人 教 版 高 中 英 语 选 修 8 教 案
Unit 1 A land of diversity
教学内容分析： 本单元主要围绕了具有多元文化的美国这一主题展开，其中重点介绍了佳利福尼亚州的 多元文化特征。本单元有助于培养学生跨文化交际意识，进一步拓宽视野，为终身学习奠定 良好的基础。 本单元所涉及的要点： 通过了解美国的多元文化特征，培养学
生跨文化交际意识；通过对加州移民的深入了解， 使学生认识到“美国是民族的熔炉”；掌握本单元教学目的和要求中词汇的用法；掌握在书 面 表达中如何使用 “方向和位置” 来介绍一个地方和描述一个事件， 以及鼓励别人说话的方法； 掌握名词性从句的具体用法。
Period 1 Reading
Teaching goals 1. Enable the students to talk about things about the USA. 2. Help the students learn the huge diversity of races and cultures in America, especially in California. Teaching important and difficult points Learn the huge diversity of races and cultures in California. Teaching methods Fast and careful reading; asking and answering activity; individual, pair or group work. Teaching aids A map, a blackboard and a computer Teaching procedures Step 1 Warming up. 1. Ask the students to describe what they learn about the USA. 2. Group work: look at the map of the USA with your group. Write on the map the names of as many of the following as you can. Compare your names with other groups. Step 2 Pre-reading 1. Ask the students to tell things about California including its location, size, population, economy, history etc. What do you learn about California? 2. Show the students some pictures and encourage students not only to say what each picture is about but how each one relates to California. Step 3 Fast reading 1. Read through the passage and get the main idea. 2. Reading comprehension.
Ask the students the following questions: 1) When you look at the title, what so you think of ? A land of differences. California is a land of great differences — differences in climate, in landscape and attitude. 2) Why is the USA called a melting pot? There are many immigrants to the USA and there are many cultures and nationalities. So it is a place in which people, ideas, etc of different kinds gradually get mixed together. 3. Beside each date note down an important event in Californian history. Step 4 Detail reading Beside each cultural group , write the period in which they first came to California in large numbers. Cultural groups Periods Cultural groups Periods Russians early 1800s Japanese Early 1900s Chinese Late 1840s/early 1850s Cambodians From about the 1970s Africans 1800s Koreans From about the 1970 Italians Late 1800s Danish 1911 Jewish 1920s Pakistanis From about the 1970s Step 5 After reading Why is California in the 21st century such a multicultural community? (Using 3 or 4 sentences to explain. ) Step 6 Homework Finish “Learning about language” on page 4. 15,000 years ago 16th centure 1821 1850 1848 1846 First settlers crossed the Bening Strait from Asia. These people are now known as Native Spanish soldiers arrived in South America. California became part of Mexico. The US declared war on Mexico. Gold was discovered
in California. California became the 31st state of the USA.
Period 2 Language points
Teaching aims: 1. Learn expressions and phrases. 2. Learn language points. Teaching important points: Language points Teaching methods: Presentation and practice Teaching procedures Step 1 Revision Retell the passage Step 2 phrases the third largest state 第三大州 A multicultural state 一个具有多种文化的州 By means of 通过??工具 In prehistoric times In addition 另外 die from 死于?? In the 18 century 在18 世纪 Fight against 反对?..而战争 The majority 大多数 Gain independence 获得独立 Achieve one’s dream 实现某人的梦想 Make a life (for sb) 谋生 Step 3 Language points 1. means: a method or a way of doing. 方式，方法，手段（但复数同形） Translate: 一切可能的办法都试过了。 All possible means have been tried. = Every possible means has been tried. by means of : by using 依靠，凭借 2.occur: come into sb’s mind (想起，想到) happen, take place(发生) 1)When did the accident occur?发生 2)A good idea occurred to me all at once.想到 3.multi-前缀，是“多，多方面，多方向”的意思 multi-coloured 多色的 multi-racial country 多种族国家 multi-media 多媒体
multiparty 多党 multiparty system 多党制 multi-purpose 多种用途 思维拓展： mono-前缀：one, single 单 eg: a monolingual dictionary(单语词典) bi-前缀：two, twice, double 双 eg: a bilingual dictionary(双语词典) 4.Declare v.宣告，声称，宣称，申报 translate the following sentences 1) War was declared on the enemy. 2) She declared that she knew nothing about it. 3) Have you anything to declare. declare oneself 发表态度 declare war on/upon 宣战 declare against 声明反对 declare for 声明支持 5.Keep up:保持,坚持,持续 1)The manager asked the workers to keep up the work. 2)The rain kept up for two days and the roads were floaded. Step 4 Exercises: translation 1.我就是想不起他的名字.(occur) His name just didn’t occur to me. 2.他宣称他是正确的.(declare) He declared that he was right. 3.鼓起勇气,成功就属于你.(keep up) Keep up your courage, and success will be yours. 4.他虽然不会说话,但能通过手势让别人知道他的意思.(by means of) He couldn’t speak, but made himself understood by means of signs. Step 5 Homework Review the language points.
Period 3 Grammar
Teaching aims 1. Enable the students to use the Noun Clauses as the subject, object, predicative and oppositive. 2. Help the students learn how to use the Noun Clauses. Teaching important and difficult points Differ the noun clauses. Teaching methods Analysis and have some discussions. Teaching procedures Step 1 Preparation
Ask the students to underline the noun clauses in the following sentences. Then tell what types of noun clauses they are. 1)Whether native Americans arrived in California 15,000 years ago or 14,000 years ago is not important. Subject clause(主语从句) 2)The fact that they arrived a long time before Europeans is what matters. Appositive clause(同位语从句) & Predicative clause(表语从句) 3)I believe that the native Americans were treated badly when the first Europeans came. Object clause(宾语从句) Step 2 Discussion Ask the students to differ the Noun Clauses as the subject, object, predicative and oppositive. 名词性从句 特征 主语从句 宾语从句 表语从句 同位语从句 Step 3 Analysis 1.高考考查热点: 1)名词性从句的语序（陈述句语序）； 2)几对重要关联词的区别：whether\if, what\that, what\whatever, who\whoever, etc; 3)it 用作形式主语或形式宾语代替主语从句或宾语从句； 4）根据具体情景选用适当的关联词。 2.根据例句，讨论： 1）whether\if 的区别 I. Please tell me if/whether you will go to the lectures tomorrow. II. It all depends on whether the sky will clear up. III. The question is whether the film is well worth seeing. IV. Whether he will be well tomorrow I’m not sure. V. Whether it is true remains a problem. A.引导宾语从句，位于及物动词后 B.引导宾语从句，位于介词后 C.引导宾语从句，放句首 D.引导表语从句，主语从句或同位语从句 whether: A, B, C, D if: A 2)What\that 的区别 I. I think that it is unnecessary for me to speak louder. II. His mother is satisfied with what he has done. III. That he was able to come made us happy. IV. This is what makes us interested. V. The reason was that Tod had never seen the million-pound note before.
所引导的从句中是否缺主语、表语或 宾语 汉语意义 能否省略 What 缺 什么；所??的东西、事 情 否 that 不缺 无意义 宾语从句中能省 略 3）who\whoever; what\whatever 的区别 I. The spoken English competition is coming. Who will attend the meeting hasn’t been decided yet. II. I believe whoever takes part in the competition will try his best. III. Can you tell me what you would like to order? IV. Whatever happens, don’t be surprised. V. All the food here is delicious. Just order whatever you like. 名词性从句 让步状语从句 Who 表示“谁” / Whoever 表示“?的任何人” 表“不论谁” What 表“什么，所?的东西、事情” / Whatever 表“?的任何东西” 表“无论什么” 4)常见的it 作形式主语的结构 I. It is a fact that he won the match. II. It is necessary that we do study the English. III. It is known to all that light travels in straight lines. IV. It seemed that he would come here. 基本句型结构 常用词语 It is + 名词 + that 从句 It is a fact/a shame/a pity/no wonder/good news/?that? It is + 形容词 + that 从句 It is necessary/strange/important/possible/likely/? that?这类主 语从句中,谓语动词常为(should)+动词原形 It is + 过去分词 + that 从句 It is said/reported/decided/known/?that? It + 不及物动词 + that 从句 It seemed/happened/doesn’t matter/has turned out/? that? Step 4 Practice 1)Exs.3&4, Students Book P5 2)Make sentences using noun clauses as the subject, object, predicative and appositive. Step 5 Homework 1. Review what we have learnt today. 2. Translate sentences: 1)显而易见, 英语很重要.(主语从句) 2)玛利认为他会帮助她.(宾语从句) 3)我从来未到过那儿这事实是真的.(同位语从句)
Period 4 Listening and speaking
Teaching goals Train their listening and speaking abilities. Teaching important and difficult points Help the students to talk about position, space and direction and illustrate ways that listeners indicate that they are listening to the speaker. Teaching methods Pair work and group work, discussion and cooperation Teaching aids A recorder, a computer, and a blackboard Teaching procedures Step1 Listening 1. The first time the students listen to the tape they are expected to listen for the gist only. Read Ex1 on page 6 with students so that they know what to listen for and play the recording right through without stopping. 4 Geographic areas of California 2 Where George’s tour started 3 California not as George expected 1 Where George is now 5 Californian people 2. Read the postcard on page 6 with students and ask them to recall the missing information. Then play the tape right through while students listen for the missing details. Play it twice if necessary and then check answers by playing the tape again and stopping when the missing details are given. Dear Sam, I’m here in Joshua Tree National Park, in the___southeastern_ part of California. Have been traveling around the state of __california___ for three weeks now. Very different from what I have seen in ___American movies____ . Not everyone is ___rich__ and not everyone lives near the __beach_____. First traveled southeast through rich farmland then to the central part. They grow everything here including __cotton, nuts, vegetables_____ and fruit. Cattle too. Then traveled further ____southeast______ into
mountains and ____desert_____.Californians are very friendly, and they are from many different ___races_____ and cultures. Every culture has its own ____music__, ___festivals_____, food and art. Most interesting. Wish you were here. Give my love to Paula. George 3. Tell the students that when they listen to this time they are to focus on what Christie, who is mainly listening, says. Play the tape and stop after each thing that Christie says so that students can write down her words according to the chart on page 7. Christie’s questions That is interesting. Where are you ? Cool. Where is that? You watch too many American movies. What are you doing down there? That is interesting. How is the trip been? I wish I could see it for myself. What is it really like? That doesn’t surprise me. Such as? Oh, I see. Hispanic? Sounds great 4.Get the students to compare their answers with their partners and check the answers. Step 2 Speaking With a partner hold a telephone conversation about a place you have visited recently. 1. Sit back to back with your partner so you can’t see each other. 2. Partner A: Talk about where the place is , what the climate is like, what you thought about the people, and any other interesting things you saw or did. Partner B: Encourage your partner to talk by asking questions and making comments. 3. Swap roles. Partner B tells Partner A about his\her visit. Step 3 Homework Write a short passage about the place they have visited recently.
Period 5 Using Language
Teaching goals Target language Useful words and expressions: luggage, tram, apparently, slip, bakery, ferry, hire, seagull, immigration, team up with, mark out, take in, a great many. Teaching important and difficult points 1. Improve the students’ reading ability (skimming and scanning). 2. enable the students to grasp the useful words and expressions. Teaching methods
Reading, discussion, cooperative learning Teaching procedures: Step 1 Lead-in 1. Look at George’s photos. Then quickly read George’s diary. Write the days he saw these things under the photos. 2. Read George’s diary more slowly and answer the questions. 1.Why did Andrew Hallidie invent the cable car system? 2. Where did George eat lunch on his first day in San Francisco? 3. Why did George hire a car? Why do you think he joined up with Terri and Peter? 4. Name three things that visitors can do in Chinatown. 5. What is Alcatraz Island famous for? 3. Read George’s diary again. Put the mark”^” in the places where George has left out some words. Discuss with others in your class: Why did George leave out some words when he wrote his diary? Step 2 Language points 1. Team up with: make an effort in cooperation with; work together with 与??协 力从事,合作 Translate: He teamed up with an experienced worker in the project. 2.hire 解雇 fire 租,雇佣 1)You are _fired___, because you are so lazy for the work. 2) I must ____hire_ a house when finding a job in the city. 3.take in 1) He had nowhere to live in, so we took him in.接纳 2)The dress needs to be taken in.改小 3)They listened to my lecture, but how much did they take in , I wonder?理解 4)Don’t let yourself be taken in by these politicians.欺骗 Take off 拆开,拆散 Take on 贬低, 贬损名誉等 Take apart 从事,对?..产生兴趣,打听,占用空间或时间 Take away from 脱下,脱去,起居,休假,离开 Take up 开始雇佣,露出,承担,接受 Step 3 Pair work and consolidation. Make sentences with the new words learned in this lesson. Step 4 Homework 1. Read the passage again 2. Prepare for the diction of the useful words and expressions of this unit 3. Prepare for the writing of the next lesson.
Period 6 Writing
Teaching goals 1． Enable the students to take an active part in searching for information and discussion. 2． Enable the student to writ a short group essay about a city, province or zone in China and improve the students’ ability of writing. 3． Enable the students to share their essays with other groups. Teaching important and difficult points How to organize and write a short essay about a city, province or zone. Take in 接受,接纳,接待 吸收,领会,理解 改小(衣服) 包含,包括 欺骗 Teaching methods Research, cooperative learning Teaching aids A computer or some pictures Teaching procedures: Step 1 Discussion 1. Get the students to discuss with the other members of their group which Chinese city, province or zone they want to write about. 2. Get the students to discuss their choices with other groups and make sure that each group will be writing about a different place. 3. Once the students have decided on a place, ask them to discuss what topics they will write about and in what order they will write about them. Here are some examples of topics. Topics Features Location Climate Geography History Population Production culture Step 2 1. Get the students to give each person in the group one of the topics from the list to write a
paragraph about. 2. when everyone has finished, ask the students to read the paragraphs aloud in the correct order, making suggestions for improving each others’ writing and check each others’ spelling, punctuation and grammar. 3. Get the students to decide what they want to write in concluding paragraph. It should make a common on the future development of this place. 4. Ask the students to write a clean copy of the whole essay. 5. Put in maps, pictures, tables or charts where necessary to make it attractive. Step 3 Sharing Make a wall display or a class booklet containing the essays from every group. Sample writing: Beijing is the capital city of China and covers 16,800 aqkms. It is surrounded by mountains to the north and west. One of them, Ling Shan, is over 2,300 meters high. The climate can be very dry in winter and humid in summer. Autumn is the best season because it is usually fine and pleasantly warm. Beijing was the capital city of many dynasties in Chinese history. These dynasties left a large number of architectural souvenirs in the city: the Forbidden City, the Summer Palace and the Temple of Heaven, etc. There is also a legacy of royal parks: Jingshan and Beihai. Since1949 these parks and buildings have been open to the public. Nowadays, Beijing is the capital of a thriving country with a large population. More than half of them live in the 3entr of the city. As well as being an important economic centre Beijing is als9o the site of the main venue for the Olympic Games in 2008. As befits its status, Beijing is the centre of many cultural activities, such a s concerts, operas, modern painting exhibitions and international events. Today Beijing is indeed an example of a city in the modern world.
