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高一外研版英语必修4同步课件 Module 3 Body Language and Non-Verbal Communication 第3课时 Grammar


1.stare vi. & vt.
1)“盯;凝视”;常常与介词at连用,即:stare at sb./sth.,表示由于吃惊、害怕、羡慕或深思而张大眼睛、 目不转睛地注视,这种注视可能有意无意地表现出无礼或 粗鲁的态度。 Crusoe stared at the footprint, full of fear. 克鲁索盯着脚印,内心充满恐惧。 2)“盯;凝

视”;仅限于几个固定短语,如:stare sb.

down(盯得某人不敢再对视下去);stare sb. in the face(盯着
某人的脸看);stare sb. into silence(盯得某人不敢吭声); stare sb. up and down(上下打量某人)。

辨析:stare at, glare at与look at 1)glare vi. to look in an angry way“瞪眼”;“怒目 而视”,表示由于生气而张大眼睛用强烈的目光看,凶狠 地或恐吓地注视,强调敌对或威胁。通常也与介词at连用, 相当于look at sb./sth. angrily。 Suddenly he saw two eyes glaring at him out of the darkness. 突然他看见黑暗中两道强烈的目光向他射来。 2)look at是最普通的看,既没有吃惊、害怕、羡慕、 无礼或粗鲁的态度,也没有凶狠或恐吓之意。 He looked at me and smiled. 他望着我微笑。

即学即用
After a quick________at the patient the doctor rang for an ambulance. A.glance C.gaze 答案:A B.glimpse D.stare

2.present
1)n.[C]礼物;目前 I want to give her a present. What do you think she'd like? 我想要给她一份礼物,你认为她会喜欢什么呢? 2)vt. 赠送;给予 The mayor presented the prizes in person. 市长亲自颁奖。

3)adj. 在场的;出席的(其反义词为absent);现在的;
目前的;当前的

①A lot of students were present at the meeting.
很多学生出席了那个会议。 ②I'm free at present. 我现在有空。

知识拓展
presence n. 在场;存在 presently adv. 不久 注 意 : 当 present 用 于 make someone a present of something(意为“把某物作为礼物送给某人”)这一结构时, 不能与gift换用。 I'll make you a present of the book since you like it very much.

你这么喜欢这本书就送给你吧。

即学即用
The________were tired of his long and tiring speech. A.present people C.people present 答案:C B.presently people D.people presently

3.request n.
1)要求;请求 She made a request for some water. 她请求给点水。 2)请求之事 We shall give your request our careful consideration. 我们将仔细考虑你的要求。 v.(郑重或正式)请求;要求;恳求;邀请

①Your presence is immediately requested.
敬请光临。

②All I request of you is that you(should)be punctual.
我只要求你准时。 ③Gentlemen are requested not to smoke. 先生们请勿吸烟。

知识拓展
on/upon request 一经要求 as requested 依照请求 in great request(=much in request) 人们非常需要;大众非常喜爱 make(a)request for 请求;要求 request sth. from sb. 向某人要求某物

即学即用 It's requested that he________to school.

A.to be sent
C.be sent 答案:C

B.be send
D.send

4.serve vt. & vi. 1)vt. & vi. 为??工作;为??服务 Can I serve you in any way? 我能帮你的忙吗? 2)vt. & vi. 开板;上菜(常用被动结构);供某人饭菜 ①Dinner is served. 开饭了。 ②Learn to serve at table. 学习端饭上菜。 3)vt. & vi. 任职;服役 He served as a naval officer during the war. 战争时期他在海军当军官。

即学即用
The word“spahetti”brought back the memory of an evening when all of us were seated around the table and Aunt Pat________spaghetti for supper. A.cooked C.got 答案:B B.served D.made

5.favour n.(=favor)
1)帮助;好事;恩惠 I would never ask for any favours from her. 我再也不会请她帮任何忙了。 2)赞成;支持 The suggestion to close the road has found favour with local pepole. 封闭这条路的建议已经得到当地人的支持。

知识拓展
1)favourable adj. 给人好印象的;肯定的;赞同的 favoured adj. 受到宠爱的;得到偏爱的;获得优惠的; 大众喜爱的 favourite adj. 特别受喜爱的 favourer n. 宠爱者;支持者;赞成者 2)ask a favour of 请帮忙;请照顾 in favour of 赞成;支持;有利于

do sb. a favour(=do a favour for sb.) 帮某人的忙;答
应某人的请求;接济某人

即学即用
Could you do me________favour and pick up Sam from school today? A.the C./ 答案:B B.a D.another

