i S i rli Dress Ltd , Chengde Keda Wooe . e . l e l n Textile Ltd and Shangha i Ta ichang K nitti g Industrial L td are . n [ 15] the ma i a l aca ha ir p rocessing en terp rises i China . n p n

The Developm en t Counter easures of A m l paca B reeding
Po licy support O ur country can take a ser i s o f p re feren ti l po licies to e a boost grea- l ap for rd deve lopment o f a lpaca breed ing t e - wa , such as provid ing sma ll cap ita l l ans or specia l loan fund sup o po rti g in the i itia l stage o f enterp rise as we ll as prov i ing n n , d breed i g l nd executing tax reduc tion or exe ti n po licy in n a , mp o the link o f sale and i creasing the export tax rebates streng th , n o f a l aca products. p Input of sc ien tific resea rch W e can a lso increa se the research income o f a lpaca breed i g Further research o f sheep anato y physio l gy n. m, o , gene tics mm uno l gy endocr i o l gy mo l cular b i logy, a r , i o , n o , e o tifi i l inse ina tion e ryo transp l n ta tion common d isease ca m , mb a , preven tion b reed ing techn i ues and ra ising m anagemente tc. , q is necessary. The a lpaca breed ing shou ld reach the world ad vanced leve l as soon as possib le The deve l p en t o f l rge . om a sca le b reed ing base na tiona l a rtificial inse i ation center a, mn , l paca b reed ing technolog i a l tra in ing center is a lso necessary c . Th is is a gua rantee to so lve the prob l m s of low p roduction e but h i h cos,t and provide m ore technology fo r breed i g g n. m I prove the techno logy and m anage ent leve l of the am l paca breeding enterprise W e can m prove the standard ized production syste o f i m a l aca breed i g streng then the qua lity con tro l syste p n, m in breed i g p rocess and construct the sa fe hea lthy and e ffn , , i cient a l aca b reed ing p . In techn i a l te r , en terp rise s techn ica l personne l c ms should be tra ined properly and try to create a h i h leve l o f g techn ica l team. On the manage men t si e we can estab lish strict and ed, f fecti e sc i nce manage v e men t syste Management personne l m. should be tra ined p rope rly to m prove the managemen t l ve.l i e A t the same tm e we can ensure management system func i , tion strictl , thus m p roving the p roducti n e fficiency o f en te r y i o pr ises learn fro the advanced managemen t expe rience o f o , m versea s estab lish the a lpaca breed ing associa tion wh ich can , ,

pro te the b reed ing a l aca be t een en te rpr ises e ffective ly mo p w , and p ro te our a l aca b reed ing deve l p be tter and faste r mo p o . Establish and perfec t the modernm arketing sys te o f the m a lpaca breeding W e should estab lish eve ry link o f ma rke ti g syste n m, al paca i troduction b reed ing deep p rocessing and the qua lity n , , , gua rantee system o f each link should be str ic.t The in terne t and o ther m odern comm un ications could be used to construct convenien, e ffi i n t e lectron ic marke ting syste t ce m; making trad ing in for ti n o f va rious links o f alpaca b reed ing can ge t ma o the tm e ly commun i a ti n and ensure the h i h i c o g -speed deve lop ment o f a l aca breed i g p n. Increase intens ity of research and inves t ment in the al paca deep processing industry W e need to research the deep p rocessing products and techno l gy active ly o f a l aca s ha ir and sk ine tc. , m p rove the o p i qua lity and g rade o f the deep processing p roducts expand , the ca tegory and the app lica tion o f p rocess i g p roduc, bu ild n t the deep processing p roduct m arke ting ne twork o f a l aca s p , extend the cha in o f the a l aca b reed ing i dustry estab lish p n , and per fect the qua lity sa fe ty guarantee syste m, and i crease n invest en, expand the sca l of breed i g to crea te greate r e ffm t e n i ciency for the a l aca deep processing en terpr ise and socie ty p . A l aca breed i g is the sun rise i dustry and its deve lop p n n ment p rospects are luciferous W ith the rap id develop . men t and expands o f a l aca breeding p roduction cost w ill d rop p , substan tia ll . Deep processing techno logy o f the a lpaca s y ha ir skin and meat p roductse tc. w ill a lso r ise to a h igher lev , e.l O ur a l aca breed ing w ill become an m portan t industry w ith p i ce rta in sca le econo i and socia l bene fits mc .

