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非谓语动词总结


Grammar

(总结)

一、什么叫做非谓语动词?
非谓语动词就是不能单独在句子 中做谓语的动词。

动词形式 不做谓语

二、非谓语动词的表现形式有?
动词不定式(to do) 动名词(V_ing)

分词(V_ing; V_ed)
注:非谓

语动词的否定结构: not+非谓语动词

三、非谓语使用条件?
一个句子当中,已经存在一个主句 (谓语动词),又没有连词的情况下 She got off the bus, but() her handbag on her seat.

She got off the bus,() her handbag on her seat. A. left B. leaving

四、非谓语动词时态语态:
一、不定式(6) 不定式

主动语态
to do to be doing

被动语态
to be done
----------

一般式

进行式
完成式

to have done to have been done to have been 完成进行式 ---------doing

二、分词
△ 现在分词、动名词(4): 主动形式
一般式 完成式

被动形式 being done
having been done

doing
having done



过去分词只有一种形式 done 。

五、非谓语动词充当的成分
主 表 语 语 不定式 宾 语 补 语 定 语 状 语

分词
动名词

++ + + + + + + + + ++ + +

(一) 不定式与动名词作主语
不定式作主语多表示具体的某次动作. 动名词作主语多表示抽象的、习惯性经常性的
动作。
_____ with fire is dangerous. A A. Playing B. To play

_____ with fire will be dangerous. A A. To play B. Playing

★动名词的复合结构
? 形容词性物主代词或名词所有格+doing 做主语、宾语、表语。 ? Eg: My sister’s being ill made me worried. Your being right doesn’t mean my being wrong.

It做形式主语,用doing做真正主语的 固定句型:

? ? ? ?

It is no use doing… It is no good doing… It is no point doing… It is worth doing…

? Eg: it is no use complaining about the matter.

(二) 动名词与不定式作宾语
在一个句子中,用不定式,还是用 动名词作宾语,往往是由句子谓语动 词的用法来决定的。

A. 以下动词常接不定式作宾语 决心学会想希望decide/ determine learn want/ should like/would like hope/wish/expect

拒绝设法愿假设refuse manage care pretend
主动答应选计划offer promise choose plan

同意请求帮一帮agree ask/beg help afford

B. 以下动词常接动名词作宾语 建议完成练习advise/suggest finish practise 喜欢考虑感激enjoy/dislike consider appreciate 想原谅过错imagine excuse miss

允许介意逃避 permit/forbid mind escape avoid 拒绝承认拖延 deny/reject admit delay

加doing作宾语的固定短语
? Be used to/lead to/devote to/stick to/object to/get down to/pay attention to/can’t stand/give up/feel like/insist on/be accustomed to

C. 既可接不定式 又可接动名词作宾 语的动词
1. like、love、hate、prefer等词后接 不定式时,表示具体的某次动作,尤其是将 来的动作; 接动名词时, 表示习惯、经验、 体会。

2. remember、forget、regret 等 词后接不定式时,表示一未发生的动 作;接动名词时,表示一已经发生了 的 动作。

I forgot telling him the news.
I forgot to tell him the news.

3. 跟不定式、动名词意义完全不同。
mean doing/to do, stop doing/to do, go on doing/to do, try doing/to do, can not help doing(情不自禁)/to do(无法帮助)

4. want、need、require、request 等此后接不定式用被动式的形式;动名词 用主动式的形式。(主语是物)

Your watch needs repairing \ to be repaired.

The windows need painting again \ to be painted again.

(三) 非谓语动词作状语
A. 现在分词与过去分词作状语

看与逻辑主语关系
1. 现在分词(v+ing)作状语表示主动或进行 的动作。

2.过去分词(v+ed)有两大特点,一是表被 动的动作;二是表已完成的动作。

注:如果分词表示的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发 生,则要用完成形式having done

还原原句
Having finished homework, Tom watched TV. Listening to the music, he did his homework. Scolded by his parents, he felt very sad.