Unit 2 Cloning
Ｉ． 单元教学目标 技能目标Goals Talk about cloning Practice expressing and supporting an opinion Use the appositive clause Write a composition about cloning Ⅱ.目标语言 功 能 句 式 Expressing and supporting an opinion I’m happy to accept ?. But?. I would never accept?. I’m not bothered about?.. I don’t mind but?. I hope you’ll carry on?. Are you sure you want to?. I agree with you that?. Is it fair to?.? Do you think it is wise to?.? I think you should?. Well done to you for?. I don’t understand why you don’t?. I can’t help thinking?. I could never agree to?. 词 汇 1. 四会词汇 Strawberry，differ，exact，straightforward，breakthrough，disturbing，cast， altogether， objection，media，moral，ceiling，shortly，retire，assumption，merely，decoration， zebra，aloud 2. 认读词汇 identical， nucleus， gene， somatic， embryo， fate， impact， extinct， popularity， Jurassic， bison，calf，DNA，habitat，restore，Auroch，Great Auk，Quagga 3. 词组 cast down，object to，the media，in favour of，（be）bound to（do）?, from time to time, bring back to life, pay off 4． 重点词汇 clone， commercial， producer， undertake， arbitrary， object ， forbid， accumulate bother， regulation， resist， unable， argument ，reasonable， obtain 结构
Appositive clause — that 可引导同位语从句 重 点 句 子 It is a way of?.P11 The fact is that?.P11 The question that occurred is?.P12 How differently do people think of?.P14 The?.is ?but?P14 The advantage is that?.P15 How would you treat?.P54 I don’t mind but?.P55 I agree with you that?.P55 III. 教材分析与教材重组 1. 教材分析 本单元以Cloning 为话题，旨在通过单元教学，使学生了解克隆技术的优缺点，学会表达和 支持个人观点，能用所学的有关Cloning 的词汇去表述自己对这一新技术的观点和看法。 1.1 Warming Up 提供了四幅有关Dolly the sheep(多莉羊) A strawberry plant(草莓植物) Twins（双胞胎婴儿） Identical dogs(克隆狗)的图片，让学生用已有的知识和经验讨论对 克 隆技术的看法与观点。 1.2 Listening 是关于人类克隆的听力材料，难度中等。 1.3 Speaking 根据材料，四人小组合作，要求把自己对克隆婴儿的态度和感觉用相关的 语言表达出来。语言要得体，锻炼语段表达能力。 1.4 Pre-reading 是Reading 的热身活动。它要求采用与同学讨论交流的方式谈论有关克 隆的相关知识。 1.5 Reading 是一篇介绍克隆技术的说明文。 1.6 Comprehending 第一题所给出的表格让学生根据课文内容列举克隆技术的优缺点。 第二题让学生根据所拥有的知识来评价作者的观点。 第三题要求学生用自己的语言阐述对克 隆技术的观点并给出理由。 1.7 Learning about Language 分词汇和语法两部分，其中Discovering useful words and expressions 是根据语境在运用中掌握词汇。Discovering useful structures 是通过阅读 和补全 句子来练习。 1.8 Using Language 中的Reading，Discussing and writing 要求学生先读, 然后完成四 个 任务型的作业。即 1. 讨论并回答三个问题。回答这些问题，2. 讨论几种已经灭绝的动物， 并且讨论哪种动物应该被恢复到这个世界上， 并且给出理由。 3. listening and speaking 让 学 生根据所听到的内容选择并列出文中人物观点。 2. 教材重组 2.1 从话题内容上分析，Warming Up 与Reading 相一致；而从训练目的上分析与 TALKING 比较一致。从教材份量来说，可将Warming Up 和Reading 整合在一起，设计成 一节任务型“阅读课（一）（精读课）”。 2.2 将Listening 和Workbook 中的LISTENING 整合在一起，设计成一节 "听力课"。 2.3 将Using Language 与Workbook 中的TALKING 和SPEAKING TASK 结合在一起，
设计成一节“口语课” 2.4 将Learning about Language 与Workbook 中的USING WORDS AND EXPRESSION 整合在一起上一节“语法课”。 2.5 将Workbook 中的READING TASK 和PROJECT 以及WRITING TASK 整合成一节 “泛读与写作课”。 3. 课型设计与课时分配 1st period Reading 2nd period Listening 3rd period Speaking 4th period Grammar 5th period Extensive reading and writing Ⅳ. 分课时教案
The First Period Reading
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 clone, commercial, producer, undertake, arbitrary, object, forbid, accumulate, cast down, object to, the media, in favour of b. 重点句子 It is a way of... The fact is that... The question that occurred ... 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to describe cloning: What is the advantages of cloning？ What is the problems or dangers of cloning？What is your opinion of cloning？ 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to describe cloning. Teaching important points 教学重点 How to describe cloning. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Help the students analyze the writing techniques of the article. Teaching methods 教学方法 Skimming, task-based method and debate method. Teaching aids 教具准备 A recorder, a projector and some slides. Teaching procedures && ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Lead-in This topic is difficult for students. So teacher should help the students learn more about it. Do this in the way of asking and answering questions. T: You can imagine how rapidly the modern science and technology develop. I think most of you must know something about space traveling, submarine exploration, robot, maglev train, gene engineering etc. But in recent years, a hot topic, cloning is
often mentioned, especially when the cloning Dolly the sheep appeared. You may have first heard of cloning when Dolly the Sheep showed up on the scene in 1997. Cloning technologies have been around for much longer than Dolly, though. First thing first, what is cloning and a clone? The dictionary says cloning is the technique of producing a genetically identical duplicate of an organism. A clone is said to be all descendants derived asexually from a single individual, as by cuttings, bulbs, by fission, by mitosis, or by parthenogenesis reproduction. It sounds very different and complicated to us. In fact, I mean, in our daily life, this happens often. For example, gardeners take cuttings from growing plants to make new ones. You often see that your mother picks a small branch from a growing plant to make a new one. If she likes this kind of flowers, she can do cloning. Cloning also happens in animals or human beings when twins identical in sex and appearance are produced from the same original egg. The fact is that cloning plants is straightforward but the cloning of animals is more complicated. The possibility of human cloning, raised when Scottish scientists at Roslin Institute created the much-celebrated sheep “Dolly” , aroused worldwide interest and concern because of its scientific and ethical implications. You can give your questions if you are interested in this topic. I am here today one of the scientists who work in this field. I am ready to answer any of your questions. S: Now we know what is cloning. Are there different types of cloning? T: When the media report on cloning in the news, they are usually talking about only one type called reproductive cloning. There are different types of cloning however, and cloning technologies can be used for other purposes besides producing the genetic twin of another organism. A basic understanding of the different types of cloning is key to taking an informed stance on current public policy issues and making the best possible personal decisions. The following three types of cloning technologies will be discussed: (1) recombinant DNA technology or DNA cloning, (2) reproductive cloning, and (3) therapeutic cloning. S: Was Dolly created by what cloning? And why was Dolly so important? T: Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing animal. Dolly was created by reproductive cloning technology. She was the first mammal to be cloned from adult DNA taken from an adult cell. Previously, animals had only been cloned using embryo cells which already have the potential to become a complete embryo in its own right. The big breakthrough with Dolly was to make a clone from an ordinary, adult cell — in this case from a female goat’s udder. S: Have you seen Jurassic Park? In this feature film, scientists use DNA preserved for tens of millions of years to clone dinosaurs. They find trouble, however, when they realize that the cloned creatures are smarter and fiercer than expected. Could we really clone dinosaurs? T: In theory? Yes. What would you need to do this? A well-preserved source of DNA from the extinct dinosaur, and a closely related species, currently living, that could serve as a surrogate mother. In reality? Probably not. It’s not likely that dinosaur DNA could survive undamaged for such a long time. However, scientists have
tried to clone species that became extinct more recently, using DNA from well-preserved tissue samples. More questions about cloning are given in the appendix. The information above is for reference only. Or you can choose several students and ask them to act out a short play whose main topic is as follows: An old man who was dying left all his fortune to his own son. But he did not know that his son was cloned. So two same young men both claimed that they were the old man’s son. They quarreled and fought with each other; at last they went to the judge. The judge let them check DNA. The result was that their DNA was the same. Now even the judge did not know what to do. In this part the teacher can give the students some advice to act out. According to this play teacher ask the students several questions: 1. Do you want to be cloned or not? Why? 2. If you are the judge what will you do? 3. Can you tell me the advantages of cloning? 4. And what is the disadvantage? Discussion In this part the students will discuss the relationship between the development of technology and social customs. T: As the technology develops day by day, it has a more and more important influence on the whole society. Technology affects social customs and ethics, sometimes technology may go against the conventional thinking, then comes the problem that whether we should stop the development of research or change the ethics. S1: As technology develops in almost every field, a lot of our original customs and ethics changed, either because they are out of time or not so scientific. For example millions of years ago human ate meat of animals without heating them. Later people used fire and no longer ate raw meat and they also used fire to scare dangerous animals. S2: I think we could not stop the development of technology, for it may develop in the way which is acceptable by social customs. ? Look at pictures T: Look at the pictures and discuss which ones are natural clones and which ones are man-made. Then explain how they differ. S: I think the twins are natural clones and the Dolly sheep is man-made. T: You are right! Can you explain how they differ? S: The twins were born at the same time, but the Dolly sheep is man-made. T: Anything else? Who want have a try? S: I think the identical dog is man-made. T: Good job! Step Ⅱ Pre-reading Before class, ask the students to search for some information about this topic. Now show your questions on the screen, and then let them discuss with each other.
T: Now please work in pairs and discuss about cloning. Then list the questions you want to find out. Share your list with your partner. Ss: Yes, sir / madam. Questions about cloning: 1. What is a clone? 2. How is a clone produced? 3. What benefits can humans gain from cloning? 4. What problems may arise when humans are cloned? 5. Should we clone human? 6. Could cloning replace sex as the means of creating new human life? 7. Could a parent clone a child who is dying of a terminal illness? After a few minutes. T: Do you have other questions? Volunteer! S: I have! What is the writer’s opinion? T: Good job! I think many of you have questions, now let us read the article with the questions. Suggest answers: 1. It is a way of making an exact copy of another animal and plant. 2. This happens in plants when gardeners take cuttings from growing plants to make new ones, and when small parts of a plant are taken and gown in a laboratory. It also happens in animals when twins identical in sex and appearance are produced from the same original egg. 3. It can help cure disease and can help couples who have no baby to bear a new baby. 4. There may be more bad people like Hitler. 5. In my opinion, I do not agree, for it may cause many moral problems. 6. No. Because cloned human has the same quality as the real human, natural born baby’s quality is higher than his parents. 7. No. The cloned baby also has the disease. Step Ⅲ While-reading Get the students to comprehend the passage quickly and accurately and meanwhile help the students form a good habit of reading. T: Have you got the answers of your questions? Now please skim the passage fast to obtain a general understanding of the whole passage. While reading, divide the whole passage into several parts and find out the main idea of each part. Show the following. Para. 1 Cloning is a way of making an exact copy of another animal and plant. Para. 2 Cloning has two major uses. Para. 3 The problems of Dolly. Para. 4 The effect of Dolly. Para. 5 It is forbidden to clone human being. Step Ⅳ Post-reading Ask the students to read the passage again to finish three tasks.
T: Now let’s listen to the tape. While listening, pay more attention to the correct pronunciation and tone. Then read the text by yourselves to get the answers to the three tasks. You can work in groups. T: First, what are the problems or dangers of cloning? S: Let me have a try! First, the cloned animals have the same illness of the old animals and the same goes with the other species. Second, the cloned animals have short life and can cause moral questions. T: You are right! And what are the advantages of cloning? S: I know! Firstly, gardeners use it all the time to produce commercial quantities of plants. Secondly, it is valuable for research on new plant species and for medical research on animals. Thirdly, it suddenly opens everyone’s eyes to the possibility of using cloning to cure serious illnesses, and even producing human beings. T: What is the writer’s opinion? What do you think is the writer’s point of view in this reading passage? Is it in favour of cloning or against it? S1: I think the writer is in favour of it, because there are many advantages of cloning. It can help people solve many problems in our daily life. S2: I think the writer doesn’t agree with it, because if the cloning technology can be used in an evil way, it can cause much trouble to our society. T: The next question: What is your opinion of cloning? Give the reasons. S1: As a coin has two sides, everything has two aspects. First, if the cloning is used in a correct way it can bring many conveniences to us. Such as: curing serious illnesses and being used to produce commercial qualities of plants. On the other hand, if the cloning is used in an evil way it can cause much troubles: such as moral questions. S2: My view on cloning and nuclear transfer is that it is ethical. So actually I find no reason to clone presently. I have this opinion currently, because scientists are unable to successfully clone using nuclear transfer as of today. S3: I also have a problem with the possible effects of using nuclear transfer on a large scale. This is because I fear that cloning could greatly reduce genetic diversity. I believe if we were to interfere with the genetic diversity of an entire population we would undoubtedly fail. S4: As you can see I believe cloning using nuclear transfer should not be used on humans for any reason. I think if we were to use cloning it should be closely monitored as to what dangers are involved in having copies of people. I also think this technology should not be used until success. S5: I agree that we should develop cloning. I’m not afraid of cloning Hitlers or excited to clone Einsteins. I would say the time and the environment produced Hitler, not his DNA. So you do not need DNA from Hitler to produce a Hitler. In fact, there are Nazis already present. We should make use of cloning to benefit future generations. You can imagine that how happy the people are if they can recover from the serious illness or get back the son who has just lost his life in an accident by cloning. T: Good job! Yes, if we our human beings use the scientific technology properly it
can bring many advantages to us! S: Why did Dolly’s appearance raise a storm of objections and have a great impact on the media and public imagination? T: Because nothing really prepared the world for the 1997 announcement that a group of Scottish scientists had created a cloned sheep named Dolly. Many folks believe that within the next decade, we will hear a more shocking announcement of the first cloned human. Scientists in South Korea have already created human embryonic stem cells through cloning. Until now, the idea of human cloning has only been possible through movie magic, but the natural progression of science is making human cloning a true possibility. We’ve cloned sheep, mice and cows, so why not humans? Some countries have set up laws banning cloning, but it is still legal in many countries. Imagine using a piece of your great-grandmother’s DNA to create a clone of her. In a sense, you could be the parent of your great-grandmother. This opens the door to many ethical problems, but it’s a door that could soon be opened. S: So what happens next? T: Whatever the reasons, the new cloning technologies have sparked many ethical debates among scientists, politicians and the general public. Several governments have considered or enacted legislation to slow down, limit or ban cloning experiments outright. It is clear that cloning will be a part of our lives in the future, but the course of this technology has yet to be determined. Cloning could cause birth defects, but it’s not going to change society. In the absence of any legislation or regulation, cloning attempts will quietly continue. Eventually, cloning will succeed (if it hasn’t happened already), and humankind will have taken another step down the road of biological engineering. You young students are the future of the world. You should study hard today, and you will be able to face this difficult problem and know how to deal with it. Explanation Step Ⅴ Homework Ask the students to do the following. 1. Complete the exercises on page 13. 2. Recite the key sentences in the text. 3. What is Clone? You might not believe it, but there are human clones among us right now. Have you ever wished you could have a clone of yourself to do homework while you hit the skate park or went out with your friends? Imagine if you could really do that. Where would you start?
The Second Period Listening
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 词汇和短语 cloning, attitude, medicine, organs
b. 重点句子 I agree with... How would you do...? Do you think...? 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Let the students focus on the different attitude towards cloning technology. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Teach the students how to get the specific information. Teaching important points 教学重点 Listen to the materials about cloning and choose the correct answers. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Work together with partners and show their own opinions. Teaching methods 教学方法 Listening and cooperative learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 A tape recorder. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step I Revision 1. Greetings 2. Revision Step Ⅱ Pre-listening Work in groups to discuss how we should behave towards the human clones. T: Before human clones become part of our life, perhaps we should spend some time thinking about how we should behave towards them. Now, work in groups to discuss the following questions. Show the following. 1. How would you treat human clones? 2. Do you think they should have legal and political rights, such as getting married or voting? 3. Do you think they are separate people or part of the original donor? Sample answers: 1. I will treat them as normal people. 2. Yes, I think they should have the legal and political rights. 3. I think they are separate people. Step Ⅲ Listening The students are asked to read fast the questions and multiple answers to find out the listening points first, and then listen to the tape twice to choose the best answer. T: Please open your books at page 54. Before you listen to the tape, please read fast the questions and multiple answers to find out the listening points. Pay more attention to these important points while listening. While listening, you’d better
make notes of the listening points. A few minutes later. T: Now, I’ll play the tape twice. Please listen carefully and pay more attention to the important points. You may make notes while listening. Notes taking are helpful for you to remember each of the important points. After listening twice, check the answers and explain some difficult listening points if necessary. Step Ⅳ Listening task (P57) (时间不足时改为作业) First, ask the students to read these sentences and then listen to the tape and decide if they are facts or opinions. T: Now turn to page 57, there’re 10 questions. You should form the habit of going through the questions and the answers to get the important listening points. Yes? And make notes if necessary. OK? Play the recording and then check the answers with the class. Sample answers: Arguments for cloning pets: 1. Favorite pets can live forever as clones. 2. It is moral to clone pets for their owners. Arguments against cloning pets: 1. Many people don’t agree with cloning. 2. Some people think that cloning pets is selfish. Step Ⅴ Homework T: Boys and girls, today we have listened to some materials about cloning. I do hope you can listen to the materials again after class so that you can get very familiar with them. Besides, please preview the reading. Now class is over. Goodbye, everyone. Ss: Goodbye, sir / madam.
The Third Period Speaking
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 theme，fighting，conflict，argument，destruction，in one’s opinion b. 交际用语 Expressing and supporting an opinion I would never accept... I’m not bothered about... I don’t mind but... I hope you’ll carry on... Are you sure you want to...? I agree with you that... Do you think it is wise to...? I think you should...
