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张道真全范围英语语法之20·宾语


张道真全范围英语语法之

宾语

担纲指导 执行主编 编 著

张道真 席玉虎 陈 静 赵淑文

山西出版传媒集团·山西教育出版社 2013 年 6 月第 2 版 2014 年 2 月第 5 次印刷 出 版人 雷俊林 出版策划 苗补坤 责任编辑 王爱仙 ISBN 978-7-5440-6436-1 学

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丨学英语,凭什么让我学语法吗???
不时听到一些青年问道:学英语一定要学语法吗?语法应该怎么学呢?我们 就这两个问题简单地谈一点个人意见。 对中国学生来说,尤其是成年人,我看是学点语法好。语法,顾名思义,乃是语 言的法则和规律。学习语法,尤其是一些基本法则,至少有下列几个好处: 第一 头摸索。 可以使你学得快些,因为已有现成的前人总结的法则,用不着你从

第二 可以使你学得透些,因为通过语法对语言现象不仅可以知其然,而 且可以知其所以然。 第三 可以使你学得准些,因为语法法则就是一条条准绳,可以用以衡量 一句话是否正确。 第四 语法不但可以引你入门,更可以引你入胜,使你逐渐眼界开阔,语 感加深,从而使你的英语水平不断提高。

丨那么应该如何学习语法呢?
我认为在学习语法过程中,应该注意下面几点: 第一 基本概念最重要。在学习每个语法项目时,一定要把它的基本概念 搞清,牢记在心。 第二 要大量地实践,大量地练习。实践要包括听、说、读、写四个方面, 练习要着重说和写。 第三 学习语法时,应多用比较法。如对动词时态、冠词、介词、名词的 单、复数等较难的语法项目进行相互比较,效果就比较好。 第四 要将语法法则与习惯用法分开。碰到习惯用法,就不必钻牛角尖, 进行徒劳的分析。而习惯用法在英语中则是大量地存在着的。 第五 将一本语法书通读一遍,当然也不无好处。但最好将它作为工具书, 像词典一样地经常查阅,始能学得比较细致牢靠。 第六 实用英语语法只应是入门的向导,像一根拐棍一样。英语达到一定 水平之后,就应将它扔掉。起码不要让许多语法条条充斥头脑,影响你说和写的 流利性。 最后 可能还会有人说,语法应该学,就是太枯燥。我的感觉是:开头有 点枯燥,过些时候,就会像嚼橄榄似的,越学越有味了。如若不信,请试试看。

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张道真全范围英语语法之·宾语
目 录

话说宾语 A 宾语表示法 构成宾语的词和结构 it 作宾语 B 直接宾语和间接宾语 C 复合宾语 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(形容词) 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(名词) 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(介词短语) 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(不定式) 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(现在分词) 介词后的“名词+分词或不定式”构成的复合宾语 D 宾语从句 that 引导的宾语从句 连接词引导的宾语从句 关系代词引导的宾语从句 “be+形容词”引导的宾语从句 介词引导的宾语从句 E 引语 陈述句 疑问句 祈使句 感叹句 基础练习 能力提升

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纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售
Unit 20 宾 语

话说宾语 宾语表示动作的对象,是动作的承受者或结果。宾语通常放在及物动词之后。 A. 宾语表示法 1. 构成宾语的词和结构 (1) 名词构成的宾语。如: Show your boarding cards, please. 请出示登机证。 May I have your attention, please? 请大家注意。 (2) 代词构成的宾语。如: Do you want anything to drink? 你想喝点什么吗? I want a little. 我要一点。 (3) 数词构成的宾语。如: I need two bottles of beer. 我要两杯啤酒。 They laid off one-third of their workers. 他们解雇了三分之一的工人。 (4) 名词化的形容词构成的宾语。如: Take the injured to hospital immediately. 立即把伤员送往医院。 Respect the old and cherish the young. 敬老爱幼。 (5) 动名词构成的宾语。如: I enjoyed travelling with you. 很高兴和你们一起旅游。 We avoided talking about the subject. 我们避免谈这个话题。 (6) 不定式构成的宾语。如: Roy offered to carry my bags. 罗伊主动要帮我提行李。 Hope to see you soon. 希望不久能见到你。 (7) 复合结构构成的宾语。如: You'll find the pain easing up in a few hours. 几个小时后你会发现疼痛减轻了。 I'll have my lungs X-rayed. 我要透视一下肺部。 (8) 从句构成的宾语。如: See that everything is ready by ten. 设法在 10 点前把一切准备好。 Did you write down what she said? 你记下她说的话了吗? 2. it 作宾语 人称代词 it (1) 代表前面刚提到的东西。如: —Did you see the snake? 你看到蛇了吗?—Yes, I saw it. 我看到了。 —Where is your map? 你的地图在哪里?—I left it on the desk. 我放在桌子上了。 You can't have your cake and eat it. 两者不可兼得。 (2) 指不知性别的孩子。如: —How about the baby? 孩子怎么办? 全国优秀畅销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书销售突破 220 万册! 根据课改全面修订第四版条理更分明,针对性更强,重点更突出!