分词做状语解题步骤:
1、找逻辑主语 2、确定逻辑主语与分词关系 3、若为被动关系—— 过去分词(done) 4、若为主动,再看主句与从句谓语动词发 生的先后关系 从谓与主谓几乎同时发生—— 现在分词一般式(doing) 从谓发生在主谓之前—— 现在分词完成式(having done)

B. 不定式作状语
不定式作状语常用来表目的、结果或原因、程度、 条件等。

So as to, such…as to, enough to, too…to, never to…, only to… 先确定用不定式,还得考虑 时态、语态

独立主格
非谓语有自己独立的逻辑主语
? The test finished, we began our holidays. ? Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow.

4.作宾语补足语
现在分词做宾语补足语表示宾语发出分词动作 过去分词做宾语补足语表示宾语被动完成分词动作 Eg:

I could feel the cold wind blowing on my face.
(冷风主动吹脸) He watched the TV set carried out of the room. (电视被抬)

1, feel listen/hear look/see/watch/notice/observe + sb + doing

do
2,have/make+sb+doing/do/done leave/keep + sb + doing/done get sb to do/done/doing

done

(五) 非谓语动词作定语
现在分词(V+ing) :表示所修饰名词正在进行的, 主动的动作 。 过去分词(V+ed) :表示一个已经完成了的,被动 的动作 。 不定式:表示所修饰名词一个将来的动作。 动名词:表示所修饰名词的性质、用途。

非谓语动词做题步骤

一、分析句子结构, 辨别“谓与非谓”

______ 1. ______many times , but he still couldn't C understand it .
2. ______many times , he still couldn't A understand it .

A. Having been told
C. He had been told

B. Told

D. Though he had been told

二、找固定搭配
当非谓语动词充当宾语时,我们可以先看

谓语动词有无固定搭配。
He can’t give up.smoking

三、找逻辑主语 非谓语动词虽不能作谓语,但仍具 有动词特点,其逻辑上的动作执行 者就叫做逻辑主语。

___ B up at his father, he asked what was the matter with him. A. Having looked C. To look B. Looking D. Look

四、分析语态
分析语态就是在确定逻辑主语之后, 分析非谓语动词和逻辑主语在搭配 使用时是主动还是被动关系。

1. The ______ dirty clothes ______ B , the girl hung them up outside . 2. ______ the dirty clothes, D the girl hung them up outside . ______ A. was washed B. washed

C. were washed
D. having washed

五、分析时态

C 1. The building ____ now will be a ____ restaurant . B ________ 2. The building ____ next year will be a restaurant . D 3. The building _____ last year is a _______ restaurant. A. having been built B. to be built C. being built D. built

Having known 1. ____________(know) that he won the match, he threw the cap into the sky. Not having finished 2. _________________(finish) the homework, the little girl doesn't dare to go to school. Written (write)in simple English, the 3. ________ book is easy to read. To become (become)a teacher in a 4. ___________ university, it is necessary to have at least a master‘s degree.

5. The visiting minister expressed his C that he satisfaction with the talks, ___ had enjoyed his stay here. A having added B. to add C. adding D. added

B up at his father, he asked what was 6. ___ the matter with him. A. Having looked B. Looking C. To look D. Look
A such heavy pollution already, it may 7. ___ now be too late to clean up the river. A. Having suffered B. Suffering C. To suffer D. Suffered

1.She was glad to see her child well taken (take) care of. _______ 2. We are pleased to see the problem settled (settle) so quickly. _______
blowing 3. I could feel the wind _________ (blow)on my face from an open window.

4. He found them ____ at a table____. A. seating; playing chess B. sitting; to play chess C. seated; playing chess D. seat; play the chess

C

5. John rushed out in a hurry, ___ the door_____. A. leaving; unlocked B. leaving; unlocking C. left, unlocked D. to leave; unlocking

A

6. With a lot of work ___, B he didn’t go to the film. A. to be done B. to do C. doing D. having done 7. He knocked against the table and sent the bowls ___ A in all directions before ___. A. flying; sent to sleep B. flying; sending to sleep C. to fly; to be sent to sleep D. to fly; sending sleeping

1. A football fan is a person who having has

a strong interest in football.
2. I am looking for the train to go to which will go to Shanghai. named 3. It was at the school which was named after a hero that he spent his childhood. 4. Who is the person thatstanding is standing at the gate of Beijing Tourism Tower? being built built belongs to 5. The house which is being my uncle.

Thank you!!!


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