Well done to you for... I can’t help thinking... I could never agree to... 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to express their opinions about cloning using some useful expressions. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to express their opinions. Teaching important points 教学重点 Learn to use the structures of expressing and supporting an opinion. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 How to give a speech. Teaching methods 教学方法 Cooperative learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer & a projector. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Lead-in T: Good morning / afternoon, boys and girls! Ss: Morning Mr... T: Last class we have talked about clone, we all know it is not a dream. Now everyone, if I give you a chance to clone what will you restore then? S: Edison, dinosaurs, Japanese wolf, Einstein. T: Do you want to clone Hitler? S: No. Hitler is a dangerous person. T: If some terrorists master this clone method, they may bring disasters. All your choices are excellent. Today we will learn another passage about cloning, from which we will know whether we can bring dinosaurs back to life. Ask the students to go through some facts of cloning. T: From these facts we know human beings have achieved great progress in cloning. Now read the text carefully to get the answers for these questions: what animals have people cloned? S: Frogs, mice, cows, sheep, bisons, cats, and dogs. T: Good job. Answer the question: What are the common characteristics of these animals? Ss: They are nowadays animals. T: Yeah, I think you must have seen the film Jurassic Park, in which a scientist clones several different kinds of extinct dinosaurs. Can we really clone dinosaurs now? Let the students turn to page 15 and then read the text quickly. Several minutes later. S: We cannot clone dinosaurs, because it’s difficult for us to get its DNA. T: Good job. It’s only a dream. Dinosaurs disappeared 65,000,000 years ago. So the
chance of dinosaurs ever returning to the earth is merely a dream. Step Ⅱ Read and answer (P16) To answer these three questions, teacher can give the students some examples as explanation, for example, Question 1. T: Now think about this question: if in the world there is only one sheep and human beings want to clone more. Some days later a Dolly appears, then many more. But one day all sheep get the same deadly disease. Now please think about what the results are. S: Maybe they would all die. T: Why? S: Because all sheep have the same arrangement of genes. T: Right. Now can you answer Question 1? Why shouldn’t you clone an extinct animal unless there is enough diversity in the group? S: It is useless to clone an animal if there is not enough diversity in the group for it to overcome illnesses. T: Why is it wrong to clone an extinct animal if it would have to live in a zoo? S: If the cloned animals have to live in the zoo, it is unfair to them. They need freedom. T. Why can’t you clone the DNA of animals that have been extinct longer than 10,000 years? S: Dinosaurs disappeared 65,000,000 yeas ago. So the chance of dinosaurs returning to the earth is merely a dream. Step Ⅲ Discussion (Question 2) This is a speaking task. Ask the students to have a discussion in groups, organize their words properly, and give vivid description of the chosen animals. T: Now look at the table on page 16, discuss in pairs which extinct animals described are worth restoring by means of cloning. Choose one animal and use the information to help you argue why this animal should be restored to the earth. Give the students six minutes to discuss. S1: I think Great Auk is a wonder. Because it is a very large bird that cannot fly. The useful thing about it is that its feather doesn’t absorb water. I think if we wear clothes made of its feather, we will not worry about rain. S2: I agree with you. But I am happy to accept Dodo bird because it is friendly and not harmful. I like gentle animals. It can also lay large eggs and its meat is tasty, but I don’t think I will eat its meat. ? T: From your answers I think these animals are all useful and they all should be restored to the earth. At the same time, we should try our best to protect them. Do you agree with me? S: Yes. Step Ⅳ Writing a report (P17)
Deal with Questions three and four. Divide the whole class into four groups. Then they can have a competition. T: Now everyone, imagine all of you are owners of your chosen animal. Now work together, and give us a vivid description of your pet, then I will decide which one is the best to be resorted to the earth. Several minutes later, the students give performances. At the same time, list some major points on the blackboard. T: Well done everyone. It is really hard for me to choose, let us vote OK? Step Ⅴ TALKING (P55) Ask the students to talk about the questions with the teacher’s help. T: Look at the questions on page 54. Do you know how to show your opinion? You can discuss the following questions with your partner and use these expressions on page 54. 1. How would you feel about having a clone of yourself in the family? 2. What problems did you have growing up and how can you help him / her avoid them. Step Ⅵ Homework T: Write down your feelings and attitudes towards clone. Combine them into a composition. Sample version 1: In my opinion it is wrong to clone human beings. If my parents decide to have a clone made of me, I will feel very sad and I will never accept the clone as a member of my family or as my friend because I think it is unfair to natural things. We are all sons of nature, birth or death is a natural thing. The day we born, it destined we are independent. Nobody has the right to change ourselves. If one day I were to be cloned to another person, he would kill me, because I lost some original characters. I hope we should respect human beings, and not change any original things. Sample version 2: I think the cloning represents the progress of the mankind. But it still has many problems to work out, the law, the ethic and especially the goals and purposes for cloning. However, we are actually doing much of this research for the improvement of life for humans. We should get benefit from cloning. In China, the government has put out written policy on human cloning. It has officially banned research on human cloning for reproduction purposes, but allows cloning on embryonic stem cells and remedial cloning. As we all known, everything can’t be perfect. We should treat the cloning with correct attitudes. We should know the advantages and disadvantages of cloning.
The Fourth Period Grammar
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言
a. 重点词汇和短语 bother, regulation, resist, unable, argument, reasonable, obtain, be bound to, from time to time, bring back to life, pay off b. 重点句子 Altogether Dolly lived for six years, half the length of the life of the original sheep. The fact that she seemed to develop normally was very encouraging. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to learn the modal verbs must, have to, have got to. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to use the modal verbs must, have to, have got to. Teaching important points 教学重点 The use of the modal verbs must, have to, have got to. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 How to teach the students to master the usage of the modal verbs must, have to, have got to. Teaching methods 教学方法 Study independently and practice. Teaching aids 教具准备 A projector and a blackboard. Teaching procedures & ways 过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Revision Check the students’ homework. T: Last class we talked something about cloning. Now, who can show your opinion? S: Let me have a try. In my opinion it is wrong to clone human beings. If my parents decided to have a clone made of me, I would feel very sad and I would never accept the clone as a member of the family or as my friend. T: Good job! Step ⅡGrammar T: Do you know the appositive clauses? Please pick out three more examples from the reading passage. Sample answers: The fact is that they are natural clones of each other. The whole scientific would follow the progress of the first successful clone, Dolly the sheep. Altogether Dolly lived for six years, half the length of the life of the original sheep. T: Now let me explain something about the appositive clauses. The appositive clause is a clause used as an appositive. The clause is an explanation to the noun before. The appositive clause belongs to noun clauses. Most of the appositive clauses may be introduced by the conjunction that. A content clause is frequently in apposition with such nouns as fact, news, idea, thought, question, reply, report, remark, hope, belief, suggestion etc.
Some examples: Nobody shares my belief that he was mad. My suggestion that he was mad was not accepted. They are familiar with the opinion that all matter consists of atoms. Where did you get the idea that I could not come? We haven’t yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation. The suggestion came from the chairman that the new rule should be adopted. T: The words the fact are often inserted in front of an object clause when the clause cannot be conveniently connected with the verb either directly or by means of the representative it. This cannot hide the fact that he is growing old. We must face the fact that we are living in a revolutionary world. Some supplements: 同位语从句与 that 引导的定语从句 1) 从先行词看 同位语从句与名次之间在逻辑上是“主语+be+表语”的关系。该名词是需要做特殊说明的抽 象名词。例如： They were delighted at the news that their team had won. The news was that their team had won. 2) 从引导词来看 引导词 that 在同位语从句中是连词，只起连接作用，无具体词，that 不可省略；that 在定 语从句中是关系代词，它在从句中充当一定成分--主语或宾语，有具体词义，作宾语时还可 以省略。 The factory (that) we visited yesterday is a chemical one. The news that he will leave for Shanghai is true. 3) 同位语从句的简易判断方法 同位语从句与其先行词在逻辑上是“主语+be+表语”的同位语关系。所以，可以在名词从句 之间加系动词 be，使之构成一个新句子，如果合乎逻辑，句子通顺，则原句为同位语从句； 定语从句是不能够用系表结构把先行词与从句连接起来的。 The belief that the earth is flat is still held in some countries. The belief is that the earth is flat. 能用于名词性从句的名词有：ability, patience, anxiety, answer, order, report, wish, decision, suggestion, belief, doubt, fact, hope, message, news, promise, question, reply 等等。 学好同位语从句关键应注意下列几点： 一、理解同位语从句的含义，把握同位语从句的实质。 在主从复合句中作同位语的从句称为同位语从句。同位语从句一般用 that, whether 等词引导，常放在 fact, news, idea, truth, hope, problem, information 等名词后面， 说明该名词的具体内容。换言之，同位语从句和所修饰的名词在内容上为同一关系。 例：The news that they had won the game soon spread over the whole school. 他们比赛获胜的消息很快传遍了整个学校。 析：they had won the game 说明 The news 的全部内容，因此该句为同位语从句。 二、正确运用同位语从句的引导词，准确把握同位语从句。
1.如同位语从句意义完整，应用 that 引导同位语从句。 例：The general gave the order that the soldiers should cross the river at once. 将军下达了战士们立即过河的命令。 析： the soldiers should cross the river at once 是 the order 的全部内容，且 意义完整，因此应用 that 引导同位语从句。 2.如同位语从句意义不完整，需增加“是否”的含义，应用 whether 引导同位语从句。 例： We’ll discuss the problem whether the sports meeting will be held on time. 我们将讨论运动会是否会如期举行的问题。 析： the sports meeting will be held on time 意义不完整，应加“是否”的含义 才能表达 the problem 的全部内容，因此应用 whether 引导同位语从句。 3.如同位语从句意义不完整，需增加“什么时候”、“什么地点”、“什么方式”等含 义，应用 when, where, how 等词引导同位语从句。 例 1： I have no idea when he will be back. 析： he will be back 意义不完整，应加“什么时候”的含义才能表达 idea 的全部内 容，因此应用 when 引导同位语从句。 例 2： I have no impression how he went home, perhaps by bike. 析： he went home 意义不完整，应加“如何”的含义才能表达 impression 的全部内 容，因此应用 how 引导同位语从句。 三、把握同位语从句和定语从句的区别，明确同位语从句和相似从句的界限。 同位语从句和定语从句相似， 都放在某一名词或代词后面， 但同位语从句不同于定语从 句。同位语从句对名词加以补充说明，是名词全部内容的体现，且名词和同位语从句的引导 词均不在从句中充当任何成分；定语从句对名词加以限制，是名词内容的修饰性定语，且名 词和定语从句的引导词均在从句中作成分。 例 1 Information has been put forward ____ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. (2001 上海) A. while B. that C. when D. as 析：答案为 B。more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities 是 Information 的内容， 且 Information 不在从句中充当任何成分， 所以该句为同位语从句。 应将该句区别于： It is said that more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities， this is the information ____ has been put forward. A. what B. that C. when D. as 析：答案为 B 。 that has been put forward 为 information 的修饰性定语，且 information 在从句中作主语，所以该句为定语从句。 例 2 She heard a terrible noise, ____ brought her heart into her mouth. (MET91) A. it B. which C. this D. that 析：答案为 B。分析语境含义、句子结构和句子成分可知，该句为非限制性定语从句， 先行词为 a terrible noise，且它在从句中作主语。应将该句区别于： I can’t stand the terrible noise ____ she is crying loudly. A. it B. which C. his D. that 析：答案为 D。she is crying loudly 是 the terrible noise 的内容，且 the terrible noise 不在从句中充当任何成分，所以该句为同位语从句。 巩固性练习： 1. The fact ____ she works hard is well known to us all.
A. that B. what C. why D. which 2. The fact ____ he was successful proves his ability. A. that B. what C. which D. why 3. The news ____ he was kidnapped surprised us greatly. A. what B. that C. why D. when 4. His suggestion ____ the meeting be delayed was turned down. A. which B. that C. / D it 5. I have no idea ____ he will start. A. when B. that C. what D. / 6. I’ve come from the government with a message ____ the meeting won’t be held tomorrow. A. if B. that C. whether D. which 7. The thought ____ he might fail in the exam worried him. A. when B. which C. what D. that 8. The order ____ the prisoner be set free arrived too late. A. which B. whether C. that D. what 9. The nurses are trying their best to reduce the patient’s fear ____ he would die of the disease. A. that B. as C. of which D. which 10. He often asked me the question ____ the work was worth doing. A. whether B. where C. that D. when Key: 1-5 AABBA 6-10 BDCAA Step III Homework Finish the work on pages 55-57.
The Fifth Period Extensive reading and writing
Teaching goals 教学目标 Integrating skills and writing. 1.Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇 debate, issue, competition, in charge, topic, argument, reply to, summarize, profitable, donate, existence, embryo, justified, transfer, ethically. b. 重点句子 I suggest that medical cloning is very important of curing serious illnesses that at present have no cure. I would like to suggest that medical cloning is not as simple as issue as my colleague claims. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Activate the students to show their opinions about the cloning. Enable the students to write an article on this debate. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标
Help the students learn how to organize a debate and how to write a short composition of the debate. Teaching important and difficult points 教学重难点 How to organize the debating materials. How to write a short composition of the debate. How to write a report. Teaching methods 教学方法 Task-based teaching method. Teaching aids 教学准备 A computer and a projector. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Revision Check the homework and ask the students to speak out their opinion about the medical cloning. Step Ⅱ Reading task T: Homework check is over. Please turn to page 58. Today we will make a debate. To begin with, I want to ask you what your opinion about debate is, have you seen any TV debates? S: Yeah, we have seen college students’ debate on TV. S2: I know in a debate there is one chairperson some-times two, four members each group, two leading debaters. T: You are right. Do you want to know more details about a debate? S: Yeah. Ask the students to read the debate rules. T: OK. Stop reading. Here are some questions for you. Question 1: What is the definition of debate? Ss: A debate is an activity in which students can discuss two sides of an issue. There is a chairperson to charge it. T: Question 2: Tell me the process of a debate in your own words. S: The leading debater who supports the topic speaks first, then another one who disagrees with the topic speaks, then other people take turns to give a free discussion. Towards the end of the debate, the last speaker of each side will summarize the arguments that have been made to support their point of view. T: Excellent, thanks for your answer. In our textbook there is an example of debate, read the topic carefully and discuss the questions with your partner. And I will divide you into two teams. One side agrees with the medical cloning and the other side is against the medical cloning. Then show the questions. Give students 6 minutes to prepare their answers. Team A: 1. What’s their argument? 2. Two reasons for medical cloning. 3. Do you agree with them? Why? Team B: 1. What’s their argument?