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—I'll care of it. 我来照顾他。 (3) 表示刚提到的一件事。如: If I can stop her coming to you, I shall do it. 如果我能阻止她找你,我会那样做的。 —I want to stay. 我想留下。 —Your wife won't like it. 你妻子不会赞成。 You've saved my wife, I shall never forget it. 你救过我妻子的命,我永远不会忘记。 先行词 it 当复合宾语中的宾语是动词不定式、 动名词或宾语从句时, 往往把宾语放在它的补足语 之后,而用引导词 it 作形式宾语。放在宾语补足语后面的宾语是真正的宾语。因此,真正 的宾语可表示为: (1) 不定式。如: Ken makes it a rule to give short speeches. 肯规定自己讲话要简短。 Randy thought it best to be on his guard. 兰迪认为最好保持警惕。 (2) 由 that 引导的从句,that 常可省略。如: I have it on my conscience that I offended you. 我得罪了你,心里过意不去。 I think it very important that we should learn English grammer well. 我认为学好英语语法 非常重要。 They kept it quiet that Reed was dead. 里德死了,他们没有张扬出去。 (3) 由连接代词或副词引导的从句。如: Philip soon made it clear why he had asked for a conference. 菲利普很快表明为什么要求 召开会议。 They haven't made it known where they are to hold the conference. 他们还没有宣布会议在 哪里举行。 (4) 动名词。如: I think it very unwise going on as we are without a definite agreement. 我认为像我们这样 没有明确的协议而继续下去是不明智的。 意义不明确的 it 有些作宾语的 it,并不指具体的东西,意思含糊,甚至没有意思。如: The last train's gone. We'll have to foot it. 最后一趟火车走了,我们只好步行了。 If you go camping, you'll have to rough it. 如果你去露营,就得过艰苦的生活。 When I see Aaron, I'll have it out with him. 我见到亚伦时,我将和他谈清楚。 I'm feeling rather off it today. 今天我感到不舒服。 B. 直接宾语和间接宾语 有少数动词称为双宾动词,后面通常跟两个宾语,即间接宾语和直接宾语。直接宾语表 示动作的承受者或结果,通常指物;间接宾语表示动作所指向的人或物,通常指人。如: 主语 谓语 间接宾语 直接宾语 Dad gave me a car. She handed him a glass of beer. They promised her a job. (更多讲解请参阅 Unit 16 句法一章)

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C. 复合宾语 大多数宾语都由一个词、 短语或从句担任, 都是简单宾语; 有一部分宾语由两部分构成, 即宾语和宾语补足语,称为复合宾语。包含复合宾语的句子类型主要有下面几种: 1. 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(形容词) (1) 能引起这种复合宾语的常见动词有:find,make,paint,keep,think,feel,prove, get,wish,want,have,put,leave 等。如: Everyone supposes him poor, but he's really quite wealthy. 大家都以为他很穷, 其实他很有 钱。 You should count yourself lucky to have escaped serious injury. 你没受重伤应该感到幸运。 (2) 用 it 作形式宾语,而把真正的宾语放在宾语补足语(形容词)之后。如: I have to make it clear that my family is poor. 我得说清楚我家很穷。 They judged it better to start at once. 他们认为马上动身好一些。 Mary found it hard to answer the question. 玛丽发现回答这问题很困难。 We don't consider it possible to set back the clock of history. 我们认为要扭转历史的时钟 是不可能的。 2. 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(名词) (1) 在及物动词后可用先行词 it 作形式宾语, 而把真正的宾语放在宾语补足语(名词)之后。 如: Martin made it a rule to speak in Parliament at least once every session. 马丁给自己规定国 会每次开会他至少发一次言。 I felt it a terrible thing that my mother should have to toil so endlessly. 我感到母亲老得没 完没了地干苦活,这真是太糟了。 I shall always count it a privilege to have known you. 我认识了你是很荣幸的事。 (2) “主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(名词)”常可用于被动结构中。如: Who was chosen (to be) king? 谁被选为了国王? Spark was taken prisoner by the enemy. 斯帕克被敌人俘虏了。 Scott was voted a fine teacher. 斯考特被评为了优秀教师。 The play may be termed a tragicomedy. 这个剧可以称作是悲喜剧。 3. 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(介词短语) (1) 有些动词后可跟“宾语+介词短语”构成复合宾语。如: A cold kept him in bed for three days. 一次感冒让他卧床三天。 The news of his safe arrival let my mind at rest. 他安全到达的消息让我放心了。 Warren wished himself out of the affairs. 沃伦希望自己未参与此事。 They declared themselves against the plan. 他们宣布反对这个计划。 (2) “主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(介词短语)”也可用于被动结构中。如: The thing should be kept in good order. 这些东西要保持整洁。 I was left without a ray of hope. 我被弄得失去了一切希望。 The thief was found in possession of the jewels. 他们发现珠宝都在小偷那里。 The treaty is still considered in force. 条约仍然有效。 注意: 有些动词后可跟“宾语+副词”构成复合宾语。如: We wished the long journey over. 我们盼望着这漫长的旅行结束。 全国优秀畅销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书销售突破 220 万册! 根据课改全面修订第四版条理更分明,针对性更强,重点更突出!