1.lift up (被)提起;举起;抬高;吊起
I lifted the lid of the box up and peered in. 我掀起箱盖往里看。 知识拓展 not lift/raise a finger/hand(to do sth.) 一点忙也不帮; 油瓶倒了都不扶 lift off 发射;起飞;升空

辨析:raise, rise与lift up
1)raise是及物动词,“使??上升”。 2)rise是不及物动词,“升起;上升;起立”。 ①Prices have been raised up. 价格被提高了。 ②Prices rose gradually. 价格逐渐地涨上去了。 3)lift up 举起;提起;使振奋;鼓舞

Lift it up to the table.
把它抬到桌子上。

即学即用
(2009·北京东城模拟)When I told him to make an apology, he________his eyebrows and said, “Apologize? Why?” A.held up C.came up 答案:D B.put up D.lifted up

2.take off
1)脱掉(衣服等) 2)突然急升;大受欢迎;极为成功 3)起飞 4)休假 5)突然离开 ①Take your coat off and sit down. 把外套脱掉坐下吧。

②I forgot to take off my make-up last night.
昨天我忘了卸妆。

③Sales of home cars have taken off recent years.
私家车的销售量近年来上升很快。 ④I hear the business is really taking off. 我听说生意真的要兴隆了。 ⑤The plane took off despite the fog. 尽管有雾飞机仍照常起飞。 ⑥ I'm taking Thursday off to do some New Year shopping.

我星期四休假去买一些新年礼物。
⑦He took off for the bus station at a run. 他匆忙向汽车站跑去。

⑧Susan took off without saying goodbye.
苏珊没有道别就突然离开了。

链接:
take after(在礼貌、行为等方面)与(某个长辈)想像 take apart 拆卸;拆开 take away 减去 take back 收回 take in 收容(养);欺骗 take over 接管;接收 take up 从事;占据

高考直击
(2009·安徽)We tried to find a table for seven,but they were all________.

A.given away
C.taken up

B.kept away
D.used up

解析:考查了动词短语的辨析。句意为“我尽力想找 一张供七个人用的桌子,但他们全部都被占了”。take up 意为“占去;占用”;give away意为“赠送;泄露”; keep away意为“(使)远离”;use up意为“用完;用光”。 答案:C

即学即用
To tell you the truth, you have________the chance of getting a good job this time. A.thrown off C.thrown away 答案:C B.taken off D.given in

3.by accident 偶然;无意中
We met each other again completely by accident. 我们再次相遇,完全出于偶然。 知识拓展 have an accident 遭受意外 meet with an accident 遭不测;失事 without accident 平安无恙地 by chance 偶然地;意外地

注意:deliberately adv. 故意地
on purpose 故意地 I came here on purpose to see you. 我特地来这里看你。

即学即用
Don't be angry with him; he seldom makes mistakes. He made it this time________. A.by incident C.in common 答案:D B.for no reasons D.by accident

1.In France you should shake hands every time you
say hello and goodbye. 在法国,每次见面与分手的时候都要握手。 1)should表示建议、劝告。 ①We should wait for him for a while. 我们应该等他一会儿。 ②You shouldn't write with a pencil in your paper. 你不应该用铅笔在试卷上写字。

2)every time“每次”,在此处用作连词,引导时间状
语从句。

知识拓展
类似的名词性从属连词还有: each time 每次 the first time 第一次 next time 下次 the last time 上次 by the time 到??时候 the moment/minute/second 一??就??

①Every/Each time I saw him, I found him to be taller.
我每次遇见他,都觉得他又长高了。

②The last/first time I went to China, I visited
Shanghai. 我上次/第一次到中国时,游览了上海。 ③Bring your little sister along next time you come here. 下次来这儿时,把你的小妹妹也带来。

高考直击
(2007·浙江)—My cat's really fat. —You________have given her so much food. A.wouldn't C.shouldn't B.couldn't D.mustn't

解析:本题考查情态动词。句意为“我的猫真 胖。”“你本不应该给它那么多食物。”shouldn't have done sth.“本不应该做某事(暗含实际上却做了)”。

答案:C

即学即用
My parents never remember my phone number, and they always have to look it up________they call me. A.every time C.at the time 答案:A B.for the time D.in a time

