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名词性从句用法详解


名词性从句用法详解
一、概说 名词性从句,即指性质相当于名词的从句,它包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语 从句和同位语从句。从高考的考查的实际情况来看,名词性从句考得最多的是宾语从句,其 次是主语从句,再次是表语从句,而同位语从句则很少考查。 二、名词性从句的一般引导词 1. 连接词 that 只起连接作用,没有任何意思,也不充当句子成分,在宾语从句中可 省略,但引导其他名词

性从句时通常不省略。如: I hope (that) you enjoy your holiday. 希望你假期过得好。(宾语从句可省) That he likes you is very obvious. 很显然他喜欢你。(That 引导主语从句不能省) 2. 连接词 whether 也不充当句子成分,但有自己的意思,表示“是否”;引导宾语从 句时,可换成 if,但引导其他名词性从句时不能换成 if。 He asked whether [if] I would show him the way. 他问我是否可以给他带路。 Whether it will do us harm remains to be seen. 是否对我们有害还要看一看。(引导 主语从句,不能用 if 代替 whether) 3. 连接代词 who(m), whose, which, what 等,均有各自的意义,在从句中作主语、 宾语、定语等。如: That’s why she wanted to leave. 这就是她想离开的原因。 When we arrive doesn't matter. 什么时候到没有关系。 Tell me which one you like best. 告诉我你最喜欢哪一个。 4. 连接副词 when, where, why, how 等,也各自有自己的意义,在从句中作状语。如: The question is how we should carry out the plan. 问题是怎样执行这个计划。 When she’ll be back depends much on the weather. 她什么时候回来在很大程 度 上要看天气。 Why he did it will remain a puzzle forever. 他为什么这样做将永远是一个谜。 三、名词性从句的重要引导词 1. what 用于引导名词性从句是一个十分重要的引导词,它可引导主语从句、宾语从句 和表语从句,但不用于引导同位语从句。它引导的名词性从句有两个意思是:一是表示“什 么”,带有疑问意味;二是表示“?所?的”,相当于一个先行词后接一个关系代词。 如: I don’t know what you want. 我不知道你想要什么。 I don’t know what you want is this. 我不知道你所想要的是这个。 2. whoever, whatever, whichever 等也可引导名词性从句,其意分别为“所?的一切 事或东西”、“任何?的人”、““?的任可人或物”等。如: Whoever wants the book may have it. 任何人要这书都可拿去。 I’ll do whatever I can to help him. 我们将尽我们所能来挽救他。 注意以下受汉语意思影响而弄错的句子: 任何人来都欢迎。 误:Who comes will be welcome. / Anyone comes will be welcome. 正:Whoever comes will be welcome. / Anyone who comes will be welcome. 另外,它们也可引导让步状语从句,其意为“无论?”、“不管?”,其意相当于 no matter who [what, which]。如: Whatever happens, you must be calm. 不管发生什么情况, 你都必须镇静。 (whatever = no matter what)

He won't eat you, whoever he is. 不管他是谁,他也不能把你吃掉。(whoever = no matter who) 注:whoever 既用作主格也用作宾语;作宾语时不宜用 whomever,因为在现代英语中 whomever 这个已几乎废弃不用。 4. why 与 because 的用法区别。两者均可引导表语从句,但前者强调结果,后者强 调的原因。如: I had a cold. That’s why I didn't come. 我感冒了,因此我没来。 I didn’t come. That’s because I had a cold. 我没有来,那是因为我感冒了 五、宾语从句的语序 名词性从句的词序与陈述句语序相同,尤其注意那些由连接代词 who(m), whose, which, what 和连接副词 when, where, why 等引导的名词性从句, 不要受它们在特殊疑问句中用法 的影响而误用疑问句词序。如: Why was she crying? 她为什么在哭? I don’t know why he was crying. 我不知道她为什么哭。 六、名词性从句的时态问题 1. 当主句的谓语动词是过去式时,宾语从句若不是一个客观事实或真理,其谓语动词也 必须用某种过去时态。如: She said that she didn't want to know. 她说她不想知道。 I asked her whether she would agree. 我问她是否会同意。 2. when, if 这两个词既可引导名词性从句, 也可引导状语从句。 当它们引导名词性从句且 表示将来意义时,要直接使用将来时态;但当它们引导状语从句且表示将来意义时,则必须 用一般现在时表示将来意义。如: I don’t know when he will come, but when he comes, I’ll call you. 我不知道他什么时候, 但当他来的时候,我会打电话给你。 句中第一个 when 引导的是宾语从句,故用将来时态表示将来意义;第二个 when 引导 的是时间状语从句,故用一般现在时表示将来意义。 【2012 安徽卷】27.The limits of a person’s intelligence, generally speaking, are fixed at birth, but he reaches these limits will depend on his environment. A. where B. whether C. that D. why 首先把插入语 generally speaking 删掉,选择 B.本题考查名词性从句,but whether he reaches these limits 【作为句子主语】will depend on his environment. 【2012 全国新课程】24. It is by no means clear the president can do to end the strike. A. how B. which C. that D. what 【答案】D 【解析】此处 it 是形式主语,what 引导的是主语从句,作真正的主语。What 作 do 的宾语。句意:总统采取什么行动结束这次罢工一点也不清楚。 【考点定位】考查主语从句的连接词。 【2012 山东卷】 It doesn’t matter ________ you pay by cash or credit card in this store. 25. A. how B. whether C. what D. why .【答案】B 【解析】此处 it 是形式主语,后面 whether...or…引导的主语从句是真正的主 语,whether...or…意为:是…还是…都行。句意:在这个商店中用现金或信用卡支付都可 以。【考点定位】考查主语从句的连接词。 【2012 福建卷】 We promise 35. attends the party a chance to have a photo taken with