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Who accomplished it? The women brought it off. 谁完成的? 是那些女人完成的。 Count me in if you're going swimming. 如果你们去游泳,算我一个。 Let's turn the TV on. 咱们把电视机打开吧。 Your husband won't let you down; he's reliable. 你丈夫不会让你失望的,他是可靠的。 4. 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(不定式) (1) 有些动词后可跟“宾语+不定式”构成复合宾语。如: She begged me not to tell her parents. 她求我不要告诉她的父母。 Falling profits obliged them to close the factory. 利润下降迫使他们关闭这家工厂。 It was meant to be a surprise; I didn't intend you to see it so soon. 这本来是一件意外的喜 事,我不想让你这么早就看到的。 His kind words stimulated the children to work hard. 他亲切的话语激励着孩子们努力学 习。 (2) 在某些动词后,不定式通常只跟 to be 形式,有时可用不定式的完成式或进行式。如: I consider it a great honour to be invited to join the committee. 我认为能被邀请加入委员 会是很大的荣幸。 They reported a star to have appeared in the East. 他们报道东方出现了一颗星星。 I judged them to have finished. 我估计他们已经完成。 (3) “主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(不定式)”常可用于被动结构中。如: You are expected to work late if need be. 必要时希望你加会儿班。 The girl was obliged to abandon the idea. 那个女孩被迫放弃了这个想法。 Mariah was discovered to be pregnant. 人们发现玛丽亚怀孕了。 Visitors are requested not to touch the paintings. 参观的人请勿触摸展出的作品。 (4) 有时不定式前可加连接副词或连接代词。如: My sister taught me how to read. 我姐姐教我识字。 She'll tell you whom to approach for help. 她会告诉你找谁帮忙。 I'll show you how to operate the machine. 我教你怎样操作这台机器。 (5) 有些动词后的不定式可省略 to。 这类动词有: feel, have, hear, help, let, make, notice, see,watch 等。如: Delighted to hear you say that. 听你这样讲我很高兴。 Did you notice me leave the house? 你发现我离开这屋子了吗? Oprah helped the family conceal the disgrace. 奥帕帮助家人隐瞒这可耻的事。 注意: 这类句子变为被动结构时,必须加 to。如: Colin was made to work long hours. 他们让科林长时间干活。 Esther was heard to leave the house. 有人听见爱丝特离开了这屋子。 Mars was seen to pick it up. 有人看见马尔斯把它捡起来的。 (6) 有些成语动词后可跟“宾语+不定式”构成复合宾语。如: They are looking to the new manager to bring the company back to profitability. 他们指望 新经理能使公司重新有钱可赚。 The man signed to the waiter to bring the bill. 那位男士打手势让服务员拿账单来。 We are waiting for the rain to stop. 我们在等雨停。 5. 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(现在分词) 全国优秀畅销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书销售突破 220 万册! 根据课改全面修订第四版条理更分明,针对性更强,重点更突出!