2. Two reasons against medical cloning. 3. Do you agree with them? Why? Sample answers: Team A: Q1: They support the idea that there should be medical cloning. Q2: a. There is no danger of the body refusing to accept the new calls. b. Patients can be treated immediately. Q3. Yes, I agree with them. Because the medical cloning can help our human beings to cure many diseases. With the help of the cloning techniques, people can be restored to perfect health and be able to live a good life. No, I disagree with them. I think all animals including human beings are natural things on the earth. We should not damage this natural rule. Team B: Q1. They disagree that there should be medical cloning. Q2. a. It brings many ethical problems. b. Many scientists are also worried about the efficiency of the system. Q3. Yes, I agree with them. Because the medical cloning brings many serious problems to our human beings. We must be very cautious about cloning until these problems are solved. No, I disagree with them. Because all of us want to lead a meaningful life. We should try our best to realize our dream. Step Ⅲ Speaking task T: Just now, we learned how to organize a debate, now it’s our turn to continue the debate. The topic of our debate is “should we clone?” Now choose the team you agree with. Divide the whole class into four groups, two agree and two disagree. T: To begin this debate, I will give you some information about clone. You can choose what you need. During the speech, you can make notes so that you do not forget what you want to say. In our debate the person who speaks last must summarize your ideas. Here are some tips for you. Show the following. Center on the subject of the debate. Organize main ideas that support your point of view. List your own ideas. Make a conclusion. Ask the students to read the following information Show the following. Why should we use cloning? The goals and purposes for cloning range from making copies of those that have deceased to better engineering the offspring in humans and animals. Cloning could also directly offer a means of curing diseases or a technique that could extend means to acquiring new data for the sciences of embryology and how organisms develop as a whole over time. Currently, the agricultural industry demands nuclear transfer to produce better livestock. Cloning could massively improve the agricultural industry as the technique of nuclear transfer improves. The goal of transgenic
livestock is to produce livestock with ideal characteristics for the agricultural industry and to be able to manufacture biological products such as proteins for humans. Researchers can harvest and grow adult cells in large amounts compared to embryos. Scientists can then genetically alter these cells and find which ones did transform and then clone only those cells. Scientists also ponder the idea of cloning endangered species to increase their population. The possibilities are endless. However, we are actually doing much of this research for the improvement of life for humans. Scientists foresee the cloning of pigs that will produce organs that will not be rejected by humans. Cloning also provides better research capabilities for finding cures to many diseases. There are also possibilities that nuclear transfer could provide benefits to those who would like children. For instance, couples who are infertile, or have genetic disorders, could use cloning to produce a child. Equally important, women who are single could have a child using cloning instead of in-vitro fertilization or artificial insemination. Cloning could also provide a copy of a child for a couple whose child had died. Why should we not use cloning? The biggest problem with the use of cloning on a large scale is the decline in genetic diversity. Think about it, if everyone has the same genetic material, what happens if we lose the ability to clone. We would have to resort to natural reproduction, causing us to inbreed, which will cause many problems. Also, if a population of organisms has the same genetic information, then the disease would wipe out the entire population. Helping endangered species by cloning will not help the problem. Currently, zoologists and environmentalists trying to save endangered species are not so much having trouble keeping population numbers up, but not having any animals to breed that are not cousins. The technique of nuclear transfer is also early in its developmental stages. Thus, errors are occurring when scientists carry out the procedure. For instance, it took 277 tries to produce Dolly, and Roslin scientists produced many lambs with abnormalities. If we tried to clone endangered species we could possibly kill the last females integral to the survival of a species. This may be the main reason science is holding out on cloning humans. Other arguments for cloning include if we are taking nature into our own hands by cloning animals or people. People question when we will draw the line for getting involved in natural events. Religious organizations consider nuclear transfer to cause men to be reproductively obsolete. This claim was deduced by gathering of the information that cloning requires only oocytes, any cell, and a woman to develop in. They also claim that cloning does not respect the fact that humans have souls. They also consider cloning unnatural, and say we are taking the work of God into our own hands. There is also a debate as to the moral rights of clones. Some say their rights will be defied because clones are not granted the birth of newness. We would not receive clones with such excitement as a child of a couple who conceived naturally. If natural reproduction were to occur, genetic variation would occur. They say cloning would deprive a person of uniqueness. They argue that identical twins are not unique from each other, but that they are new in genetic variation
and unique from anything that came before them. People also wonder what mental and emotional problems would result if a clone was to find out that he or she was cloned. Then give students 10 minutes to prepare, everyone finds their roles in the debate. As a chairperson, the teacher is in charge of the debate. Ask the students to do as follows: First leading speaker gives an argument. Then others give speech freely. Last the fourth speaker gives a summary. Chairperson: From our debate, we really can learn much. All of you have performed well. Whether can we clone? This is a long term argument. To me, if people can use this method properly, it’s really useful, but if we use it in other ways, it can bring us disaster. Sample notes: arguments for cloning 1) Cloning will be beneficial to humans. For example, if a couple can’ t have children, cloning could help give them a child; 2) we could use cloning to cure illnesses. arguments against cloning 1) health risks from mutation of genes; 2) emotional risks; 3) risk of abuse of the technology; 4) against nature; 5) cloned animals get ill and die quite young; 6) people are afraid of that scientists will create thousands of copies of the same person; 7) Cloning is dangerous because scientists my create monsters by mistake. Sample speech 1: The topic of my speech is: Cloning should be banned. If I had the power, I would ban cloning for several reasons. Firstly, it is against nature and dangerous. Any living things have life and death recycle periods, which promote the evolution of life. The cloning technique is extremely risky right now. An abnormal baby would be a nightmare come true. And people are worried about the possibility that the genetic material used from the adult will continue to age so that the genes in a newborn baby clone could be 30 years old or more on the day of birth. Also monsters may be created by mistake. According to a survey, 29 European countries do not permit medical cloning. Secondly, people are afraid of that scientists will create thousands of copies of the same person. There are powerful leaders in every generation who will seek to abuse this technology for their own purposes. Going ahead with cloning technology makes this far more likely. What would happen if Hitler was cloned? That would mean more severe disasters and destruction upon human civilization. Thirdly, cloning will result in high emotional risks. Just think: a child grows up knowing her mother is her sister, her grandmother is her mother. Her father is her brother-in-law. Every time her
mother looks at her she is seeing herself growing up. The family environment and relationship will be totally different. What kind of pressures will the child feel? All in all, I would determinedly ban cloning if I had the power. Sample speech 2: The topic of my speech is: Cloning should be encouraged As for myself, I would encourage cloning. There are several reasons. Firstly, cloning will be beneficial to humans. For example, if a couple can’ t have children, cloning could help give them a child. Secondly, we could use cloning to cure illnesses. For example, if there is something wrong with some part of a human body, we could clone a healthy one to replace it. For another, if a child is seriously ill or disabled, we could clone another one. According to a survey, 67% of over 1,000 people want medical cloning to continue in America. And in Britain and China medical cloning has been allowed. Thirdly, clone technology could be used in other ways. For example, we can save the endangered animals by cloning. In a word, cloning technology has a promising future. I would encourage it if I had enough power. Step Ⅳ Writing T: Imagine that you are the reporter on a local newspaper and you have been asked to write an article on this debate. To do this you must mention both sides of the argument. Remember to make a large main heading and then a small heading below it. Write around 250 words. Organize your writing in this way: Paragraph 1: the topic of the debate and who won Paragraph 2: the ideas of the winning side Paragraph 3: the ideas of the other side Paragraph 4: conclusion and your reaction to the debate, together with any idea you feel they left out A sample version: Should Medical Cloning be Allowed A debate between Beijing Normal University and Nanjing University In December 26th 2005, there is a debate between Beijing Normal University and Nanjing University. The two teams began their argument about the cloning techniques. The topic of this compotation is: Should medical cloning be allowed? After the fierce debate, Beijing Normal University — the positive side win this compotation. The view of the positive side is: there should be medical cloning. The view of the negative side is: there should not be medical cloning. This debate is very successful. As the coin has two sides, every technology can bring the advantages to our society, and also can bring the negative effects to our human beings. So when we judge a new technology good or not good, we should look at whether there are more advantages than its disadvantages or not. If we use it in a proper way it can benefit our human beings a lot. Step Ⅴ Homework T: Now you’ve known how to make a debate. Why don’t you arrange one with your
classmates? Choose whichever topic interests you but make sure that it is popular topic. Organize it as you have been shown in this unit. Enjoy the argument and let the better side win! Teacher can give the students some issues to infer: Should students use phones in schools? Should students wear school clothes? Should senior 3 students have PE class? Protect ourselves first or save others first? Save money or pre-consume? Should students have extra-class during their holiday?
Inventors and inventions
The First Period Speaking
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 重点词汇和短语 discovery, application, evaluate, presentation, alternative, messenger, get together, make a case for, add up 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to talk about inventions and discoveries. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to talk about inventions and discoveries. Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点 How to talk about inventions and discoveries. Teaching methods 教学方法 Discussion. Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer and a projector. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Warming up Talk about inventions and discoveries. T: The importance of inventions to social progress can never be changed. Each invention carries the world a step forward and provides stimulation for later ones. With inventions turning up all the time, our world is always taking on a new look. But do you know what an invention is? S1: The creation of something new. S2: A creation (a new device or process) resulting from study and experimentation. S3: The creation of new things. ? Ask the students to talk about the pictures with the teacher’s help, and then discuss the first two questions. T: And what is a discovery? What’ s the difference between a discovery and an invention? Now look at the pictures on page 1. Work in pairs and talk about the three different things, telling them apart and giving reasons. Show the following. 1. Which of these pictures show inventions? Does any of them show discoveries? 2. Work out two rules that will help you decide what is a discovery and what is an invention? S1: I think the first two are inventions, i.e. the amphibious car and Stevenson’ s “Rocket” while the last picture about the DNA is a kind of discovery. Because
the first two products were quite new to people at that time and no one had ever seen or designed such kind of vehicles before though some others had made similar cars or machines which had less functions and advantages as these two. I think the picture about the DNA is a kind of scientific discovery in biology because such cells and their structure do exist in living creatures and they have been found out by a certain scientist and are made known to the public nowadays. So I think a discovery is something existing before but unknown while an invention is something unknown and not existing before. S2: I think the first two pictures show us great human inventions about the transportation because they were invented by people for certain purposes and they had special advantages and could satisfy people’s needs in some ways. On the other hand the third picture showing the formation of DNA is a kind of discovery because these special cells exist and function in the body of life all the time no matter who discovers it or when and where it is discovered. In my opinion a discovery is something found out or brought to view now but it was unknown before while an invention is something created or designed by people , which is completely new not only now but in the past. ? T: Well, from these pictures we can see that there lies differences between a discovery and an invention. There are certain rules or questions you should pay attention to while distinguishing them. Did it exist in the past? Is it created or developed by people? An invention is something that is created by a human being, such as the lightning rod. To the contrary, a discovery merely makes known something that already existed in nature, such as the discovery on the New Continent by Columbia. OK. Let’s go on with some other questions of this part. You may talk with your partner first before we have a check five minutes later. Show the following. What modern inventions do you know? Describe them to your partner and how useful they are in life today. S1: Adidas 1 is the thinking shoes with a built-in microprocessor that decides how soft or firm the wearer needs the support. It has been chosen by Popular Science magazine as the best recreation invention of 2004. It is very comfortable to wear it all day without worrying about your toes being hurt and you can adjust the height and stiffness according to your demands whenever you want and wherever you go. Thus it is a very practical choice for both the young and the old when having exciting sports outdoors or resting at home during holidays. S2: Camera phones have opened up a new way to communicate. Because many of them look like regular cell phones, you can snap pictures as discreetly as any spy and, with the push of a few buttons, pop them into an e-mail or upload them to the Web in less than a minute. No wires or computer hookups necessary. To be sure, most camera phones end up taking pictures of friends, family, babies and pets. But they have also been used to snap pictures of VIPs at private parties, copy recipes from cookbooks at bookstores and even document crimes in progress. But with an estimated 80 million
camera phones sold in 2003, 6 million in the U.S. alone—the cat may already be out of the camera bag. Like it or not, these camera phones have been very popular and widely used by people even today. S3: A kind of robot heart called AbioCor was invented in 2001. On July 2, 2001, the 59-year-old grandfather and retired librarian Robert Tools became the first human to get one. It’ s been long since the operation, and Tools’ new heart is still beating. He can walk a city block without stopping and he’s even making plans for the future. Though not everybody needs a new heart, hundreds of thousands eventually may. Nor will an artificial heart rid the world of sickness or poverty or terror. But sometimes it really helps. T: Very good! I am glad to see that all of you have known so many modern inventions both at home and abroad and you have thought a lot about them. It’s certain that modern discoveries and inventions do have great effects on people’s life and can always represent the advanced science and technology, so you should learn to distinguish them and make good use of them. Step Ⅱ Talking T: Suppose you are working for a mobile company. It is your job to suggest new ways of developing a mobile. In pairs discuss some new applications of a mobile. Make a list of the ones you like and that seem the most useful. Choose one you both like and think will be popular with other people. Now work in groups of four to discuss the question. S1: I suggest the new applications of mobile should be: portable entertainment players, cameras, member-ship and loyalty cards, guidebooks, maps, tickets, watches, and devices for accessing everything from news to corporate databases. Among them, we like the applications of devices for accessing everything from news to corporate databases. We both think they are useful and will soon be popular with others in the near future because the ability will enable a whole class of workers to rely less on their memory and more on their company ’ s and even world ’ s knowledge maintenance, sales, construction, transportation, taxicab drivers, and many other workers spend a great deal of time from offices. Thus, when they need information, they must either have it in their heads or stop what they are doing and make a phone call. S2: I think the new mobiles can be developed better with 4G to listen to the radio, watch TV, play games, do shopping, chat on the QQ,, surf the internet, control the electrical equipment at home in the distance, give off harmless rays and be used as computers with special operating systems which can do business, have fun and work as intelligent P4 computers. Among them, we like the new application of surfing the internet and doing shopping and we both think they are useful and will soon be popular among youngsters because it is very convenient for people to find various useful information whenever and wherever possible. As there are different kinds of goods to choose from online and it’s very funny and exciting to make choices and buy what we need at a reasonable price without going out and bargain with sellers in the markets.
? T: Very good. Now get together with another pair to discuss whether your suggestion is a good one. Make a case for your idea. Let the other pair evaluate it. Then swap so that you evaluate their idea. Decide which idea you like better and prepare to explain it. Then present it to the class. S1: I think the first classmate’s expectation that the mobile phones can do so much, maybe more than they can offer. The mobile phones usually have limited size and capacity. So I think it will take time before the mobiles are designed to meet his needs. S2: I think it’s practical and meaningful for the second classmate to develop the mobiles in that way. Though it has been used in some ways but we can do better because every day we have much information to look for and different types of things to do and the smart mobile can make it more convenient for us to achieve our goals in life. ? T: Now, I’d like you to discuss in groups and try to tell the others about your ideas and the others who act as the leaders of the company may ask some questions for him or her to answer. Then I’d like some of you to report your group work. Five minutes later. (L=Leader of the company) S: I think the new mobiles can be developed better with 4G to watch TV and do shopping on the internet. L1: Well, have you thought about the cost of this kind of new mobile which has a large capacity and such functions? S: Yes. I’ll make a good survey of the international electronic markets in advance and try to reduce the cost as much as possible. L2: Are you sure of the security measures of using these mobiles, especially when they are used to shop on the internet? S: Sure. I’ll keep the new mobiles designed so in order that they will give warning messages whenever there is misleading information or dishonesty in selling and buying things on the internet. L3: I think it would be difficult for the new mobile of limited size to be used to watch live broadcast and pick out all sorts of goods on the internet. Have you taken these into consideration? S: Yes. Now, I come to realize that I have to design the mobiles with larger screens, which can make it more convenient and comfortable for the users. Thank you! T: Very good! I can see all of you have done a good job in the presentation. Next I want you to evaluate the ideas using the following criteria. First, do you know about the words, such as originality and quality argument? S: Yes, originality just means the quality of being new and interesting and quality argument just means different opinions about the quality of the product. T: Quite right! Now let’s look at the criteria and go on with the next step. Show the following After each group has taken part, add up the scores and award the contract to the
winner! T: Next, I’d like to divide you into four teams and the leader of the company will write down the scores according to the criteria while helping everyone present the ideas. At last the winner will be awarded in class. Step Ⅲ SPEAKING TASK (若时间不足，可改为作业) T: Leonardo da Vinci was not only a painter, but a true inventor. Now look at the picture in 1 on page 68. I’d like you to work in pairs and discuss what this invention of Leonardo da Vinci was. Several alternative explanations are provided, but only one is correct. Be prepared to give your ideas to the class with your reasons. S: I think it’s a kind of water slide because we can clearly see the long slide way connecting the water tower, equipment on the roof of the building and the base on the ground. If there is a lack of water down on the ground, the working machine will be used to carry water from the tower above to the ground along the slide way. Just so, this specially fixed machine can also carry water up to store in the tower if the water on the ground is more than needed. This kind of invention is really useful especially in some dry or mountainous areas. T: Good! You are very creative in thinking about the use of the machine in different cases and from this we can see Leonard da Vinci is really a great inventor. He contributed to people’s everyday life besides painting wonderful pictures. Well, let’s go on with Activity 2. Please look at the pictures and read the instructions below, discuss in groups and finish the exercises. Sample answers: What was its possible use? Why? When and where did it appear in Europe? 1. Its possible use is calculation because About the middle of the 15th in Russia it is usually called “the Chinese computer” by foreigners. 2. Its possible use is to spread the development of culture because it is usually used to print papers for people to read. 3. The south pointer was used to find the most harmonious position to place new buildings. It seems possible that it dates back to the Qin Dynasty. It was the first application of magnetism in people’s lives. About the late 15th in Germany
The navigational compass appeared in th th Europe in the 12 or 13 centuries. This is similar to the time when Zheng He used it on his voyages to Africa.
Step Ⅳ Project T: “Creativity is the soul of a nation and an inexhaustible source of a country’ s prosperity.” Chinese former President Jiang Zemin said in the speech delivered on November 24 to the scientific and technological community in the Science City of Novosibirsk. As a young generation, every one of us should be creative and inventive in order to contribute more to make our country richer and more beautiful.
Now, please look at the project exercise on page 69. I’d like you first read the introductions and then discuss in pairs about the pictures and solutions to the problems. Finally I’d like someone to present your work. One possible solution: S: In this kind of situation, I will have to use the sticks and ropes to make a fishing rod with the nails made in shape of hooks. I will cut the pumpkin or the nuts on the trees into halves so as to make a water container. And as for the shelter I’ d use the piece of cloth combined with sticks, ropes and nails. I will have to need a magnifying glass found on the island to focus the heat on the leaves and wood so that there will be much smoke rising from the fire caused by the strong light and heat from the sun. If I’m not lucky enough to be saved by someone, I would have to use the ropes cut by the knife to link the pieces of wood together so as to make a raft as means of escape. T: Good! You all have good imaginations and you have known much about how to design and make effective inventions especially in emergency. I am very proud of you and I’m sure you will do more research about the inventions after class until you make them perfect. Step Ⅴ Homework Ask the students to do the following. 1．Search for more information about mobiles on the Internet. 2．Prepare for the listening part on page 26.