the movie star. A. who B. whom C. whoever D. whomever 【考点】本句考查连词的辨析 【答案】C【解析】首先本句考查的关键短语是 promise sb sth“向某人承诺某事“本句指的 是向参加聚会的人提供一个和电影明星合影的机会,不定式做 chance 的定语,然后就是参 加聚会的任何人 whoever=anyone who, 这样句子就很清晰了, 所以划分句子成分非常关键, 以前考察 whoever 都是做状语,而本题考查的是作 promise 的宾语,挺新颖的。【难度】 难度大 【2012 四川卷】17. Scientists study ____ human brains work to make computers. A. when B. how C. that D. whether 【答案与解析】 B 本题考查名词性从句。句意为:科学家研究人类大脑是如何工作以制造 出电脑的。根据句意,故答案选 B。 【2012 天津卷】 9. It doesn’t matter _________you turn right or left at the crossing ---both roads lead to the park. A. whether B. how C. if D.when 【答案与解析】答案 A。此处考查介词。It doesn’t matter whether 无论是否 【2012 辽宁卷】34. The newcomer went to the library the other day and searched for he could find about Mark Twain. A. wherever B. however C. whatever D. Whichever 【考点】连词用法。 【答案】C 【解析】 介词 for 后面加的是宾语从句, 且从句中 find 缺少宾语, 所以用 whatever, C 选 【2012 陕西卷】20. As many five courses are provided, and you are free to choose ______ suits you best. A whatever B. whichever C. whenever D. wherever 【答案与解析】B 考查名词性从句。所填词引导的从句做动词 choose 的宾语,引导词在从 句中做主语,意思是:无论哪件,选 B。其余选项与句意不符。 【2012 北京卷】24. Jerry did not regret giving the comment but felt ______ he could have expressed it differently. A. why B. how C. that D. whether 【解析】24. C。从句考查,宾语从句不缺少成分用 that 引导。 【2012 江西卷】25.It suddenly occurred to him he had left his keys in the office. A.whether B.where C.which D.that 25 答案:D 考点:考察名词性从句当中的主语从句。 解析:it 作形式主语,真正的主语为 that he had left his keys in the office。且 that 在句中 无意义,并不充当任何成分。 [2012 湖南高考真题]26. Everyone in the village is very friendly. It doesn't matter ____ you have lived there for a short or a long time. A.why B. how C. whether D. when 【答案与解析】选 C 本题是一形式主语句型,考查名词性从句引导的用法。根据空后的 or 可知为 whether … or 短语。复合句 名词性从句 主语从句 形式主语 引导词 whether 【2012 重庆卷】34. Evdence has been found through years of study______ children’s early sleeping problem likely to continue when they grow up. A. why B. how C. whether D. that 【答案】D 【解析】分析句子结构可知,空白处后面为句子主语“Evidence”的同位语从句, 在这一从句中,句意完整,不缺少成分,应该使用“that”作为引导词。因此,正确答案为 D 2. (2010· 全国卷 II· T10)—Have you finished the book? -- No. I’ve read up to _____ the children discover the secret cave. A. which B. what C. that D. where

【解析】D。句意:-你读完这本书了吗?-没有。我已经读到孩子们发现秘密洞穴那 儿。where 在此引导宾语从句并在从句中做地点状语,表示“在。。。。。。的地方”。 -Jane looks blue today. -Yes. But she doesn’t want to tell us _______ that she is worried. A. what is it B. what it is C. why is it D. why it is

此题选 D。一些学生误选 B。认为句意是她不想告诉我们她担心什么。但是,what 是 疑问代词在从句中要作主语、宾语、宾语等。若选 B,要在 worried 后面加上 about 才可以。 选 D,句意是她不想告诉我们她为什么担心,why 在从句中作状语。由此题可知,做此类题 时,一定要做到不仅看句子的意思还要看句子中缺少什么成分。 Exercise (2010· 全国卷 I· T33)We haven’t discussed yet ______ we are going to place our new furniture. A. that B. which C. what D. where 3. (2010· 江苏卷· 35— I prefer shutting myself in and listening to music all day on Sundays. —— That’s _ I don’t agree. You should have a more active life. A. where B. how C. when D. what I am inside. A. who B.