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(1) 有些动词后可跟“宾语+现在分词”构成复合宾语。如: We could hear her singing as she ran upstairs. 我们听到她唱着歌跑上楼。 Cindy felt the thought weighing on her mind heavily. 辛迪感到这想法沉重地压在她心上。 I'll have you all speaking English well within a year. 我要让你们一年之内都讲好英文。 Father discovered her sitting near the fire, reading a book. 爸爸发现她坐在炉火边看书。 (2) “主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语(现在分词)”可用于被动结构中。如: The papers were left flying around. 文件被弄得到处飞扬。 The boy was caught cheating. 这男孩考试作弊被抓住了。 The man was noticed carrying a pack when he came in. 有人看到那个男人进来时拿着一 个包。 注意: 有不少动词后是由“宾语+过去分词”构成复合宾语。如: Bill watched the television set carried out of the door. 比尔看着电视机被搬出门去。 Jack found one of the windows smashed. 杰克发现一扇窗子被砸碎了。 We'll keep you informed of what's going on here. 我们将不断让你了解这儿发生的情况。 6. 介词后的“名词+分词或不定式”构成的复合宾语 [分词] With winter coming on, it's time to buy warm clothes. 冬天来了,该买暖和的衣服了。 [不定式] Without anyone to help, how can we go on? 没有人帮忙,我们怎么能进行下去? D. 宾语从句 1. that 引导的宾语从句 (1) 能跟由 that 引导的宾语从句作宾语的这类动词有: add admit advise agree announce answer believe command comment complain decide demand deny determine direct discover doubt dream expert explain fear feel find forget guess hear hope imagine inform insist intend know learn mean move order predict prefer promise propose prove provide read realize remember request reply report say see shout suggest support tell think I don't doubt that they will be able to overcome the difficulties. 我相信他们能够克服困难。 The letter says that they are leaving on the 13th. 信上说他们 13 号动身。 James answered that he was from Austria. 詹姆斯说他是奥地利人。 I suggested that it was time to leave. 我提出该走了。 在有些动词后, 连词 that 常可省略, 常见的这类动词有 believe, think, suppose, presume, say,see,know,hear,propose,understand 和 to be 等。不过在大多数情况下仍以不省略为 好,尤其在书面语中。 全国优秀畅销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书销售突破 220 万册! 根据课改全面修订第四版条理更分明,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售
注意: 在 think,believe,suppose,expect 等动词引起的宾语从句中,有时谓语尽管是否定的 意思,但不用否定形式,而将主句中的 think 等动词变为否定形式。如: I don't think you are right. 我想你是不对的。 I don't believe they've finished their work yet. 我相信他们还没有干完。 I don't suppose he cares, does he? 我看他不在乎,对吧? He doesn't expect we need worry. 他认为我们不必着急。 I don't think so (= I think not). 我看情况并非如此。 相关试题解析: Mike's uncle insists______in this hotel. (四级题) A. staying not B. not to stay C. that he would not stay D. that he not stay 【选 D】译文:迈克的叔叔坚持要他别住这家旅馆。 (2) 用 it 作先行宾语,而把从句放到句子之后。如: You may depend upon it that they are valuable. 你可以放心,它们是很珍贵的。 Robin doesn't want it to be known that he's going away. 罗宾不想让人知道他要离开。 Robert has seen to it that all the little leaks were shut off. 罗伯特已负责让所有的小漏洞都 堵上。 2. 连接词引导的宾语从句 (1) 连接代词或连接副词引导的从句可在某些动词后作宾语从句。常见的这类动词有: agree ask care decide discover discuss explain express find out forget guess hear imagine know inquire realize remember see say wonder show suggest tell think She inquired how we are getting on. 她问我们情况怎样。 I wonder what's happened. 我想知道发生了什么事。 Can you see what the sign says? 你能看清招牌上写的是什么吗? (2) 常见的可用 whether 和 if 来引导宾语从句的动词有: ask discover discuss doubt wonder imagine inquire know say show tell understand I didn't know whether they liked the place. 我不知道他们是否喜欢这个地方。 She didn't say if she was still alive. 她没说她是否还活着。 Sam inquired if his parents spoke Spanish. 萨姆问他的父母是否讲西班牙语。 相关试题解析: —Do you know______I could pass the exam? —Sorry, I've no idea.(中考题) A. that B. whether C. what D. which 【选 B】译文:——你知道我能否通过考试吗? ——对不起,我不知道。 3. 关系代词引导的宾语从句 (1) 关系代词 what 引导的从句作宾语时,可放在动词或介词之后。如: I'll try to make up what I have missed. 我将把我缺失的补回来。 全国优秀畅销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书销售突破 220 万册! 根据课改全面修订第四版条理更分明,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售
I'll show you what I have put down in my notebook. 我会把我笔记本里记下的东西拿给你 看。 I don't care about what people call position. 我不在乎人们所说的地位。 Philip was depressed by what he had gone through. 菲利普对自己经历的事感到很沮丧。 相关试题解析: 1. —Do you know______about China? —The people and the food.(中考题) A. if Jim likes B. how does Jim like C. what Jim likes D. why does Jim like 【选 C】译文:——你知道吉姆喜欢中国的什么吗? ——食物和人。 2. Although Anne is happy with her success, she wonders______would happen to her private life. (四级题) A. that B. what C. it D. this 【选 B】译文:尽管安妮为自己的成功感到高兴,但是她不知道自己的私人生活会出现 什么情况。 (2) whatever,whoever,whomever 等合成词也可引导宾语从句。如: Amy had to rely on whatever books she could find there. 艾美得依靠她在那里找到所需要 的书。 Give it to whomever / whoever you like. 你爱把它给谁就给谁。 相关试题解析: We agreed to accept______they thought was the best tourist guide. (四级题) A. whatever B. whomever C. whichever D. whoever 【选 D】译文:我们同意接受他们认为是最佳导游的任何人选。 4.“be+形容词”引导的宾语从句 “be+形容词”后常可接从句,在概念上接近宾语,但在结构上接近状语。常见的这类 形容词有:afraid,certain,glad,pleased,sure,surprised 等。如: I'm afraid / fear I have made a serious mistake. 我担心我犯了严重的错误。 We are sure / know for sure that we shall succeed. 我们有把握成功。 Mamie was not certain whether Andy would come. 玛米不能肯定安迪是否会来。 We are confident / believe we can overcome these difficulties. 我们有信心克服这些困难。 5. 介词引导的宾语从句 (1) that 仅限于用在 except,but,not,with,standing 等少数介词后来引导介词宾语从句。 如: His account is correct except that some details are omitted. 除了有些细节未提到外, 他的叙 述是正确的。 He would have helped us but that he was short of money at the time. 要不是他那时缺钱, 他 一定会帮助我们的。 相关试题解析: I know nothing about him______he is a teacher.(考研题) A. apart from B. except C. besides D. except that 【选 D】译文:我只知道他是位教师,除此之外,我对他一无所知。 全国优秀畅销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书销售突破 220 万册! 根据课改全面修订第四版条理更分明,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售