Re fe rences
[ 1] LI T(李涛 ). Ra i ing management and bi logical char teri ti s of s o ac s c al aca(羊驼的饲养管理和生物学特性 ) [ J]. J ilin Journal ofAnm al p i Husbandry and Veteri ary Medic i e(吉林 畜牧兽 医 ), 2004( 10): n n 33- 34. [ 2] ZHANG Y(张瑛 ). Utilizati n and br o eed i g techniques of a spec i l n a econom i anm a,l a l aca(特种经济动物羊驼的开 发利用与饲养技 c i p 术 ) [ J]. China Herbi or v es(中国草食动物 ), 2009 29( 3): 63- 64 , . [ 3] FAN R (范瑞文 ), DONG CS(董常生 ), ZHANG JZ(张俊珍 ). The W reproduc ti e acti iti s and reproducti e perfor v v e v mance femal a l aca e p (雌性羊驼的生殖活动及繁殖性能 ) [ J]. China Herbivores(中国草食 动物 ), 2004 24( 1): 55- 56 , . [ 4] LIDC(李佃场 ), ZH U J (周京明 ), LIU G (刘刚 ). Pr O M actica l value and rais i g management technology of South Ameri an alpaca(南 n c 美羊驼的实用价值和饲养管理技术 ) [ J]. Shandong Journal ofAni mal Sc i nce and Veteri ary Medicine(山东畜牧兽 医 ), 2007( 5): e n 21- 22. [ 5] FAN JE(范俊娥 ). The study of construc ti n of standardized pro o ducti n system of alpaca in Ch i a has reached the internati nal o n o advanced level ( 中国羊驼标准化生产体系构建 研究达到国际领先 水平 ) [ J]. Journal of Shanx i Agricultural Univers ity Natural Sc: i ence Editi n(山西农业大学学报: 自然科学版 ), 2008 28( 1): 112 o , . [ 6] DONG CS(董常生 ), FAN R (范瑞文 ), HAO XY(郝晓燕 ). A l ac W p as di estive system charac teristi s and their suitabiliti s in China g c e (羊驼的消化特征与饲养条件 ) [ J]. Jour of Shanx i Agricultur nal al Univers ity Natural Sc i nce Editi n(山西农业 大学学报: 自然 科学 : e o 版 ), 2002 22(1): 1- 5 , . [ 7] CHEN MH(陈明华 ), JIANG JB(姜俊兵 ), HE JP(贺俊平 ), e t a l . Study on semen coll ction techni ues and semen charac teri ti s in e q sc al acas(羊驼人工受精技术的研究与精液特性 ) [ J]. Chi ese Agr i p n cultural Sc i nce Bulletin(中国农学通报 ), 2006, 22( 5): 1- 6. e [ 8] FAN R (范瑞文 ), DONG CS(董常生 ), HAO XY(郝晓燕 ), e t a l W . Pregnancy diagnos is and deli ery of al aca(羊驼妊娠、 , v p 诊断及分 娩 ) [ J]. Chinese Journa lofAnm a lSc i nce(中国畜牧杂志 ), 2004 i e , 40(10): 51- 52 .

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Agricultur l Sc ience& Technology Vo.l 12, No 5, 2011 a . [ 13] YANG G (杨刚 ), FAN R (范瑞文 ), LIH(李辉 ), e ta l Observa W . ti n of hair follic l struc tur and morphogenesis in alpaca fetus(羊 o e e 驼胎儿毛囊结构的形态学观察 ) [ J]. Progress in Veteri ary Medn i cine(动物医学进展 ), 2008 29(9): 18- 20. , [ 14] WANG S(王帅 ), ZHANG Q L(张巧灵 ). Cultivation of al aca w ith p Chinese char teri tics(羊驼的中国化养殖 ) [ J]. Journal of Anhui ac s Agricultur Sciences(安 徽农 业 科 学 ), 2009 37( 20): 9491 al , 9492 . [ 15] L IYM (李彦明 ), ZHANG Y(张映 ), SUN JL(孙九龙 ). A k ind of spec ial anm alw ith brilliant futur alpaca(极具发展潜力的特种经 i e济动物羊驼 ) [ J]. Livestock and Poultry Industry(畜禽业 ), 2003 ( 4): 26- 27 .