2.Mr. and Mrs. Harry Blunkett request the pleasure
of your company at the wedding of their daughter Elizabeth Ann Blunkett to Mr. Jack Humphries, at St David's Church, Landrindod Wells on Saturday March 5th at 17?00, followed by a dinner dance at the Hotel Metropole. 哈里·布伦基特夫妇邀请你参加他们的女儿安·伊丽莎 白·布伦基特与杰克·汉弗莱斯的婚礼。婚礼定于3月5号星 期三在位于Landrindod Wells的圣·大卫教堂举行。婚礼过

后在Metropole旅馆将有一个晚餐舞会。

本句虽然很长,仍然是一个简单句。句中第二个of后
的内容作wedding的定语,说明是谁的婚礼,followed by a dinner dance at the Hotel Metropole作wedding的非限制性 定语。 其中company这里意思是“陪伴”的意思,而不是 “公司”。固定搭配in company with sb.的意思是“和某 人一起”。

1.条件状语从句
常用的引导词有:if(如果,假如),unless(除非,要 不 ?? 就 不 ) , as long as( 只 要 ) , so long as( 只 要 ) , provided(that)( 只 要 ) , suppose/supposing( 假 设 ) , on condition(that)(如果)等。 ①I may not come to see you recently unless I can complete the project ahead of time. 除非我能提前完成那个项目,否则我最近不会来看你

了。(只有我提前完成了那个项目,我最近才会来看你。)
②We can surely attain our goal as long as we are united as one.

只要我们拧成一股绳,肯定能实现我们的目标。
③What shall we do if we can not get the necessary data? 如果弄不到必要的数据,我们怎么办? ④They promised to let us have a meeting in their office on condition(that) we could keep it clean. 如果我们能保持清洁,他们答应让我们在他们的办公 室开会。

提示:
1)在表示条件的状语从句中,既可以用直接陈述语气 作真实条件句,也可以用虚拟语气作非真实条件句。至于 把句子当成哪一种条件句,要依照有关语法规则和表达意 思的需要而定。 (1)表示与现在事实相反的假设时,条件状语从句中的 谓语动词用过去式(be的过去式用were),而主句的谓语动 词用“would/should/could/might+动词原形。”

①If I were you, I should stay home.
我要是你,就呆在家里。

②If he had time, he would attend the meeting.
如果他有空,就会参加会议。 (2)表示与过去事实相反的假设时,条件状语从句中的 谓语动词用“had+过去分词”,而主句的谓语动词用 “would/should/could/might+have done。”如: ①If you had taken my advice, you wouldn't have failed in the examination. 你如果听从我的建议,就不会考试不及格了。

②If you had worked hard, you would have completed
your work ahead of time. 你如果努力工作的话,就会提前完成任务了。

(3)表示与将来事实相反的假设时,条件状语从句中的 谓语动词用过去式(be的过去式用were),而主句的谓语动 词用“were to/should/would+动词原形。” ①If you came tomorrow, we would have the meeting. 如果你明天来,我们会在开会。 ②If it were to rain tomorrow, the meeting would be put off. 如果明天下雨的话,会议就会被推迟。 (4)当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发 生的时间不一致时,动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间来 调整。 If you had gone shopping, you would be very tired. 你要是去买东西的话,就会很累。

注意:如果省略掉if,则从句用倒装形式,助动词提
前。 ①Were I in school again, I would work harder. 要是我能再次上学的话,我会更加努力地学习。 ②Had you been here earlier, you would have seen him. 你要是再早点到这儿,就能看到他了。 ③Should there be a meeting tomorrow, I would come. 要是明天开会的话,我就来。

2)用unless引导条件状语从句时,要注意这个连词本
身在意义上的否定的:unless=if...not...因此,我们在逻辑 上要注意英文句子的用法和中文句子的译法。特别是当主 句是否定句时,逻辑上的意思就成了“否定之否定而表示 肯定”的情况了。 ①I will not go to their party unless I am invited.这个 句子的实际意义等于:I will not go to their party if I am not invited.这就是说,“我不去参加聚会”的条件是“我

没有受到邀请”。“不去”与“没有受到邀请”就构成了
“否定之否定而表示肯定”的情况了。意为:假如他们不 邀请我,我就不会参加他们的聚会。

②He will finish the work in time unless something
unexpected happens. 这个句子的实际意义为:He will finish the work in time if something unexpected does not happen.假如没有什 么意外的事情发生,他将会按时完成他的工作的。