(2) 连接代词和连接副词也可引导介词宾语从句。如: I haven't the least interest in what he is doing. 我对他在干什么毫无兴趣。 I have no definite information yet as to which route he will take. 对他将走哪条路线,我还 没有确切的情报。 Did your father say anything about when he would be back? 你父亲说了什么时候回来没 有? 相关试题解析: Many principles of jet propulsion apply regardless of______air or water is the fluid used. (托福题) A. what B. that C. whether D. either 【选 D】译文:不论所使用的流体是空气还是水,喷射推进的许多原则都是适用的。 (3) 关系代词 what,whatever,whichever,whoever 也可引导介词宾语从句。如: The boy was interested in whatever he saw there. 那男孩对在那里看到的任何事物都感兴 趣。 House is sorry for what he said. 豪斯对自己所说的话表示歉意。 相关试题解析: Physics is the present-day equivalent of______used to be called natural philosophy, from which most of present-day science arose. (六级题) A. that B. all C. which D. what 【选 D】译文:今天的物理学相当于过去的自然哲学,大部分现代科学都由此而产生。 E. 引语 引用或转述别人的话时,有两种情况: 一是一字不改地将别人的话加以引用和复述出来, 称为直接引语; 用自己的话转述别人 的话,称为间接引语。见表: 直接引语 John said,“I am going to Paris with my wife.” 约翰说: “我要和妻子到巴黎去。 ” She said, “My name is Anne.” 她说: “我叫安妮。 ” He said to me,“You have to improve your working method.” 他对我说: “你必须改进工 作方法。 ” 直接引语通常都用引号括起来。 间接引语 John said that he was going to Paris with his wife. 约翰说,他要和他妻子去巴黎。 She said that her name is Anne.她说她叫安妮。 He told me that I had to improve my working method. 他告诉我必须改进工作方法。 间接引语在多数情况下都构成一个宾语从句。 直接引语在变为间接引语时,其人称、时态、状语等都会有相应的变化,而不同的句子 类型在变为间接引语时也有不同的变化规则。 1. 陈述句 如果直接引语是一个陈述句,其变为间接引语时有下列变化: (1) 引语前通常要用连词 that,that 从句前用 say,tell 等动词。如: Hunk said: “Mother, the boy is very naughty.”Hunk told his mother that the boy was very 全国优秀畅销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书销售突破 220 万册! 根据课改全面修订第四版条理更分明,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售
naughty. 汉克告诉母亲那男孩很调皮。 Ada said: “I haven't taken your dictionary.” Ada denied that she had taken my dictionary. 艾 达否认她拿走了我的词典。 注意: 在口语中,个别动词后的 that 有时可省略。如: He says he can't wait another day. 他说他一天也不能再等了。 Tell him I am out. 告诉他,我出去了。 (2) 人称的变化:将直接引语中的人称作相应的改变。如: “I've already got your letter.”Cathy said. 凯茜说, “我已经收到了你的信。 ” Cathy said she had already got my letter. 凯茜说她已经收到了我的信。 She said to Adam,“Your pronunciation is better than mine.” 她对亚当说, “你的发音比我 的好。 ” She told Adam that his pronunciation was better than hers. 她告诉亚当说他的发音比她的 好。 (3) 时态的变化:主句中的谓语动词如果是过去时态,那么直接引语中的谓语动词在变为 间接引语时,它的时态必须有下列变化: 一般现在时→一般过去时 Martin said,“I am busy.” 马丁说: “我很忙。 ” Martin said that he was busy. 马丁说他很忙。 He said,“I'm a policeman.” 他说: “我是警察。 ” He said that he was a policeman. 他说他是警察。 现在进行时→过去进行时 Mary said,“I'm beginning to sleep better.” 玛丽说: “我开始睡得比较好些了。 ” Mary said that she was beginning to sleep better. 玛丽说她开始睡得比较好些了。 Jill said,“We're having a meeting.” 吉尔说: “我们正在开会。 ” Jill said they were having a meeting. 吉尔说她们正在开会。 现在完成时→过去完成时 Roger said,“I have repaired the tractor.” 罗杰说: “我已经修好拖拉机了。 ” Roger said that he had repaired the tractor. 罗杰说他已经修好拖拉机了。 Joe said,“We' ve got two first places in the sports meet.” 乔说: “我们在运动会中得了两 项冠军。 ” Joe said that they had got two first places in the sports meet. 乔说他们在运动会中得了两 项冠军。 注意: 当直接引语叙述的事实是客观真理时,时态不需要变。如: Luke said,“Necessity is the mother of invention.” 卢克说: “需要是发明之母。 ”(直接引 语) Luke said that necessity is the mother of invention. 卢克说需要是发明之母。(间接引语) 一般过去时→过去完成时 Irene said to me, “I saw the film.” 艾琳对我说: “我看过这部影片。 ” Irene told me that she had seen the film. 艾琳告诉我她看过这部影片了。 “Frank, I came to return you the book, ” Henry said. 亨利说: “弗兰克, 我是来还你书的。 ” 全国优秀畅销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书销售突破 220 万册! 根据课改全面修订第四版条理更分明,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售
Henry told Frank that he had come to return him the book. 亨利告诉弗兰克他是来还书的。 过去完成时→过去完成时 Paul said,“I had planted the trees before supper.” 保罗说: “我在晚饭前把树种上了。 ” Paul said that he had planted the trees before supper. 保罗说他在晚饭前把树种上了。 He said,“I had learned 3,000 English words by the end of last term.” 他说: “我到上学期 末已学了 3,000 个英语单词了。 ” He said that he had learned 3,000 English words by the end of the term before. 他说到上学 期末他已学了 3,000 个英语单词了。 注意: 直接引语中的一般过去时中如有一个具体的过去时间,改为间接引语时,时态可不变。 如: “I was born in 1980,” Julia said. 朱莉娅说: “我出生于 1980 年。 ”(直接引语) Julia said that she was born in 1980. 朱莉娅说她生于 1980 年。 (间接引语) 一般将来时→一般过去将来时 Harry said,“I will help her.” 哈里说, “我要帮助她。 ” Harry said he would help her. 哈里说他要帮助她。 Kitty said, “I'll call again after supper.” 凯蒂说: “我晚饭后再来。 ” Kitty said that she would call again after supper. 凯蒂说她晚饭后再来。 将来进行时→过去将来进行时 Marcy said,“I shall be working in the orchard.” 马西说, “我将在果园里工作。 ” Marcy said that he would be working in the orchard. 马西说他将在果园里工作。 (4) 指示代词、地点及时间状语等,也需作必要的变动。 Terry said,“I arrived yesterday morning.” 特里说: “我昨天早上到的。 ” Terry said that he'd arrived the morning before. 