Responsible ed itor Y IN Q ing-qing :

R esponsib le proofreader W U X iao : -yan

羊驼养殖业的现状与发展对策
佘秋生, 张红波, 娄鹏雁, 姬晓娜, 赵 桢
*
(河南城建学院生物工程系, 河南平顶山 467036)

摘要 简要介绍了羊驼的生物学特性和饲养价值, 对羊驼养殖业的发展历程和国内羊驼的引种、 驯养情况做了回顾, 叙述了全球羊驼养殖业 的分布和存栏情况, 并就国内羊驼养殖业的科研、 饲养及深加工现状做了详细论述, 对羊驼养殖业的未来发展提出了一些建议和相应的 对策。 关键词 羊驼; 养殖业; 现状; 发展对策
作者简介 收稿日期 佘秋生 ( 1963- ), 男, 陕西咸阳市人, 副教授, 博士, 从事生物工程研究, E-m ai: sheq iusheng828@ 163 com; * 通 讯作者, 教 授, 从事生 物工 l . 程研究, E-m ai:l zhaozhen hnc. edu. cn @ j 。 2011 -05 -04 修回日期 2011 -18 -04

( From page 701 )
[ 15] HU YN(胡亚南 ), CHAISZ(柴绍忠 ), XU YL(许吟隆 ), e ta l Vali a . dtion ofCERES- Maize model inmainmaize planti g regi ns in Chn o i na( CERES- Maize模型在中国主要玉米种植区域的适用性 ) [ J]. Chinese Journal of Agrometeorol gy(中国农业气象 ), 2008 29(4): o , 383- 386 . [ 16] LIN ED (林而达 ), XU YL(许吟隆 ). Chinese- EnglishProj c:t Evale u ati n of clm ate change on Chinese agriculture(中 o i 英合作项目: 评价气候变化对中国农业的影响 ) [ R]. Beijing: National Devel p oment and Refor Comm iss i n Depart ent of C lmate Change(北 m o, m i 京: 国家发展和改革委员会应对气候变化司 ), 2002 . [ 17] CHEN N(陈楠 ), XU YL(许吟隆 ), CHEN XG(陈晓光 ), e ta l. Sm u i -

lati n of c lm ate change scenario duri g 2071- 2100 in ningxia by o i n precis(PREC IS模式对宁夏气候变化情景的模拟分析 ) [ J]. Quater nar Sciences (第四纪研究 ), 2007 27( 3): 332- 338 y , . [ 18] YANG K(杨侃 ), XU YL(许吟隆 ), CHEN XG (陈晓光 ), e ta l Analy . ses on the GC Ms Pr ojection of future c lm ate change scenari s i i o n N i gxia(全球气候模式对宁夏区域未来气候变化的情景模拟分析 ) n [ J]. Clm atic and Environmental Research(气候与环境研究 ) [ J]. i 2007 12( 5): 629- 637 , . [ 19] YANG X(杨修 ), SUI F(孙芳 ), LIN ED (林而达 ), e t a l. Study on the sensitiv ity and vul er n ability ofmaize to c lm ate change in Chi a i n (我国玉米对气候变化的敏感性和脆弱性研究 ) [ J]. Ar Research eal and Development(地域研究与开发 ), 2005 24( 4): 54- 57 , .

Responsible ed itor YANG Y ing-y ing :

R esponsib le proofreader W U X iao : -yan

气候变化下宁夏引黄灌区玉米产量及其构成因素的预估 (摘要 )
刘玉兰
1 *

, 任 玉 , 王迎春 , 郭晓雷

1

2

1

( 1. 宁夏气象服务中心, 宁夏银川 750002 2. 宁夏气象局, 宁夏银川 750002) ;

[目的 ]定量化估算未来气候变化情景下宁夏引黄灌区玉米产量变化趋势。 [方法 ]利用区域气候模式输出的未来 90a ( 2010~ 2100年 )宁夏 25 km 25 km 网格的逐日温度、 降水、 辐射等资料, 采用校正的 CERESM a ize模型对宁夏 21世纪的玉米产量状况进行研究。 [结果 ]随着气候变暖, 在未来气候情景下, 采用当前玉米的适应性品种和最优生产管理措施, 与基准年份 BS( 1961~ 1990年平均 )相比, 宁夏 引黄灌区玉米产量在 2020s和 2050s表现为增产趋势, 到 2080s 随气温的进一步升高, 则开始减产。玉米的产量构成因素穗粒数和穗粒重也 , 表现相同的趋势。在 2020s和 2050s B2情景下的玉米增产幅度大于 A2情景, 2080s B2情景下的玉米减产幅度小于 A 2情景。 , , [结论 ]随着气候变暖, 宁夏引黄灌区玉米增产, 随气温的进一步升高, 则开始减产。 关键词 引黄灌区; 气候变化; 玉米
基金项目 作者简介 收稿日期 科技部项目 宁夏气候对全球气候变化的响应及其机制 ( 2004D I B3J121) ; 中国气象局气候变化专项 ( CCSF2007 -27) ; 中英气候变化双边 合作研究项目 ( 2001 -BA611B-04 -01) 。 -06 刘玉兰 ( 1965- ) , 女, 宁夏中卫人, 高级工程师, 主要从事应用气象研究, * 通讯作者。 2011 -15 -04 修回日期 2011 -23 -05


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