The Second Period Listening
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 词汇和短语 refrigerator, court, version, hang on, out of order, get through, ring back, ring off b. 重点句子 Hang on, please. I’m sorry, but this phone is out of order. I can’t get through. I must ring off now because... Can I ring back later? 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to listen to the description of mobile phones and make a telephone interview. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to listen to the description of mobile phones and make a telephone interview. Teaching important points 教学重点
Listen to the description of mobile phones. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 How to make a telephone interview. Teaching methods 教学方法 Listening and cooperative learning. Teaching aids 教具准备 A recorder. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Revision and lead-in Greet the students as usual. Talk about the applications of mobiles. T: Telephone is really a great invention in human history. With it, we can talk with friends, families or others far away from us. Suppose you want to apply for a job in James Dyson’s company in England. The quickest and cheapest way may be a telephone conversation. So you ring up one of his engineers to ask what kind of person he needs. Now work in pairs and make a telephone conversation with your partner. Remember to ask for as much information as you can. Of course, we have learned about how to make telephone calls in English-speaking countries. Who can give me some examples? S: I’ll try. When making a telephone call, we often say: Hello! Is that... speaking? Yes, this is... Can I take a message? Wait a minute, please, and so on. T: But the following expressions may be of great help. Before listening, please read and learn them by heart. Show the following. Hold the line, please. Hang on, please. Just a moment, please. I’m sorry, but this phone is out of order. I can’t get through. I’ll ring him / her up again. I must ring off now because... T: Now, you may work with your partner and discuss about the questions and answers. A sample dialogue: (S-student; E-engineer) S: Hello! Is that James Dyson’s company? E: Yes, Who’s that? S: This is Li Ping. Is that the personnel manager? E: Just a moment, please. Sorry. He isn’t here right now. Can I take a message? S: No, thanks. Maybe I’ll ring him again some other time. By the way, May I ask you some questions? E: Sure, go ahead. S: I want to apply for a job in your company and I want to ask what kind of person you need. E: Well, as far as I know, we need some skilled workers who are good at machinery
and have a good knowledge of repairing some electrical equipment used at home, for example washing machine, refrigerator, electric fan and so on. S: Are we graduates needed in some departments in your company? E: It’s hard to say now. Maybe you will have some chance to work and learn in some department, but you have to wait and see. If you are free, you may call the personnel manager at three o’clock this afternoon. S: OK, I will. By the way, how much will I get if I can work as your colleague? E: Usually the average salary for newcomers is $2,000 per month. And you may get a rise if you progress well or have some invention in your work. S: Well, I know. I must ring off now because I have to go back home for lunch. Thanks a lot. Bye! E: Goodbye and good luck! T: Next please swap roles and answer your partner’s questions. Remember you must behave as if you are a member of Dyson’s company and answer the questions honestly. Step Ⅱ Listening and speaking T: Zhou Rui has decided to do a project on a living British inventor called James Dyson. So he telephoned Dyson’s company in England to interview one of its engineers about the great man’s ideas. Now listen to the conversation between them and finish the exercises on page 26. Before that, please look through the introductions first. Ask the students to finish the exercises after listening and then check the answers with them. T: While listening, you’d better make notes of the listening points like this: Show the following. The object of his invention: The problem of his invention: The improvement of his invention: Step Ⅲ LISTENING (Workbook) T: Millions of people in China and around the world use cellular phones. They are such great inventions —with a cell phone, you can talk to anyone on the planet from just about anywhere! These days, cell phones provide an unbelievable array of functions, and new ones are being added at a breakneck pace. Now look at the pictures and questions on page 62. Work in pairs and have a discussion about the three questions. Sample answers: S1: A mobile phone can now be used to receive phone calls, send and receive messages, listen to music, watch videos, surf the internet and so on. I find it very useful to use the mobile phones to make telephone calls and send and receive messages because we should always be informed and it’s important and necessary to communicate with each other in modern society. I also expect a mobile phone to show pictures of the person I call so that we can see clearly whether we are calling the right person and I hope one day we can use it to have meetings with people in the distance, and see films and show DVD in public.
S2: Nowadays mobile phones can be used to do calculations, record pictures in life, play games, chat online, set time limit, wake up people, find out various information online and so on. I find they are very useful because we can enjoy ourselves when we use them to play games and chat online and talk with friends about different subjects. I expect mobile phones can be used one day to watch TV, cook meals, pick up foreign languages, do homework and take exams for me. Then I’ll be free from different kinds of worries and complaints and live a more comfortable and convenient life in the future. T: Good! You have known much about mobile phones and we’ll listen to some other functions of them, which you might feel more interested in. Now, listen and do Part 2 and then answer the questions in Part 3. While listening, please make notes as follows. OK? Show the following. The mobile Mary will buy: The extra applications of mobiles: The extra application of the 3-G mobiles: The reason why Mary is worried: The advantages of the 3-G mobiles: What might go wrong? Then check the answers with the students. Step Ⅳ LISTENING TASK (Workbook) Deal with the LISTENING TASK on page 67. T: First look at the three pictures on page 67 and discuss what inventions they might be. Any opinions? S: It looks as if it is a kind of machine moving on wheels and it can move very fast driven by a certain kind of force. T: It’s another invention by Leonardo da Vinci. Now, listen to the tape and decide if you agree with the people on the tape. What do you think it was? Fill in the chart below with the ideas of the two girls and make your own suggestions. Now please listen to the tape and fill in the chart on page 67. Make some notes while listening as follows. Show the following. Listening points: The girls’ suggestions: Reasons for: Reasons against: My suggestion: Then check the answers. Step Ⅴ Homework T: Boys and girls, today we have listened to some materials about different inventions and their functions and applications. I do hope you can listen to the materials again after class so that you can get very familiar with them. Besides,
please finish the USING WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS on pages 63-64 and then preview the Reading. Here are two questions for you. 1. What is the problem talked about in the text? 2. How did the writer solve the problem? List some of the steps.
The Third Period Reading
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 patent, distinguish, product, power, perfume, cube, abrupt, abruptly, convenient, expectation, monitor, passive, criterion, valid, application, file, rod, call up, now and then, set about, in case b. 重点句子 1. The first thing I did was to see if there were any products that might help me, but there only seemed to be powders designed to kill snakes. 2. Between the outside and the inside walls of the bowl there is some jelly, which freezes when cooled. 3. The criteria are so strict that it is difficult to get new ideas accepted unless they are truly novel. 4. Nor will you receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product really is different from everybody else’s. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to describe the problem of the snakes and what has been done by the writer to solve the problem. Make them realize it takes steps to catch the snakes and it’s not easy to get a patent. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students to learn how to retell the story and how to meet the requirements of getting a patent. Teaching important points 教学重点 How to describe the problem of the snakes and what has been done by the writer to solve the problem. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Learn how to meet the requirements of getting a patent. Teaching methods 教学方法 Task-based activities. Teaching aids 教具准备 A recorder, a projector and some slides. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Revision 1. Greetings 2. Check the answers to the multiple choices in USING WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS. 3. Ask some students to show the answers to the preview questions.
T: Last period, you were asked to preview the text and answer the two questions. Did you get ready? Sample answers: 1. The problem talked about in the text is how to catch snakes in the courtyard. 2. The writer solved the problem in different steps. For example placing the frozen bowl and the ice-cubes on top of the bowl to keep it cool, freezing the bowl and ice-cubes again in the evening as the temperature was starting to cool and using a net used for catching fish. Step Ⅱ Pre-reading T: Problems can arise anywhere at any time. Now here is a problem of snakes. Look at the title of the reading passage. What can you guess about the content of the passage from the title? To answer the question you should try to predict the content of the reading material by reading the title and looking at the pictures in the text. The title of the text is THE PROBLEM OF THE SNAKES. Next, I’d like you to discuss this question with your partner. Then I’ll ask some students to report your work. Are you clear? After a few minutes T: Now who’d like to answer the question? Volunteer! S1: Let me try. Someone was once frightened at the sight of snakes, the brave and clever writer helped solve the problem of the snakes, as we can see from the picture that she finally caught them with a net. S2: Judging from the title, I think the passage is mainly about the serious problem of the snakes around the house and how the girl made efforts to catch the snakes in the end. S3: The title tells us that the content of the text will be about different ways of catching snakes tried by the girl and her success in doing it. T: Very good! Now, let’s go on with Exercise 1 in the pre-reading. Inventing is a scientific activity. Every inventor must go through certain stages before they can have their inventions approved. Look at the list of the stages and work out a suitable order. S: The suitable order of the steps every inventor must go through before they can have their inventions approved: 1. Finding a problem 2. Doing research 3. Thinking of a creative solution 4. Testing the solution 5. Applying for a patent 6. Deciding on the invention T: Well done! You’ve worked the order out. Now read the text and check the order you wrote above to see whether it follows the correct stages in producing an invention. First, you should skim the passage by reading the introduction, the topic of each paragraph and the conclusion. After a few minutes. T: How about your arrangement of the stages? Are they all right?
S: I find the above steps are correctly arranged according to the text. At first the writer found the problem of the snakes, and then she made a study of the methods of catching them and thought of a creative and practical way to solve the problem. She then tested and improved the method before applying for a patent and whether there will be a decision on her invention remains to be seen. T: Quite right. Since you have got the general idea of the text, let’s go through the text again. Step Ⅲ While-reading Get the students to comprehend the passage carefully and accurately, and then divide the text into several parts and work out the main idea for each paragraph. T: Now, please read the passage carefully, divide the whole passage into several parts and find out the main idea of each part. Part I (Para.1): the discovery of the problem of the snakes Part II (Paras.2-3): the research on the approaches to solve the problem Part III (Paras.4-6): the attempts to catch the snakes Part IV (Paras.7-8): the requirements of getting a patent T: Now, please go through the whole text again and I’d like you to analyze the text in details. Discuss these questions on the slides. Show the following. 1. What are the writing techniques of this text? 2. What’s the main idea of the text? 3. What should we learn from this text? 4. What’s the writing purpose of the writer? Sample answers: 1. In this text the writer puts forward the problem of the snakes, makes research and analyzes the problem, lists the steps of solving the problem according to the arrangement of ideas, and finally illustrates what is needed for getting a patent. By listing the creative steps she takes to catch the snakes without hurting them, the writer has efficiently recorded and narrated to the readers the beginning, the development and the final result of the incident clearly. 2. The text narrates the problem of the snakes and presents the procedures of catching them and applying for a patent, from which we have got a better understanding of how to do scientific researches and how to apply for a patent. After learning, we know that it usually costs some time and continuous efforts in order to solve some practical problems in a scientific way. 3. We can learn from the text the way of doing scientific researches and how to apply for a patent. We can also learn that it takes an inventor great determination and persistence to achieve his or her ambition in life. 4. The writer wants to inform us of the scientific methods to solve present problems so that we students can not only broaden the horizons but become more skilled in discovering and considering carefully the problems in daily life. We are also encouraged by the writer to be creative and hardworking as well as thinking independently.
Help the students deal with the difficult language points in the text. T: Now, everyone, I wonder if you have any difficulties in understanding the text. S1: I have one question. I can’t understand the structure of the sentence in Para. 2 on page 20: The first thing I did was to see if there were any products that might help me, but there only seemed to be powders designed to kill snakes. Would you please explain it and put it into Chinese for us? T: Sure. This sentence tells us the first step of the writer’s research on the problem of the snakes. The words the first thing is modified by an attributive clauses I tried to do and the words powders is modified by an attributive past participle phrase designed to kill snakes. The clause if there were products that might help me serves as an objective clause. 全句汉语意思：我设法做的第一件事是看看是否有能帮我忙的产 品，但是好像只有一些用来捕杀蛇的粉末。 S2: I don’t know much about the last but one sentence of the third paragraph on page 20: Between the outside and the inside walls of the bowl there is some jelly, which freezes hard when cooled. What’s the sentence structure like? Why is “when cooled” used? What does it mean? Please explain it in details. T: As a whole, this sentence is an inverted sentence with the prepositional phrase Between the outside and inside walls of the bowl put in the front, which tells us what the writer used in order to cool the snakes. which freezes hard when cooled is a non-restrictive attributive clause modifying the sentence in front of it. When cooled is an elliptic form of when it is cooled.全句意思是：在碗内外侧有一些果子 冻，冷却时它们会冻得很结实。 S3: I find it difficult to understand the first sentence of the last paragraph: Nor will you receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product really is different from everybody else’s. Can you explain it? Thank you. T: Well, this sentence tells us another requirement of getting a patent. This is an inverted sentence of adverbial clause, with the negative word Nor at the beginning of the sentence. that your product really is different from everybody else’s is an objective clause. In the normal order, this sentence can be paraphrased like this: You will not receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product really is different from everybody else’s. 全句意为：直到做了一次调查后 发现你的产品确实与众不同，这时你才会获得专利。 Step Ⅳ Comprehending T: Now, please look at Exercise 1 on page 21. Listen to the recording of the passage to get the answers to the questions. While listening, pay more attention to the correct pronunciation and tone. Then read the text by yourselves to get the answers to the next questions (slide). You can work in groups. Step Ⅴ Homework Ask the students to do the following. 1. Go over the whole passage. 2. Recite the key sentences in the text. 3. Prepare for Learning about Language and USING STRUCTURES in the workbook.
The Fourth Period Reading
Teaching goals 教学目标 1.Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 forehead, dot, tap, wire, straw, current, importance, helicopter, triangle, stable, practical, beaten track, dive into, set out (to do), in truth b. 重点句子 He found that by pressing his lips against... He designed a machine that... Although he will always be known for..., he was... He realized that by understanding how... 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to learn about the famous inventor Alexander Graham Bell and his inventions. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how the famous inventor Alexander Graham Bell invented telephones. Teaching important points 教学重点 How the famous inventor Alexander Graham Bell invented telephones. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Help the students learn what the key is to become a successful inventor. Teaching methods 教学方法 Listening and fast reading. Teaching aids 教具准备 A recorder, a projector and a computer. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Revision and lead-in Check homework: Get the students to put the following sentences into English. Show the following. 1. 一阵闪电之后，接着就是一声巨响。 2. 被汽车撞伤的小孩马上被送到了医院。 3. 本书是用浅显的英语写的，适合初学者。 4. 那位手持鲜花的姑娘也许在等那个被警方带走的男人。 Sample answers: 1. There was a sudden burst of lightning followed by a terrible noise. 2. The boy hurt by the car was sent to the hospital immediately. 3. This book, written in simple English, is suitable for beginners. 4. The flower-carrying girl may be waiting for the man taken away by the police. Ask the students “Do you know who invented the telephone?” S: Yes, a British inventor called Alexander Graham Bell. T: Good. Everyone knows what an amazing invention telephone is! When we make telephone calls every day, we shouldn’t forget the great inventor Alexander Graham
Bell. Today, we’ll learn something more about him. Step Ⅱ Pre-reading T: Next, please look at the picture of the great inventor on page 25. First I’d like you to discuss the following questions in groups. Show the following. 1. What do you know about the inventor? 2. How useful is his invention to human society? Why? After a few minutes. T: Now, who’d like to show your answers? S1: Let me try. I know Alexander Graham Bell was born in Scotland and he was very curious about the world around him when very young. He did many tests to improve what he had invented and he had made many other inventions in his life. As we all know, it is very convenient for people to communicate with each other through telephones. It is certainly true that telephones have become part of our everyday life. Living in this “information age”, we cannot bear a world without the ringing of phones almost anywhere we go. S2: I think Bell was a very great inventor. He deeply loved his mother who was almost deaf and was determined to do something for the disabled to live a better life. What a great son! I think he was also hardworking because he took a lot of trouble doing many experiments to solve the problems and invented a lot of things. I can’t imagine what the life would be like without telephones. Maybe we will live in a silent world without knowing of the things around us, which is unbearable for us human beings in modern society. And it becomes more and more important to use telephones to receive and send information with the development of modern IT. ? T: I agree. Alexander Graham Bell is really a famous inventor who has made great contributions to human beings and we are going to learn more about him in the following text. Step Ⅲ Listening & Reading Let the students read the four questions first to get a general idea of what should be paid attention to and then play the tape for students to follow and give the answers to the questions. When they finish, let them exchange notes with their partners and find the supporting sentences. Then check the answers with the whole class. T: Now, please read the first sentence of each paragraph and the key words in bold and then tell me the main idea of it. After a few minutes. S: It mainly talks about the life of Alexander Graham Bell and how he made the great inventions. T: Very good! Next please go through the four questions on page 26 and find the answers after listening. Ask the students to listen to the recording and try to answer the questions.