特里说他昨天早上到的。 Molly said,“My sister'll be back tomorrow evening.” 莫利说: “我妹妹明晚回来。 ” Molly said that her sister would be back the following evening. 莫利说她妹妹明晚回来。 (5) 时态不变的情况:主句中的谓语动词如果是现在或将来时态,直接引语变为间接引语 时,时态一律不变。如: Ryan says, “I cleaned the floor.” 赖安说: “我擦地板了。 ” Ryan says he cleaned the floor. 赖安说他擦地板了。 Vernon will say,“I have watered the flowers.” 弗农会说: “我已经浇花了。 ” Vernon will say he has watered the flowers. 弗农会说他已经浇花了。 2. 疑问句 (1) 引语中的一般疑问句或反意疑问句要变为以 whether 或 if 引导的宾语从句,这时,间 接引语要用陈述句的语序。主句谓语动词用 ask 或 wonder。如: Ruth asked: “Do you agree with me?” Ruth asked me whether I agreed with her. 露丝问我是否同意她的意见。 “May I ask her a question?” Tina asked herself. Tina wondered if she might ask me a question. 蒂娜想知道她是不是可以问我个问题。 He asked: “You've lived here for many years, haven't you?” He asked me whether I'd lived here for many years. 他问我是否在这里住了许多年了。 (2) 引语中的选择疑问句要变为以 whether...or 引导的宾语从句,这时,主句谓语动词多用 全国优秀畅销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书销售突破 220 万册! 根据课改全面修订第四版条理更分明,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售
ask。如: He asked: “Do you want to stay at a hotel or at my home? ”He asked me whether I want to stay at a hotel or at his home. 他问我想住旅馆还是住他家里。 She asked: “Are you going there by train or by plane?”She asked me whether I was going there by train or by plane. 她问我是坐火车去还是坐飞机去。 (3) 引语中的特殊疑问句变为间接引语时,通常把从句由疑问句语序变为陈述句语序,疑 问词变为连接代词或连接副词,主句谓语动词多用 ask。如: Luke asked, “What do you have for the boy's birthday?”卢克问: “你们为那个男孩的生 日准备了什么礼物?” Luke asked them what they had for the boy's birthday. 卢克问他们为这个男孩的生日准备 了什么礼物。 3. 祈使句 (1) 祈使句变为间接引语时大多使用不定式,前面的谓语形式根据语气决定。能跟这种结 构的动词有:advise,ask,command,instruct,invite,order,remind,teach,tell,persuade 等。如: “Wake him up,”Anne said. Anne told me to wake him up.安妮让我叫醒他。 “Carry the trunk upstairs,”Mr Brown said. Mr Brown ordered the man to carry the trunk upstaris. 布朗先生让那个人把箱子搬到楼 上。 (2) 祈使句变为间接引语时,有时也可跟一个从句表示命令、建议、叮嘱等,这时从句中 用动词原形或用“should+动词原形” 。能跟这类从句的动词常见的有:advise,agree,ask, command,demand,insist,in-tend,order,plead,prefer,propose,rule,suggest 等。如: The doctor said to him: “Change your job, please.” The doctor advised that he change his job. 医生劝告他改换工作。 4. 感叹词 直接引语是感叹句时,变为间接引语时谓语动词常用 exclaim,remark 等词。如: “What a lovely garden!”He remarked with admiration that it was such a lovely garden.他赞 叹这花园是多么可爱。 “Oh, dear! I have torn my shirt.”He exclaimed in exasperation that he had torn his shirt.他 不高兴地叫道他把衬衫撕破了。 He asked: “Where are you going?”He asked me where I was going. 他问我要到哪里去。 Olina asked: “Whom did you want to see?”Olina asked him whom he wanted to see. 奥琳 娜问他想见谁。 学以致用 【基础练习】 1. 选择最佳答案填空。 (1) Do you know_____during the coming summer holiday? A. what will Tom do B. what did Tom do C. what Tom will do D. what Tom did (2) I want to know_____. 全国优秀畅销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书销售突破 220 万册! 根据课改全面修订第四版条理更分明,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售
A. what is his name B. what's his name C. that his name is D. what his name is (3) Do you know_____I could pass the exam? A. that B. whether C. what D. which (4) Jim doesn't understand_____. A. which is the way to the museum B. why his wife always goes shopping C. what is the way to the museum D. why does she always go shopping (5) Could you tell me_____she is looking for? A. that B. whose C. who D. which (6) Mr King didn't know_____yesterday evening. A. when does his son come home B. when his son comes home C. when did his son come home D. when his son came home (7) Could you tell me_____the bike this morning? A. how does he mend B. how he mends C. how he mended D. how did he mend (8) —I'm waiting for the mail. Do you know_____it will arrive? —Usually it comes by 4:00. A. how B. where C. when D. what (9) —Excuse me, would you please tell me_____? —Certainly. Go straight along here. It's next to a hospital. A. how we can get to the post office B. how can we get to the post office C. how get to the post office D. how could we get to the post office (10) —Can I help you? —Yes. I'd like a ticket to Mount Emei. Can you tell me_____take to get there? A. how soon will it B. how soon it will C. how long it will D. how long will it 2. 根据汉语句子的意思完成下列英语句子。 (1) 李明说他对玩电脑游戏感兴趣。 Li Ming says____________interested in playing computer games. (2) 我认为玛丽不来了。 I don't think Mary______. (3) 山姆告诉我说他准备去上海。 Sam told me that he____________for Shanghai. (4) 请你告诉我去钟楼怎么走,好吗? Could you tell me______I can get to the Bell Tower? (5) 父亲说他买了一台新电脑。 Father said that he____________a new computer. (6) 我想知道今天晚上还有没有去北京的火车。 I want to know______there is a train to Beijing. (7) 你知道一个双人间多少钱吗? Do you know____________a double room______? (8) 请你告诉我,我们将外出多长时间好吗? 全国优秀畅销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书销售突破 220 万册! 根据课改全面修订第四版条理更分明,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售