4.(2010· 北京卷· 31). I want to be liked and loved for where C. what D. how

5. (2010· 北京卷· 32)Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel, T David Copperfield, was __ it was rather closely modeled on his own life. A. what B. that C. why D. whether

6. (2010· 北京卷· 33) _____ some people regard as a drawback is seen as a T plus by many others. A. Whether B. What C. That D. How 【7. (2010· 福建卷· 35) We should respect food and think about the people who T don’t have _____we have here and treat food nicely. A. that B. which C. what D. whether 8.(2010· 湖南卷· T35) Cindy shut the door heavily and burst into tears. No one in the office knew she was so angry. A. where B. whether C. that D. why 9. (201· 山东卷· 0 T26)Before the sales start, I make a list of ______ my kids will need for the coming season. A. why B. what C. how D. which 10.(2010·陕西卷· 18)It never occurred to me _____ you could succeed in T persuading him to change his mind. A. which B. what C. that D. if 11.(2010· 上海卷· 36)One reason for her preference for city life is T she can have easy access to places like shops and restaurants. A. that B. how C. what D. why 12. (2010· 上海卷· 37) When changing lanes, a driver should use his turning signal T to let other drivers know A. he is entering which lane B. which lane he is enteringC. is he entering which lane D. which lane is he entering

on

13.(2010· 四川卷· T14)How much one enjoys himself travelling depends largely he goes with, whether his friends or relatives. A. what B. who C. how D. why 14.(2010· 天津卷· T14)As a new graduate, he doesn’t know

it takes to start a business here.A. how B. what C. When

D. which

15. (2010· 浙江卷· T9)It is uncertain __ side effect the medicine will bring about, although about two thousand patients have taken it. A. that B. what C. how D. whether

16. (2010· 重庆卷· T25)To improve the quality of our products ,we asks for suggestions ___ had used the products.A. whoever B. who C. whichever D. which 2011 年高考题 1. (2011?四川卷? T10) teachers always tell us to believe in Our we do and who we are if we want to succeed. A. why B. how C. what D. which 2. 2011?山东卷?T26) afraid he’s more of a talker than a doer, which is _____ he ( I’m never finishes anything. A. that B. when C. where D. why 3.(2011?山东卷?T33)We’ve offered her the job, but I don’t know __ she’ll accept it. A. where B. what C. whether D. which 4.(2011?江西卷? T26)The villagers have already known the bridge. A.this B.that C.what D.which we’ll do is to rebuild

5.(2011?辽宁卷? T23)Twenty students want to attend the class that aims to teach to read first. A. what B. who C. how D. why 6.(2011?辽宁卷? T32)When the news came the war broke out, he decided to serve in the army. A. since B. which C. that D. because 7.(2011 陕西卷 T15)I’d like to start my own Business—that’s I’d do if I had the money.A. why B. when C. which D. what

8.(2011?湖南卷 T31)Before a problem can be solved, it must be obvious ___ the problem itself is. A. what B. that C. which D. why 9.(2011?天津卷 T13)Modern science has given clear evidence ___ smoking can lead to many diseases. A. what B. which C. that D. where 10.(2011?上海卷? T35)There is clear evidence ______ the most difficult feeling of all to interpret is bodily pain. A. what B. if C. how D. that 11. (2011?上海卷? T38)The message you intend to convey through words may be the exact opposite of ___ others actually understand. A. why B. that C. which D. what 12. (2011?江苏卷? T26)It was never clear _______ the man hadn’t reported the accident sooner. A. that B. how C. when D. why

13. (2011 重庆卷? T22) is still under discussion ____the old bus station should be It replaced with a modern hotel or not. A. whether B. when C. which D. where 14. (2011?重庆卷? T34)It is not always easy for the public to see ____ use a new invention can be of to human life .A. whose B. what C. which D. that 15 (2011?安徽卷?T33)His writing is so confusing that it’s difficult to make out _____it is he is trying to express. A. that B. how C. who D. what 16. (2011?北京卷? T22) Barbara Jones offers to her fans is honesty and happiness .A. Which B. What C. That D. Whom 17. (2011?北京卷? T31) The shocking news made me realize we would face. A. what B. how C. that D. why terrible problems


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