Step Ⅳ READING TASK T: Do you know about the world famous painting “Mona Lisa”? S: Sure. The woman is very attractive especially with her perfect smile! T: Do you know who painted the great picture? S: Yes. His name is Leonardo da Vinci, a great Italian artist. T: Do you think Leonardo da Vinci is really a good painter? What else do you know he is famous for? S: Of course. As far as I know, he is an Italian artist, scientist, and engineer. And an all-round genius whose paintings and inventions changed the world. As he intended to be a painter by profession he carefully studied drawing from life. Besides, he made designs for mills, working machines and engines that could be driven by water power. In a word, he is a true Renaissance man. T: Good. Leonardo da Vinci is in fact an outstanding talent in many fields. Now, I’d like you to read a passage entitled WAS LEONARDO DA VINCI JUST A PAINTER? And then work with your partner to complete Exercises 1 and 2. Sample answers: 1. Because painting did not always provide a steady income when he was young so he had to develop his drawing skills to earn money in other ways and he learnt to design whatever his employer wanted. 2. Because he had developed a new attitude towards machines. He realized that by understanding how each separate machine part worked, he could improve them and combine them in different ways to improve existing machines. 3. While he was studying under Verrochio, Leonardo observed and used a variety of machines. By studying and drawing the machines, Leonardo gained knowledge about their design and structure. His drawing skills enabled him to produce clear drawings of his mechanical ideas easily, many of which can still be used to create perfect working machines. The use of mechanical gears was his most interesting part and he came up with numerous inventions based on the gear. 4. His understanding of machines for his painting was more important because by understanding how each separate machine part worked, he could improve them and combine them in different ways to improve existing machines, which lead to a lot of inventions. T: As we all know, one of the remarkable things about Leonardo da Vinci was his natural ability in so many subjects. Are you as clever as Leonardo? I’d like you to make a comparison about da Vinci and you yourself and find out by filling in the chart in Exercise 2. Sample answers: Possible skills artist engineer Evidence from Leonardo By the 1480s he had begun to produce paintings of his own. a. Some of his early drawings showed clearly how various machine parts worked. Evidence from you I could draw nice pictures when very young. I sometimes look at books about different machines and try to design perfect
b. In this way he began to design machines no one had ever seen before. architect He learnt to design whatever his employer wanted: cities, canals, bridges or weapons. He set out to write the first systematic explanation of how machines worked and how the parts of a machine were combined in the whole. His talent was so rare that he mastered any subject to which he turned his attention. a. He came up with numerous designs based on the gear. b. If he had never been a painter, we would still appreciate him as one of the greatest inventors of his time. He might have been a scientist if he had not been so skilled in other areas.
working machines. I am interested in modern architecture. I love children and enjoymaking friends with them. I feel merciful for those sick people who suffer great pain. No time spent on making inventions.
Maybe there will be some evidence after I graduate and major in certain subject in the university.
T: Well, you may like or dislike some subjects. However, I firmly believe all of you have certain natural ability in some areas. You can offer more evidence to fill in the chart after class. But now, let’s have a discussion about the questions in Exercise 3. Now, work with your partner and I’ d like some of you to show your opinions. Five minutes later. S1: Leonardo managed to earn his living in two ways, i.e. by painting pictures and designing cities, canals, bridges, weapons, bicycles, helicopters, automobiles and some working machines. I am only familiar with the way of painting because I am interested in drawing pictures and I enjoy painting myself. As a girl, I am least happy with the knowledge of machinery and I am a bit worried about it because with the development of modern industry, more and more advanced machines will be produced and I will fall behind the times if I don’t try to know some information about them. I will read more books and go to visit workers in the factories so as to learn more about how modern machines are designed and how they work. S2: Unlike Leonardo, who was very good at drawing skills and made a living partly by them, I have no talent in painting. However, I know something about the design of bridges, bicycles and automobiles, by which Leonardo once earned his living. I am least happy with the knowledge of drawing and I am very worried about it because I have to develop the skills of drawing if I decide to learn more about the design of bridges, bicycles and automobiles. I have to learn from my art teacher and practise drawing lines and figures every week in my spare time so that I can have a better sense of drawing and designing certain products.
S3: Leonardo used to earn his living by painting pictures and designing cities, canals, bridges, weapons, bicycles, helicopters, automobiles and some working machines. I am familiar with painting pictures because I took an interest in it when I was a boy, but I am least happy with designing cities, canals and weapons. I’ m rather worried about it because they are very important skills for us to live a healthy and peaceful life. I decide to learn more about geography and history so as to make our cities more beautiful and provide the citizens with a better environment. And I am determined to work hard and get well prepared for learning military engineer when I enter college. T: Very good! I am glad to see you are eager to learn a lot in order to realize your dreams in the future. I really feel proud of you. And I believe your dreams will come true if you make great efforts. Well, a good beginning is half done. I hope you can start from now and here. Make good plans and lay a solid foundation for the future use. OK? May your dreams come true soon! Step Ⅴ Homework 1. Ask the students to write a short passage about da Vinci. 2. Preview Writing in Using Language and WRITING TASK in the workbook.
The Fifth Period Writing
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇 assistant, grateful, version, debate, conclusion, reaction, leave out, attract attention, water container b. 重点句子 I would like to apply to become... I would be grateful if you could... If that is the case, you must discuss which... 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to write a successful letter applying for a job. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to write an application letter for a certain purpose. Teaching important points 教学重点 How to write an application letter. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 How to write about a Chinese invention. Teaching methods 教学方法 Task-based activities. Teaching aids 教具准备 A projector and a computer. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式
Step Ⅰ Revision Check the homework. Ask some students to show their work. A sample version: Leonardo da Vinci is honored by people not only as a successful painter but a great inventor. He was born in a poor family but he had such a gift for painting that he was accepted by a famous painter from Florence to develop his drawing skills. He learnt a lot about the design and structure of various machines and developed a new attitude towards machines, which made it possible for him to produce more drawings of mechanical ideas and create perfect working machines. Da Vinci was such a talented man that he was skilled in almost every field he turned his attention to. Step Ⅱ Pre-writing T: In the listening period, we have known something about James Dyson and his Company. Do you remember? S1: Yes. I have known James Dyson is a famous British Inventor who has made great inventions. T: Well, would you like to get a job in his company in the future? Why? S2: Sure. I think it will be pleasant and worthwhile for us young people to have a chance to go abroad and work in a famous company like this. I’m sure both my English and my work experience can be greatly improved if I am lucky enough to work there. T: If there is a job of an assistant in his company, what will you do in order to get it? S3: I will first make a phone call to the personnel manager and ask for as much information as possible so as to get well prepared for the job interview. In the letter to the company I would like to list all my skills, experiences and abilities in all aspects and try my best to get the job. Step Ⅲ Writing T: Next, please write a letter to apply for the job as an assistant, please read the instructions in the writing part on page 27 first. A sample version: Dear Mr Dyson, I would like to apply to become an assistant in your company. As a child I often accompanied my father to his small coin shop and spent hours watching him work. When I grew up, I sometimes set up displays, waited on customers, and even balanced the books. This experience instilled in me the desire to own and manage my own business someday, yet I understand that the business world today is more complex. This complexity requires more education, and with that in mind, I am applying to work in your company to gain more experience and learn more about business. In addition to my helping out in my father’s business, I have had numerous other work experiences that further enhance my qualifications for this job. My resume enumerates the various positions I have held at Kerasotes Theaters, Chili ’ s restaurants, and Indiana University’ s new Student Recreational Sports Center (SRSC),
and what all of these positions have in common is an emphasis on serving the public effectively. Further, as an assistant manager at the Showplace 11 and a staff coordinator at the SRSC, I have gained valuable expertise in managing employees and creating work schedules. Both of these positions have allowed me to develop my sales and personal skills, which are extremely important in an increasingly service-driven marketplace. Also, I recently participated in an internship program for academic credit with the Eli Lilly Corporation in the personnel division. As a management intern, I was able to watch the workings of a major corporation up close and would like the opportunity to combine my experiences with the theoretical background available in the MBA program at IUB, with its emphasis on computers, marketing and human resources. My successful internship is one element of my overall academic success as an undergraduate at IUB, yet I have also made time for a variety of extracurricular activities, including working for my sorority and competing in intramural basketball matches. My positive experiences here have resulted in my desire to work in your company; furthermore, continuing my education here would allow me to make important business contacts, with the career goal of opening my own computer consulting firm in the near future. I would be grateful if you would consider employing me in your company. Yours sincerely, Li Hua Step Ⅳ WRITING TASK T: Look at the writing task on page 68, read the instructions and write an entry for an encyclopedia. A sample version: The abacus is typically constructed of various types of hardwoods and comes in various sizes. The frame of the abacus has a series of vertical rods on which a number of wooden beads are allowed to slide freely. A horizontal beam separates the frame into two sections, known as the upper deck and the lower deck. The standard abacus can be used to perform addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. The abacus can also be used to extract square-roots and cubic roots. The abacus is prepared for use by placing it flat on a table or one’s lap and pushing all the beads on both the upper and lower decks away from the beam. The beads are manipulated with either the index finger or the thumb of one hand. Each bead in the upper deck has a value of 5; each bead in the lower deck has a value of 1. Beads are considered counted, when moved towards the beam that separates the two decks. After 5 beads are counted in the lower deck, the result is “carried” to the upper deck; after both beads in the upper deck are counted, the result (10) is then carried to the left-most adjacent column. The right-most column is the ones column; the next adjacent to the left is the tens column; the next adjacent to the left is the hundreds column, and so on. Floating point calculations are performed by designating a space between 2 columns as the decimal-point and all the rows to
the right of that space represent fractional portions while all the rows to the left represent whole number digits. The abacus is one of many counting devices invented to help count large numbers. The earliest counting device was the human hand and its fingers. Then, as larger quantities (larger than ten human-fingers could represent) were counted, various natural items like pebbles and twigs were used to help count. Merchants who traded goods not only needed a way to count goods they bought and sold, but also to calculate the cost of those goods. Until numbers were invented, counting devices were used to make everyday calculations. Step Ⅴ Homework Ask the students to summarize what they have learnt in the unit and prepare for the next unit.
Unit 4 Pygmalion
The First Period Speaking
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 重点词汇 adaptation, plot, professor, Pygmalion 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to talk about the Greek story Pygmalion. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to talk about the Greek story Pygmalion. Teaching important points 教学重点 Help the students learn how to retell the story. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 Help the students know the similarities and differences between the story and the play Pygmalion. Teaching methods 教学方法 Discussion. Teaching aids 教学准备 A recorder, a computer and a projector. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Lead-in T: Has anyone heard of “the Pygmalion Effect”？What is it? S1: The Pygmalion Effect is that people tend to behave as you expect they will. If you expect a person to take responsibility, they probably will. If you expect them not to even try, they probably won’t. T: Good. How did you know? S1: I have once read some Greek stories. And I have read the story Pygmalion before. T: You’re great. If someone is good at writing, we often say he or she is a lucky dog of the Muses. Do you know where the saying comes from? S1: It also comes from the Greek story. Step Ⅱ Warming up T: Yes. Today we are going to learn about a Greek story Pygmalion. First, look at the pictures on page 28. Please work in pairs and work out the story. After a few minutes. T: Now let’s have a look at the first picture. Who can tell me what’s in it with your own words? S1: Let me try. Pygmalion was a very gifted artist. He spent a long time making
a stone statue of a beautiful woman. It was so beautiful that he couldn’t help loving it and wanted it to be his wife. T: Wonderful! And who can follow it? S2: But it was only a stone. How could he make his dream become true? He thought and thought and at last he asked the Greek Goddess to help him to bring it to life. T: You did a good job. But did his dream become true at last? S3: Yes! The Greek Goddess agreed to help and his wish was granted. T: Now who can present the complete story based on the above description? S4: Let me try. Pygmalion was a gifted artist. One day, he decided to make a stone statue of a beautiful woman. He worked day and night and at last he finished. Then he clothed the figure, decorated it with the jewellery, and even named it the Sleeping Love. The work was so beautiful that he couldn’t help thinking that if the statue could be brought to life, he’d very much like it to be his wife. Therefore, he asked the Greek Goddess to help make it alive. Finally the Goddess was moved by his sincerity. His wish was granted. Pygmalion threw himself to his feet, the girl smelt down at him. Afterwards, they fell in love with each other and married. T: Wonderful! You did a good job! Now let’s have a discussion. Do you think that Pygmalion and his statue-wife will be happy together? S: No, I don’t think so. T: What problems do you think they will have? S1: Maybe they can’t understand each other, because they come from different world. S2: It’s very hard for Pygmalion to understand his wife, because his wife is made from a stone. She doesn’t know the words, behavior, anything about him. ? T: Good. How do you think they might solve them? S3: Pygmalion loves the girl so much that he decides to teach her how to speak and how to behave herself. Little by little, they understand each other well and live happily. T: Good imagination! The story is so interesting that it was made into a film My Fair Lady, which was based on the play by Bernard Shaw. Do you know this famous playwright? Step Ⅲ Discussion Make a brief introduction about Shaw. T: George Bernard Shaw, Irish dramatist, literary critic, a socialist spokesman, and a leading figure in the 20th century theater. Shaw was a freethinker, defender of women’s rights, and advocate of equality of income. In 1925 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Shaw accepted the honour but refused the money. He was a very humorous playwright. Here is a story about him. One day, Shaw took part in a grand party, in which he met the then Prime Minister Churchill. Churchill was very fat at that time whereas Shaw was very thin.
Churchill said to Shaw very sharply, “When people see you, they will know how poor your country is”. And then Shaw answered very quickly, “When people see you, they will know the reason why our country is so poor.” From it we can see how witty Shaw is! T: Have you seen the film My Fair Lady？ S1: Yes. It was about a flower girl who became a lady in the upper class, helped by the expert in phonetics, Professor Higgins. T: Do you like the film? Why? S1: Yes, I do. What makes “My Fair Lady” special is the great musical score by Mr. Loewe with lyrics by Mr. Lerner. Most of the songs are by now, standards that have delighted us since they were written and have been sung by practically all the best singers of the world. Ｔ: Very good. They both have the same theme. In the play, a poor-educated flower girl in the street at last became a lady, just as surprising as a stone became a beautiful woman in the Greek story. Now can you tell me the similarities between the Greek story and the play? You can discuss it with your partner. S2: Both women made big changes. In the Greek story, the statue was brought to life; while in the play Pygmalion, the flower girl Eliza was brought up to the upper class. T: Good. What else? S3: In the Greek story, Pygmalion is a gifted artist, whereas in the play Pygmalion, Higgins is an expert in phonetics. Step Ⅳ Homework Ask the students to do the following. 1. Find more information about Pygmalion. 2. Pre-read the play to see if they can understand well.
The Second Period Reading
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 officer, hesitate, pence, uncomfortable, troublesome, outcome, disguise, brilliant, classify, mile, betray, dismiss, condemn, ambassador, acquaintance, handful, fortune, in disguise, pass...off as, make one ’ s acquaintance, in amazement b. 重点句子 An expert in phonetics, convinced that the quality of a person’s English decides his / her position in society. There you are and you were born in Lisson Grove if I’m not mistaken. But, sir, (proudly) once educated to speak properly, that girl could pass
herself off in three months as a duchess at an ambassador’s garden party. This is the age of the newly rich. People begin their working life in a poor neighbourhood of London with 80 pounds a year and end in a rich one with 100 thousand. The English that will condemn her to the gutter to the end of her days. Perhaps I could even find her a place as a lady’s maid or a shop assistant, which requires better English. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to talk about the play and use the play to work out the characteristics of each social group. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to talk about the play and use the play to work out the characteristics of each social group. Teaching important points 教学重点 How to talk about the play. Teaching difficult points 教学难点 How to use the play to work out the characteristics of each social group. Teaching methods 教学方法 Listening, reading and discussion. Teaching aids 教学准备 A recorder, a computer and a projector. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Revision and lead-in Review the story Pygmalion. T: Last period, we learned something about the Greek story Pygmalion and the play version by Shaw. Of all of Shaw’s plays, Pygmalion is without the doubt the most beloved and popularly received. Several film versions have been made of the play, and it has even been adapted into a musical. In fact, the film version of 1938 helped Shaw to become the first and only man ever to win the double prize: the Nobel Prize for literature and an Academy Award. Do you still remember the story? Now who can retell it to all of us? A sample retelling version: Pygmalion was a gifted artist. One day, he decided to make a stone statue of a beautiful woman. After that, he spent day and night carving it, and then he clothed the figure, gave it the jewellery, and even named it the Sleeping Love. How he wanted to bring it to life and made it his wife. Therefore, he asked the Greek Goddess to make it alive. And finally the Goddess was moved by his sincere feeling. His wish was granted. Pygmalion threw himself to his feet, the girl smelt down at him. Afterwards, they loved each other and married. T: Can you tell me the theme of the story? S: People tend to behave as you expect they will. T: Excellent! Based on classical myth, Bernard Shaw’s Pygmalion plays on the complex business of human relationships in the social world. Phonetics Professor
Henry Higgins tutors the very Cockney Eliza Doolittle, not only in the refinement of speech, but also in the refinement of her manners. When the end result produces a very ladylike Miss Doolittle, the lessons learned become much more far reaching. OK, today we will read a story about it. It’s written by the famous English playwright, George Bernard Shaw. Step Ⅱ Reading Deal with the Reading part. Play the tape for the students to listen. Then analyze the play. Ask the students to read through the text. While reading, pay attention to the writing style. Skimming Ask the students to read the play quickly and answer the questions. T: Now please read the play. After a few minutes, I’ll ask you some questions. After a few minutes. T: Who would like to answer the first question: How many characters are there in the play? S1: There are three characters in the play. They are Eliza, Professor Higgins, and Colonel Pickering. T: What is the weather like when the play begins? S2: When the play begins, it is pouring with rain. T: Very good. Do you think Eliza a well-educated woman? Why? S3: No, I don’t think so. In fact, she is poor-educated. We can know it clearly from what she said. For example, come over’ere, cap’in, and buy me flowers off a poor girl. For another, I ain’t done nothing wrong by speaking to that gentleman. T: Also, we can learn it from her behavior. For example, “pushes it back at him.” OK. Next one: Why did professor Higgins want to make notes of what Eliza said? S4: He wanted to make a speech, because it’s his profession. T: Very good. Next: What’s the meaning of “the age of the newly rich”? S5: It means people begin their working life in a poor neighbourhood of London with 80 pounds a year and end in a rich one with 100 thousand. Scanning Ask three students to read the play. T: Next I will ask three students to read the play again. One will be Eliza, one Professor Higgins, and one Colonel Pickering. OK? Now begin! After several minutes. T: Great. Now I have some more questions. First: According to Higgins, if a person is very poor, he or she can still be better off at last. Do you agree with him? If so, how to realize the aim? S1: Yes. I agree with him. However, in order to realize the aim, he or she must get educated. T: Who can complete the last sentence: in the first line on page 29: Now once taught by me...?