Could you tell me____________we're going to be away? (9) 叔叔说他正在写一本新小说。 Uncle said that he____________a new novel. (10) 杰克说他有重要事情要做。 Jack said he_____something important to do. 3. 把下列直接引语改为间接应用,并注意时态的变化。 (1) Her father said to the waiter, “Something is wrong with this bill.” (2) He said, “Did you meet her last week?” (3) She asked the assistant, “How much does this pair of shoes cost?” (4) Carolyn exclaimed, “What dirty clothes you have!” (5) She said to him, “Get out!” (6) The man said to him, “Don't take it away!” (7) The boy said, “I was born in 1980.” (8) The old woman said, “Let me have a rest.” (9) She asked me, “Are you a doctor or a nurse?” (10) He said to her, “Do you do your homework at home or go swimming with me?” 【能力提升】 1. 选择最佳答案填空。 (1) I don't know______he will come tomorrow.______he comes, I'll tell you. A. if; Whether B. whether; Whether C. if; That D. if; If (2) I don't know______the day after tomorrow. A. when does he come B. how will he come C. if he comes D. whether he'll come (3) Could you tell me______the nearest hospital is? A. what B. how C. whether D. where (4) Could you tell me______the radio without any help? A. how did he mend B. what did he mend C. how he mended D. what he mended (5) I want to know______. A. whom is she looking after B. whom she is looking C. whom is she looking D. whom she is looking after 全国优秀畅销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书销售突破 220 万册! 根据课改全面修订第四版条理更分明,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售
(6) Do you know where______now? A. he lives B. does he live C. he lived D. did he live (7) Do you know what time______? A. the train leave B. does the train leave C. will the train leave D. the train leaves (8) I don't know______. Can you tell me, please? A. how the two players are old B. how old are the two players C. the two players are how old D. how old the two players are (9) The small children don't know______. A. what is their stockings in B. what is in their stockings C. where is their stockings in D. what in their stockings 10 I can't understand______. A. what does Christmas mean B. what Christmas does mean C. what mean Christmas does D. what Christmas means 2. 按要求转换句型。 (1) Does Mr Brown enjoy living in China? Could you tell us?(改写句子) Could you tell us______Mr Brown______living in China? (2) “Does the girl need any help?” he asked me.(变为复合句) He asked me______the girl______some help. (3) Jim is not a student. Tom is not a student, either.(合并为一个句子) ______Jim______Tom is a student. (4) When does the train leave? I want to know.(改为含宾语从句的复合句) I want to know______the train______. (5) They went home after they had finished their homework. (用 not...until 改写) They______go home______they had finished their homework. 3. 把题中的两个句子连接成一个带有宾语从句的主语复合句。 (1) He will come back in a week. I think... I think______he____________back in a week. (2) Who is he looking for? Do you know? Do you know__________________looking for? (3) Why is the plane late? I didn't know... I didn't know______the plane____________. (4) He has already come back. He told me. He told me______he______already come back. (5) How can I get to the Summer Palace? Could you tell me? Could you tell me__________________get to the Summer Palace? (6) Why didn't he come yesterday? Can you tell me? Can you tell me__________________come yesterday? (7) What are they doing? Tom didn't tell me. Tom didn't tell me______they______doing. (8) When will we have an English test? The teacher didn't tell us. The teacher didn't tell us__________________have an English test. 全国优秀畅销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书销售突破 220 万册! 根据课改全面修订第四版条理更分明,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售
(9) Where will the meeting be? I asked him. I asked him______the meeting______be. (10) Whose watch is this? Does anybody know? Does anybody know________________________? 4. 将所有直接引语变为间接引语,没空一词。 (1) “I never eat meat.” he said. He said that______never______meat. (2) “I've found my wallet.” he said to me. He______me that he__________________wallet. (3) “I took it home with me.” she said. She said that__________________it home with her. (4) The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east and goes down in the west.” The teacher said that the sun______in the east and______down in the west. (5) “I met her yesterday.” he said to me. He______me that he______met her the day______. (6) “You must come here before five.” he said. He said that I______to go______before five. (7)“I bought the house 10 years ago.” he said. He said that he______bought the house 10 years______. (8) “Did you see her last week?” he said. He______me______I had seen her the week______. (9) He said, “You can sit here, Jim.” He______Jim that he______sit there. (10) He asked, “How did you find it, mother?” He asked his mother__________________found it. (11) “Where have you been these days?” he asked. He asked me__________________been______days. (12 ) “Do you know where she lives?” he asked. He asked____________knew where she______. (13) “Stop making so much noise, children.”he said. He______the children____________making so much noise. (14) “Don't tell him the news.” she said. She told me__________________him the news. (15) “Are you interested in this?” he said. He____________I was interested in______.