2.让步状语从句
引导词: though, although, as, even if, even though, whatever/no matter what, whenever/no matter when, wherever/no matter where, whoever/no matter who, whichever/no matter which, however/no matter how, no matter whether/if ①I had a good time although(though, even if, even

though)I didn't know anybody at the party.
尽管在这次晚会上我谁也不认识,但我玩得很愉快。

②Although he has a lot of money, yet(still)he is
unhappy. 他虽然很有钱,但他却不幸福。 ③I won't go to the party even though I am invited. 即使我被邀请,我也不去参加晚会。 ④Whatever(No matter what)happens, we shall never lose hope. 无论发生什么,我们都不会失去信心。

⑤Whoever(No matter who)you are, you must obey the
school regulations. 不管你是谁,都必须遵守校规。

⑥Wherever(No matter where)you go, I would keep
you company. 不管你到哪里,我都会陪伴你。 ⑦Whichever book you like on my bookshelf, you may take and read it. 在我的书架上,无论你喜欢哪本书,你都可以拿去读。

注意:
1)英语中不允许在though或although从句后用but。如 果要强调前后两个部分的对比意义,可以在主句前加上yet 或still。 Though he is young, yet he knows a lot. 虽然他年轻,但是他知道很多。 2)as引导让步状语从句,用倒装语序。 Young as he is, he knows a lot.

虽然他年轻,但是他知道很多。

3)当从句主语与主句主语一致,从句中谓语是be或者
从句中主语是it,谓语是be的时候,可以将从句中的主语 与be一起省略。 He didn't want to go there though(he was)invited. 虽然他受到过邀请,但是他不想去那儿。

高考直击
(1)(2010·全国卷Ⅰ,30)The little boy won't go to sleep ________ his mother tells him a story. A.or C.but B.unless D.whether

解析:句意:除非他妈妈讲故事,否则这个小男孩就 不睡觉。unless作“除非??,如果不??”解,引导条 件状语从句。

答案:B

(2)(2010·山东卷,28)The school rules state that no
child shall be allowed out of the school during the day, ________accompanied by an adult. A.once C.if B.when D.unless

解析:句意:学校规定任何孩子都不允许在白天走出 校园,除非有大人陪同。考查连词。unless除非,符合句 意。

答案:D

(3)(2010· 辽 宁 卷 , 31)I A.by C.on B.in D.to

agree

to

his

suggestion________the condition that he drops all charges.

解析:句意:我同意他的建议,条件是他降低费用。
on condition that条件是??,引导条件状语从句。 答案:C

(4)(2010·江西卷,22)—Our holiday cost a lot of money.
—Did it? Well, that doesn't matter________you enjoyed yourselves. A.as long as C.as soon as B.unless D.though

解析:句意:“我们度假花了很多钱。”“是吗?只 要你们玩的开心,那也没有关系了。”as long as只要; unless除非;as soon as一??就??;though尽管。此处

as long as引导条件状语从句,符合句意。
答案:A

(5)(2008·全国Ⅰ)The lawyer seldom wears anything
other than a suit________the season. A.whatever C.whenever B.wherever D.however

解析:本题题意:无论什么季节,律师都穿同一套制 服。whatever表示“(无论做什么或发生什么都没关系,因 为结果都一样)无论什么;不管什么”,相当于no matter what,引导让步状语从句。注意:状语从句省略了谓语动

词is。
答案:A

(6)(2008·重 庆 )All people, ________they are old or
young, rich or poor, have been trying their best to help those in need since the disaster. A.even if C.no matter B.whether D.however

解析:本题主要考查连词的用法。句意为:“不论老 少/贫富,自灾难以来,所有人都在尽最大努力营救受困 者”。此处whether引导让步状语从句,意为“不论/管”。

而even if“尽管/即使”表示的逻辑关系不对,no matter与
however语法上不对。 答案:B

(7)(2008·湖南)________the Internet is of great help, I
don't think it's a good idea to spend too much time on it. A.If C.Because B.While D.As

解析:考查连词。句意为:尽管因特网很有帮助,但 我认为在上面花太多时间不是个好主意。while意为“尽 管”,用来引导让步状语从句。 答案:B

(8)(2009·重庆)Unsatisfied________with the payment,
he took the job just to get some work experience. A.though was he C.he was though B.though he was D.was he though

解析:考查倒装句。though的倒装结构顺序为:adj./n. +though+be+其它,故B正确。 答案:B


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