S2: Let me try. Once taught by me, she will soon become a lady in the upper class. T: Well done. What other things show one’s statue in society apart from how one speaks? S3: One’s clothing and behavior can also show his statue. T: Do you think Pickering is of the upper class? S4: Yes. I think he is well educated. We can learn it from the way he speaks. For example, “May I ask?” T: Great! Now please listen to the tape carefully and try to catch the main idea of this act. Step Ⅲ Comprehending This time the students should listen to the tape as carefully as possible. They should not only pay attention to the pronunciation and intonation but get the main idea of the play as well. T: Pygmalion is a play about recognizing a person’s position in society by the way they behave and speak. Step Ⅳ Discussion Ask the students to do Part 5 on page 31. T: Suppose you have a chance to help Eliza improve her use of the English language. Look at the sentences on page 31 in Part 5 and help her correct all these sentences in terms of grammar, spelling, etc, so that she can use them properly. Sample answers: 1. Come here, and come in. Buy flowers from me—a poor girl. 2. I did nothing wrong when I spoke to that gentleman. 3. I thought you maybe was a policeman in disguise. 4. How do I know whether you wrote down my words or not? 5. You say I can work as a shop assistant? That’s definitely what I want. Then ask the students to read the play again and do Part 2 on page 31. T: We have learned that the social position of the characters influences the way they behave to each other. Generally speaking, people are more polite to those whom they think are of a higher social class (H) and less polite to those they consider are members of a lower class (L). Is this true of the characters in Shaw’s play? Now please finish Part 2 on page 31. Sample answers to Part 2: Relationships between characters Henry Higgins: 1. Attitude to Colonel Pickering (H) 2. Attitude to Eliza (L) Is the statement above true? Colonel Pickering: 1. Attitude to Henry Higgins (H) 2. Attitude to Eliza (L) Is the statement above true? Eliza: Evidence from the play 1. My dear man 2. Dismissively, ignore, carelessly throw The statement is true. 1. May I ask? / Let me congratulate you 2. ... The statement is not true. 1. Pushes it back at him
1. Attitude to Henry Higgins (H) 2. Attitude to Colonel Pickering (H) Is the statement above true?
2. ... The statement is not true.
Step Ⅴ Homework T: Today’s homework: 1. Read the play repeatedly and try to act out the play. 2. Preview the grammar part.
The Third Period Grammar
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 in return, in trouble, in disguise, in amazement, in pain, in delight, in shock b. Grammar: Past participle as the adverbial. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to use the past participle as the adverbial. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to use the past participle as the adverbial. Teaching important points 教学重难点 How to use the past participle as the adverbial. Teaching methods 教学方法 Task-based activities. Teaching aids 教学准备 Some slides and a projector. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 StepⅠ Revision Check the homework. Ask the students to act out the play. T: Yesterday I asked you to prepare for the play-acting. Have you prepared? Now I want to ask three students to have a try. After they finish, make some comments on their performances. Step Ⅱ Word study Ask the students to finish Exx. 1 and 2 in Learning about Language. Then check the answers with the class. Step Ⅲ Grammar First ask the students to find out the examples of the past participle as the adverbial in the play: Sample sentences: 1. An expert in phonetics, convinced that the quality of a person’s English
decides his/her position in society. P28 2. But, sir, (proudly) once educated to speak properly, that girl could pass herself off in three months as a duchess at an ambassador’s garden party. P30 Explanation: T: The past participle as the adverbial is a very important grammar, and it can indicate time, condition, reason, and way. We can add when / while / if or other conjunctions before the past participle in order to make the meaning more clearly. For example: Show the following. If bitten by a snake, you should send for help and don’t walk. The room, although supposed to be kept locked, was often left open. T: Now please look at the following examples. Can you rewrite these sentences? Show the following. 1. Given more time, we could do it better. 2. Heated to a high temperature, water will change to vapour. 3. Frightened by the noise in the night, the girl did not dare sleep in her room. 4. Disturbed by the noise, we had to finish the meeting early. 5. Seen from the hill, the park looks very beautiful. 6. She walked out of the house, followed by her little daughter. Sample answers: 1. When / If we were given more time, we could do it better. 2. When / If it is heated to a high temperature, water will change to vapour. 3. As she was frightened by the noise in the night, the girl did not dare sleep in her room. 4. As we were disturbed by the noise, we had to finish the meeting early. 5. When it is seen from the hill, the park looks very beautiful. 6. She walked out of the house, and her little daughter followed. Practice Ask the students to finish Parts 2 and 3 on page 33. Time permits, ask the students to finish Exercises 1 and 2 in USING STRUCTURES on page 73. Step Ⅳ Summary and homework T: What did we learn today? S: The past participle as the adverbial. T: Good. What should we pay attention to when using the past participle as the adverbial? S: The agreement between the subjects in the main clause and the past participle phrases. T: Right. After class, please finish the exercises in USING WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS.
The Fourth Period Extensive reading
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 pronounce, distinct, nail, compromise, horrible, bathtub, sob, disgusting, overlook, alphabet, fade, classic, effective, show...in, the other day, take away, in need of, fade out b. 重点句子 I’m not asking any favours — and he treats me like dirt. I’d never have come if I’d known about this disgusting thing you want to do to me, I... What’s to become of me? 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to talk about the play Making the bet. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to talk about the play Making the bet. Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点 How to talk about the play Making the bet. Teaching methods 教学方法 Individual work and discussion. Teaching aids 教学准备 A recorder and a projector. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 StepⅠRevision Check the homework. Ask the students to review Act One: Fateful meetings. A sample summary of the act: Eliza Doolittle, is a poor, dirty flower seller in the turn of the century England. The Pygmalion in this film is Henry Higgins (Harrison), a linguist and phonetic expert who believes that speech is what really sets the classes apart. He bets with his friend Colonel Pickering that through a change in dress and speech, he can turn the lower class Eliza into a lady that will fool high society. The only thing in the bet for Eliza is that she might be able to open her own flower shop and somewhat escape her lower class roots. Step Ⅱ Reading Have the students read the play carefully and then answer the following questions. After a few minutes. T: Now answer my questions. First: Do you think Eliza is very ambitious? S1: Yes, I think so. Because she still likes to learn even if Higgins treats her rudely.
T: Why did Pickering fancy himself? S2: Because he can pronounce twenty-four distinct vowel sounds. T: What habits did Eliza have? S3: She has never had a bath in her life; not over her whole body. T: What do you think Higgins would have to do to change Eliza into a lady? S4: In order to have Eliza make a big change, Higgins has to teach her the alphabet. T: How do you think Colonel Pickering? S5: I think Pickering is very kind and well-educated. T: Why does Eliza collect Henry’s slippers for him although she is not a servant? S6: Although Eliza is not a servant, from her deep heart, she looks down upon herself, and think she is in the lower class. But Henry is in the higher class. So I think she collects his slippers willingly. T: Why does she throw the shoes at him? S7: Because Henry looks down upon her, which deeply hurts her. She is very angry. T: Why does Henry think he wins the bet? S8: Because he thinks it is he who makes Eliza attractive in the party. T: Why does Eliza get upset when Henry does not congratulate her? S9: Because in Eliza’s opinion, it is she that tries her best to make other people attracted to her. T: Why does Henry get upset when he hears Eliza will marry Freddy? S10: In fact, he loves Eliza, I think. After that, the teacher can lead the students to have a discussion about the ending of the play. Show the following. 1. Do you think Eliza should marry Henry? 2. Do you think Eliza should marry Freddy? 3. If Eliza loves Henry and marries him, do you think he will become a good husband? About ten minutes later, ask the students to present their answers. Sample answers: I think Eliza will marry neither Freddy nor Henry. After all Freddy does not know the past of Eliza. If one day Freddy learns about that, he will not accept all of this. He belongs to the upper class and maybe in his deep heart he looks down upon Eliza. As for Henry, I think he is very greedy and proud. He only treats Eliza as his bet. He only wants to prove he is capable, although at last he falls in love with Eliza. However, when he truly marries Eliza, the selfishness will again appear. He will not become a good husband. As a matter of fact, Eliza has become a confident girl after experiencing these things. Maybe she will find her true love at last. Step ⅢHomework T: In Act Two, Scene 1, Eliza went to Higgins’ house for help while Colonel Pickering was there. Higgins decided to begin his experiment. He first wanted her to take a bath and then discussed with Pickering about how to teach the girl.
Today’s homework: 1. Read the play once again. 2. Pre-listen to the recording for Listening and speaking part.
The Fifth Period Listening
Teacher goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 a. 重点词汇和短语 pronunciation, criteria, ambassador, confused, impress, evidence, give away b. 重点句子 Does he concentrate on her pronunciation rather than her grammar? She speaks English so well that she must be a foreigner, probably a Hungarian. She is so beautiful that she must be a princess. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to listen to and understand the play in the listening material. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to listen to and understand the play in the listening material. Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点 How to listen to and understand the play in the listening material. Teaching methods 教学方法 Individual work and cooperative learning. Teaching aids 教学准备 A recorder and a projector. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Revision Check the homework. Then talk about the characters in the play. T: In Shaw’s play, each character is depicted vividly especially the three main characters. What can you say about them? S1: Eliza Doolittle is a flower girl working outside Covent Garden. Her potential to become “a lady” becomes the object of a bet between Higgins and Pickering. S2: Henry Higgins is a British, upper class professional bachelor, a world-famous phonetics expert, teacher. S3: Colonel Pickering is a retired British officer with colonial experience and later a friend of Higgins’. T: Now please look at Part 4 on page 31. Choose those adjectives in the list which best describe each character in the play. Place them in the right place in the box. Sample answers:
Henry Higgins: impatient, emotional, superior Colonel Pickering: kind, polite, unsure Eliza: anxious, eager, ambitious Step Ⅱ Listening Ask the students to work in pairs and discuss what they would do to change Eliza into a lady and how, and then fill in the table in Part 1. T: From the scene we learned last period, we know that the ambitious flower girl wants to lift herself to upper class society. According to the expert, Higgins, what she needs is some education. Now work in pairs and discuss what you would have to do to change Eliza into a lady. Fill in the table in Part 1 on page 35.
Things that need to be changed 1. speech
How to make the change 1. start with the alphabet and pronunciation, and learn to speak grammatically right sentences and try to speak clearly and fluently. 2. change the shabby clothes with beautiful ones and often take baths. 3. learn to behave politely and gracefully.
2. clothing 3. behavior
After that, ask the students to listen to the recording and answer the questions in Part 3. T: Now go through the questions in Part 3. And then I will play the tape three times. For the first time, try to get the general idea of the material. While listening for the second time, try to put down the important information, and answer the questions. For the third time, I will pause where necessary, and you can check your answers. Play the tape three times. After that, check the answers. Step Ⅲ Listening (Workbook: P70) First discuss the questions with the students. T: Next we’ll listen to Act Three of the play, testing Eliza. Before listening, let’s discuss some questions. Now look at the questions on page 70. How would you test Eliza? S1: I would take her to a grand party, where there are a lot of rich people to see if she can get along well with other people or if people would like to talk with her. If so, Eliza has been taught well and has made great progress. If not, she will be taught again. T: Good idea! What criteria would you use to decide if the test was a success or not? S2: I think we could use quantity and effect of her communication as criteria:
how many people want to talk or dance with her? What do people feel about her? Then ask the students to listen to the recording three times and finish the exercises. T: Good! Now let’s listen to the tape and finish the exercises 2-4. And then check the answers with the class. After that, ask the students to think of some new ideas to help Professor Higgins teach Eliza better. T: From the above, we know Eliza has made some progress in her speech and behavior. But after the test, Professor Higgins finds what he has done is not enough. In order to teach Eliza better, he decides to do something to improve her. Now work in groups and discuss what still needs to be done to turn Eliza into a lady. S1: In order to teach Eliza better, Higgins can have her sell flowers again but in the theater in the day. But she needs not to worry about how much she could earn. What she needs do is to pay more attention to what a lady or a gentleman is saying and how they behave themselves. And Higgins would ask her about what she has learned during the daytime. She must imitate what she has seen and heard. T: Good job. Step Ⅳ Talking T: When Henry and Pickering get home, they will have to talk to Eliza about the tea party. What do you think they will say to her in order to improve her conversational skills but not spoil her confidence? Now work in pairs and work out the speech that Pickering and Henry will make to Eliza. Remember that Eliza is not sure that she convinced Freddy and Clara that she was a lady. So be kind to her as well as give her good advice. A sample speech： (E = Eliza; H = Higgins; P = Pickering) H: You did quite well in the party, really. But I think you need more practice. E: That ’ s enough. I ’m fed up with the drills and those pronunciation and politeness. That’s enough! H: Calm! Young lady! Just think what you’re trying to accomplish. Just think what you’re dealing with. The majesty and grandeur of the English language is the greatest possession we have. The noblest thoughts that ever flowed through the hearts of men are contained in its extraordinary, imaginative and musical mixtures of sounds. And that’s what you’ve set yourself out to conquer Eliza. And conquer it, you will. E: But Mrs Pearce says I sound like a French lady. I think I’ve learned enough to... P: (interrupt her) Yeah, yeah... I think you look perfect, but there needs some improvement. E: (become peaceful) OK. Let me try. P: I know you talked about the weather, but it’s not suitable to mention the weather at the party. H: Your speech has greatly improved. But you still need to learn how to take
the chance to speak proper words at a proper time. P: I think you need more practice in grammar, too. H: Your use of grammar is much better, but it needs improving. When you dance with Freddy was over, you should say “Thank you” instead of “Thanks you.” P: I believe you will be much better next time. Step Ⅴ Listening (Workbook: P73) There are three exercises in this part. The first one is for the students to decide whether the statements are true or false. The second one is to answer the three questions after listening. The last is to ask the students to enjoy the humor of the act and try to fill in the table. Play the tape and ask the students to listen and finish the activities. Step Ⅵ Homework Ask the students to do the following. 1. Listen to all the recordings once again and enjoy the play. 2. Finish the WRTING TASK on page 76.