参考答案: 全国优秀畅销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书销售突破 220 万册! 根据课改全面修订第四版条理更分明,针对性更强,重点更突出!

纸介图书双击此处跟踪链接天猫旗舰店·京东有售
【基础练习】 1. (1)C (2)D (3)B (4)B (5)C (6)D (7)C (8)C (9)A (10)C 2. (1)he is (2)will come (3)was leaving (4)how (5)had bought (6)if (whether) (7)how much,cost (8)how long (9)was writing (10)had 3. (1)Her father told the waiter that something was wrong with that bill. (2)He asked if I met her the week before. (3)She asked the assistant how much that pair of shoes cost. (4)Carolyn exclaimed that my clothes were too dirty. (5)She ordered him to get out. (6)The man told him not to take it away. (7)The boy said that he was born in 1980. (8)The old woman asked for having a rest. (9)She asked me whether I was a doctor or a nurse. (10)He asked her whether she did her homework at home or went swimming with him. 【能力提升】 1. (1)D (2)D (3)D (4)C (5)D (6)A (7)D (8)D (9)B (10)D 2. (1)if / whether, enjoys (2)if / whether, needed (3)Neither, nor (4)when, leaves (5)didn't, until 3. (1)that, will come (2)who he is (3)why, was late (4)that, had (5)how I can (6)why, he didn't (7)what, were (8)when we would (9)where, would (10)whose watch this is 4. (1)he, ate (2)told, had found his (3)she had taken (4)rises, goes (5)told, had, before (6)had, there (7)had, before (8)asked, if / whether, before (9)told, could (10)how she had (11)where I had, those (12)if / whether I, lived (13)told, to stop (14)not to tell (15)asked if / whether, that

全国优秀畅销书,薄冰、张道真系列语法图书销售突破 220 万册! 根据课改全面修订第四版条理更分明,针对性更强,重点更突出!


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