The Sixth Period Speaking and writing
Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言 Practise expressing conjecture I wonder whether... Is it possible that...? Do you know if...? Do you really think that’s true? 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to write a scene of the play. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to write a scene of the play. Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点 How to write a scene of the play. Teaching methods 教学方法 Discussion and practice. Teaching aids 教学准备 A computer and a projector. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 Step Ⅰ Revision Check the homework by asking some students to read their work. A sample review of the play: At the beginning of the play, Eliza was only a flower girl. One day when
she was selling flowers in the street, she found a man taking notes of what she said. She was very angry and confused for fear that the man was a policeman in disguise. At the moment, another man appeared. From their talking, Eliza learned that the man taking notes was Professor Higgins who said that he could change a poor-educated man into a man in the upper class. She kept it in mind, for she was ambitious and wanted to make a big change. The next day, Eliza went to the Higgins’ and wanted him to be his teacher. At first Higgins wouldn’t like to accept her. It’s Pickering that made the thing better. He wanted to have a bet with Higgins. So Higgins accepted Eliza as his student. Of course, it was very difficult to teach Eliza. After all she was poor-educated and couldn’t behave well. It was a hard task for Higgins. Higgins taught her with great patience. Finally Eliza made great progress. When Higgins thought she was well-educated enough, she was taken to attend a grand party. At that time, she behaved in good manners, so that a young gentleman was attracted by her beauty and fell in love with her. He couldn’t recognize she was a flower girl in the street. Then come to the climax of the play. After the party, Higgins and Pickering celebrated their success. However, they left Eliza alone, which made Eliza disappointed. Finally, she couldn’t stand it any more. She decided to live independently. Step Ⅱ Discussion Ask the students to discuss how Eliza felt after her first lesson. T: Now work in pairs and discuss the following questions. Show the following. 1. How did Eliza feel about her first lesson? 2. How do you think Mrs Pearce would comfort her? 3. How would Professor Higgins and Colonel Pickering behave in the second lesson? Sample answers: 1. I think she may be discouraged. She may think it is too difficult to learn formal English. 2. Mrs Pearce would comfort or encourage her by saying: “Don’t worry, dear lady. It’s not that easy to become a member of the upper class. Keep trying and you are sure to succeed.” 3. In the second lesson, Professor Higgins and Colonel Pickering would be more kind and patient. Step Ⅲ Writing T: Please turn to page 36 and look at the Part 2. Read the instructions and write a scene in which Professor Higgins gives Eliza her second lesson. Sample version 1: Act Two, Scene 3 (Professor Higgins is waiting for Eliza to come to their second lesson. He looks
up and smiles as she enters the room.) H: Ah, Eliza. Ready today for our second lesson? E: (slowly and carefully) Ye-es. We can begin now. H: Well. To begin with, the grammar I taught you last lesson, can you repeat it? E: Er..., Let me think for a while... H: What a silly girl! I can’t teach you any more. Maybe selling flowers in a street is just your suitable job. P: Oh, come, come Higgins. She is just a little girl and she has done her best. You’d better calm down and be more patient. E: (sobbing) I’m sure I can remember it. Give me a chance and I’ll write it down immediately. H: I must say it’s my fault and I beg your pardon. Let’s leave it alone and begin our new lesson. E: (gratefully) It’s very kind of you, Professor. I will work harder and I won’ t let you down again. H: OK. Now let’s do some practice in pronunciation which can truly improve your position in society. So pay attention to the records and repeat. (Eliza listened to the record carefully but she just couldn’t follow.) E: I’m afraid I can’t follow it. Can you make it slowly? H: Impossible. Only by following this speed can you make a graceful lady. P: My good friend. How can she learn from it if she can’t follow it? It’s not only patience that a teacher needs, he must take his student ’ s level into account. H: Sorry. Maybe you are right. I’ll make it slowly. E: Much better now. Thanks to your guidance, I feel I’m not the person I used to be. H: Keep on and always remember you have a long way to go. E: How long will it take me to get all about language? H: It’s up to you. The more you want to succeed the shorter it will take. P: Higgins, I have to say that you have changed a lot. You are a real teacher now. And you, Eliza, you can’t expect too much. You must learn step by step. It’s your luck to have Higgins to be your teacher. He’ll do you much good. Sample version 2: Act Two, Scene 3 (Professor Higgins is waiting for Eliza to come to their second lesson. He looks up and smiles as she enters the room.) H: Ah, Eliza. Ready today for our second lesson? E: (slowly and carefully) Ye-es... H: It seems that you are a little uncomfortable. Do you feel nervous? E: Oh no, I’m fine, but... H: (a little impatient) Why so uncomfortable, Eliza? You have made great progress as we all can see. Are you planning to give up?
E: (raises her eyes) Oh no, I’m not. Let’s start, Mr Higgins. What would you like to show me today? H: (picks up a dress and throw it to Eliza) Put it on and I’ll tell you how to behave in a grand party. E: (hesitates) On a grand party? Is it too early? Oh, the dress is too large! I can’t even walk! H: What a poor girl! Of course you don’t have to keep it, if you are ready to be a flower girl again. For a well-educated girl, it is important to know how to deal with different situations in a proper way. For example when someone invite you to dance, always remember to say “I’d like to! Thank you.” E: Yes! H: Your English needs further improvement. No one will believe such a pronunciation comes from a well-educated girl. E: Pardon? H: OK, OK. That’s enough. Dance, please. E: (seeing Professor’s funny face and can’t help laughing) Ha, ha, ha... H: (angrily) Stop! You sound so rude and nobody will enjoy it! Silly! E: (stop laughing and act as Higgins) Like this? P: (enters the room) Oh, I can’t believe my eyes! Is it your masterpiece? H: It’s so simple. P: What a beautiful and graceful lady! May I have the honor to dance with you? H: (watching and smiling) What a masterpiece she will be! Step Ⅳ Homework Ask the students to summarize what they have learned in this unit and prepare for the next unit.
Unit 5 Meeting your ancestors
Warming Up, Pre-reading and Reading Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言： 重点词汇和短语 archaeology, tentative, accuracy, excavate, interrupt, ornament, assume, regardless, sharpen, cut up, scrape, ample, primitive, preserve, bead, botany, botanical, analysis, specific, seashell, specifically 重点句子 I’m sorry to interrupt you, but how could they live here? We have been excavating layers of ash almost six meters thick, which suggest that they might have kept the fire burning all winter. Yes, indeed, as the botanical analyses have been specifically showing us, all the fields around there used to be part of a large shallow lake. 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the Ss to tell the differences between modern people and Peking man and learn how Peking man lived their lives. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the Ss learn to tell the differences between modern people and Peking man and learn how Peking man lived their lives. Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点 Talk about Peking man in Zhoukoudian Caves. Teaching methods 教学方法 Listening, reading and discussion Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer and a projector, a recorder Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方法 Step I Revision and Lead-in Check the homework. The Ss will how their information about Zhoukoudian Caves in the following steps. Step II Lead in 1. Ask the Ss to identify the picture in the pre-reading part. (skullcap) 2. Ask Ss to assume what Peking man might have done and use thousands of years ago. 3. Then by showing the table following to show whether their assumptions are right
or wrong. Modern people Peking man Accuracy Places of living Modern architecture, which is Caves Very accurate huge, like boxes with flat roofs, sharp corners and glass walls Furniture Beautiful furniture with lots of ornaments mostly made of wood or other special materials Natural furniture made of stone or wood Accurate Entertainment Watching TV, surfing the Internet and traveling Enjoy the nature or family get-together Inaccurate Food A good variety of cooked food, which tastes delicious Natural food, such as nuts and fruits Accurate Clothing Clothes made form special material, such as cotton and wood Clothes made from animal skins Accurate Step III Reading 1. Play the tape once, and ask the Ss what they have learned about Zhoukoudian Caves 2. Skimming (What is the text about? And three stages of the archaeologist’s part of the dialogue: An archeologist is showing a group of students from England around the Zhoukoudian Caves and telling them something about the caves.) 3. Scanning (Ask them to write down the three ways in which the life of early people differs from modern ones. Ask them to work in pairs and discuss the questions. Homes: Peking man lived in Zhoukoudian Caves of rocks and trees. Tools: They used needle that was made of bone sharpened stone tools and scraper made by stones. Dress: They wore clothes form animal skins and they also wore necklace made from
seashells or animal teeth. 4. Careful reading Let the Ss read the passage again and answer the following questions. Show the questions on the Screen. 1. How did the keep warm? 2. What animals were their most dangerous enemies? 3. How did they make clothes? 4. What can we learn from the necklace they wore? Step IV Post-reading Ask Ss to fill in the chart on the life and habits of Peking man on page 37 and compare it with the list they made in the pre-reading. What differences are there? And then to clarify Ss’ difficult points in the text. Step V Homework 1. Go over the text. 2. Write a brief introduction to the Zhoukoudian Cave.
Vocabulary and Useful Expressions Aims: Teaching aims 教学目标 1.Ability aims 能力目标 Enable the students to use the Present Perfect Continuous tense. 2. Learning ability aims 学能目标 Help the students learn how to use the Present Perfect Continuous tense. Content 教学内容 1. identify vt. 确认，识别，鉴别 （1）~ sb. /sth. as sb./ sth.确认，证明某人/某物系某人/某物 e.g. She identified the man as her attacker. （2）~ sth. with sth.认为某事物与另一事物等同 e.g. One can’t ~ happiness with wealth. 扩展：identification n. identification card 身份证 2. alternative adj. 供选择的，其他的 e.g. The way was blocked ,so we had to go by ~ road. 这条路阻塞，我们只能走其他路。 3. interrupt vt. 1) 打断，中断，阻碍 The war ~ed the trade between the 2 countries. e.g. 战争打断了两国间的贸易。 ②Sorry to interrupt you, but I have something to say. 打断某人的话 ~ sb. /sth. with sth. 用??打扰/打断??
e.g.他用一个问题打断了他的老师。 He interrupted his teacher with a question. (2) interrupt sb. 打扰某人 e.g. ①Don’t interrupt me. I am very busy. 打扰某人 4. assume vt. 假定，设想；担任，承担 (1)assume 后多跟 1) 名词，2)宾语+ to be + n. / adj., 3) that 从句 e.g. 1. The scientist ~ that there no animals on the moon. 科学家设想月球上没有动物． 2. I ~d the responsibility. 我来承担责任。 3. He assumed a great man. 他假装是伟人． (2) assuming 放在句首，表一种猜测。 e.g. Assuming it rains tomorrow, what shall we do? 扩展： assumption n. make an assumption ５. regardless of 不管；不顾；不注意 e.g. He went ~ the risk. 他不顾危险地去了。 He is ~ his appearance. 他不注意自己的外表。 6. preserve vt.(1) 保存；保护；收藏 e.g. You can ~ meat or fish in salt. 你可以用盐来保存肉或鱼。 (2) 保持；维持 e.g. It is one of the duties of the police to ~ public order 7.sharpen. vt /vi 使变锐利 锋利 、磨快刀 sharpen a pencil with a knife. Sharpen a knife. Sharpene stone tools. n. sharpener 磨快的用具 adj. Sharp 锐利的、陡峭的、激烈的、凛冽的 8．Preserve vt 保存、保护 、保管 The city should take steps to preserve the old temple. Preserve? from..保护使免于 Oil preserves metal from rust. Vt.保存 、储藏 , 维持、保护 Preserve fruit in sugar cans. Preserve one’s strength. 9．I’m sorry to interrupt you, but how could they live here? I’m sorry, but ?? Excuse me , but?. 10.We have been excavating layers of ash almost six meters thick, which suggest that they might have kept the fire burning all winter. six meters thick six years old
Listening, Speaking and Writing Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言： 重点词汇和短语 archeology, accurate, radioactivity, chronological, excavation, identity, alternative, household, date back to I think that we should? because? I suggest we? If?, then maybe we ought to? Perhaps we should / could? We must ask for help from? What if?? It seems likely / unlikely that? It looks like? It could be because? How large do you think it is? Is there any on the?? It may /might have been used as / for? 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to talk about the archaeological evidence and knowledge and learn to describe people and practice giving opinions. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to give opinion and describe objects Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点 Learn how to give opinion and describe objects Teaching methods 教学方法 Listening and cooperative learning Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer, a tape recorder and a projector. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方法 Step I Lead-in Lead in by talking about the ancient civilization. 1. Ask them the four Great Ancient Civilizations. 2. Ask them to give some account of each great civilization, for example, speaking China, they can talk about China’s brilliant civilization, like four great inventions (papermaking, printing, gunpowder, compass) Step II Warming-up Deal with the Warming-up part.
1. Ask Ss to identify each picture in this part. 2. Ask them to have a discussion to complete the task listed in Activity 2 ( to complete the table), What is it made of? What’s its use? And today’s alternatives? 3. Then make a summary of this and show the PPT of the table list on the screen. S3. The Greek Goddess agreed to help and his wish was granted. Step III Speaking Talk about Sanxindui Ruins with Ss. 1. Show the pictures on page 44. Tell the Ss they were found during an excavation in Sanxindui Ruins. 2. Ask them if they know anything about SanXindui Ruins. 3. Introduce some background information to them. 4. Show a series of objects to them and ask them to complete the tasks shown on the screen. 1. Guess what they are. 2. Discuss what these objects wre possibly used for 3. Describe these objects (including appearance, shape and a guess about the material, what can we learn from these objects, etc.) Step Ⅳ Listening Do the Listening task on page 81. Step V writing on page 85 1 turn to page 85 and look at the pictures and the questions below them. Discuss the questions 2 several minutes later, check the discussions 3 ask the students t write two paragraphs giving their own ideas as the information tells them to do 4 ask the students to read out their articles Step VI Homework Ask the students to find some information about Zhoukoudian.
Grammar and Useful Structures Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言： Grammar: Present Perfect Continuous Tense 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to use the Present Perfect Continuous tense. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to use the Present Perfect Continuous tense. Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点 How to use the Present Perfect Continuous tense.
Teaching methods 教学方法 Explanation and practice Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer and a projector, a blackboard Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方法 Step I Revision Check the students’ homework and let one read their work. Step II Lead-in Ask the Ss to point out the sentences that contain the structure as “We have been excavating here for many years” in the text. Step III Explanation 一、结构形式 现在完成进行时是由“助动词have(has) + been+动词的现在分词”构成。 二、基本用法 1. 表示从过去某时开始一直延续到说话时还在进行，或可能还要继续下去的动作。它通常 和“for+段时间”或“since+点时间(也可以是从句)”的时间状语连用。例如： I have been waiting for a letter from my parents. 我一直在等我父母的来信。 It has been raining for three hours. 雨已经下了三个小时了。 We have been studying here since 2004. 自从2004 年以来，我们一直在这里学习。 2. 表示从过去某时开始，一直延续到说话时刻，可能刚刚结束的动作。例如： She has been sweeping the street all day. She is too tired. 她一整天都在扫大街。她太累了。 We have been waiting for you for two hours. We don't want to wait any longer. 我们已经等你两个小时了。不想再等了。 三、常用句型 1. 肯定句：“主语+have(has) been+动词的现在分词+其他.”例如： I have been sitting here all the afternoon. 我在这儿坐了一下午。 He has been collecting all kinds of stamps since he was ten years old. 自十岁起他就开始收集各式各样的邮票。 2. 否定句：“主语+have(has) not been+动词的现在分词+其他.”例如： They haven't been meeting each other for five years. 他们有五年没见面了。 He hasn't been teaching here these years. 这些年他并没有一直在这儿教书。 3. 一般疑问句： “Have(Has) + 主语 + been + 动词的现在分词？”其肯定回答： “Yes, 主 语 + have(has).”否定回答：“No, 主语 + haven't (hasn't).” 【例如】： — Have you been studying for the English test today? 你今天一直在准备英语测试吗？ — Yes, I have. / No, I haven't. 是的。 / 不，我没有。
— Has Daniel been skating for two years? 丹尼尔滑冰已经有两年了吗？ — Yes, he has. / No, he hasn't. 是的。/ 不，他没有。 4. 特殊疑问句：“ 特殊疑问词 + 一般疑问句？” 【例如】： What book have you been reading recently? 最近你在看什么书？ How has your uncle been getting on with his work? 你叔叔的工作进展得怎么样？ 四、注意事项 有些不能用现在进行时的动词，如be, have, like, love, know, see, hear 等，同样也不 能用现在 完成进行时，而应用现在完成时。例如： The poor woman has been ill for a long time. 那可怜的妇人已经病了好久了。 Have you seen her parents these days? 这些天你看见她的父母了吗？ 时态对比 1. 现在完成进行时与现在进行时比较： 现在完成进行时强调某一动作从过去一直延续到现在； 而现在进行时只指目前正在发生的动 作。试比较： Susan has been reading that storybook since last night. 从昨晚开始苏珊就一直在看那本故事书。 Susan is reading a storybook now. 苏珊正在看一本故事书。 2. 现在完成进行时和现在完成时比较： ⑴有些动词(如：work, study, live, teach 等)用现在完成进行时与现在完成时表达的意 思差不多。试 比较： The teacher has been teaching at this school for ten years. 十年来，那位老师一直在这所学校教书。 The teacher has taught at this school for ten years. 那位老师在这所学校已经教了十年书了。 ⑵英语中的多数动词在这两种时态中表示不同的含义。 现在完成时如果不带表示一段时间的 状语，就只能表示动作的完成，而现在完成进行时则表示动作的延续。试比较： They have built a new lab. 他们建造了一幢新的实验室。(表示动作的完成) They have been building a new lab (these years). 他们(这几年)一直在建造一幢新的实验室。(无论用时间状语还是不用时间状语，都表示动 作 的延续) Step IV Practice （Using Structures in Workbook） Step V Homework Ask the students finish Exercise in Word Study Part. __