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高三英语专题复习-阅读理解解题技巧


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高三英语专题复习

英语阅读理解技巧

教学内容
体裁分析能力训练 分析题干能力训练 猜词能力训练 猜答案能力训练

摒弃不良的阅读习惯。 1.“指读” 2.“声读” 3.“译读” 4.“回读” 5.“析读” 6.“参照读” 7.“

视幅过窄” 8.“毛病”(bad habits): 教学过程中,发现学生在 阅读时常做些不利于阅读的坏动作。有的同学晃头、颠腿 、转笔、听音乐、咬指头、趴在桌子上、揪头发等等。

体裁分析能力
高考英语考试中阅读理解的文章一般有这样几种文体,即 记叙文、描写文、说明文、应用文和论述文。不同的文体 有不同的段落组织方式和脉络层次。

记叙文往往按时间顺序展开段落,文章有明显表示时间先后的词语。 阅读时抓住时间这条主线,弄清who、what、where、why与how。
描写文通过细节的描写以画面的方式来反应事物的特征、性质。对 这种文章要迅速弄清其主题,主题词往往出现在各个句子里,贯穿 文章的始末;紧围绕这个主题进行阅读,找到文章与之有关的信息 ,并确定信息与主题的关系。

说明文多见于科普文章,用以解释或揭示事物的状态、特征、演变、 结果及其相互之间的关系,这类文体的文章,首句往往是主题句, 开门见山,说明文章的关注对象:弄清作者的思路和段落组织的方 式;把握次要信息及其与主题的关系。

论述文的阅读难在这种文章处处都渗透作者的个人观点、 态度。阅读论述文应该从文体的写作和结构特点入手. 文章的结构往往容易把握,用主题句开门见山。作者往往
通过信号词(signal words或transitional words)和关联词(referents来 组织段落、文章.对信号词的迅速反应和对关联词的准确判断是至 关重要的;要特别注意区分作者的观点与文章里所提到的人物的观 点,同时注意作者所使用的表示赞同、反对等感情色彩的词汇。

体裁分析能力

细节类问题的命题方式有以下几种: 1)Which of the following is NOT true according to the information in the passage? 2) The author mentions all of the following except . . . 3)Which of the following statements is correct according to the passage? 4)The writer mentions all of the items listed below except ______. 5) Which of the following is mentioned in the passage? 6) What is the example of . . . as described in the passage? 7) The reason for . . .is . . . 8) According to the passage, when (where, why, how, who, etc. ) ... 9)From the passage we know that ______. 10)In the passage, the author states that ______.

分析题干能力

细节理解题: 细节理解题就是我们常见的wh-题,它们大 多是根据 文章中的具体信息如事实、例证、 原因、过程、论述等进行提问的。有些问题 可以在文章中直接找到答案,有些则要我们 在理解的基础上将有关内容系统化才能找到, 比如计算、排序、是非判断、图形比较等。 做此类题的方法一般是先用寻读法找出与问 题相关的词语或句子,再对相关的部分进行 细读,找出正确答案。

1、是非题出题形式: a.三正一误: Which of the following is true except…? Which of the following is mentioned except… b.三误一正: Which of the following is true? 这种做题方法主要与三正一误的下列问法相联系: Which of the following mentioned except… Which of the following is not mentioned…? 这种问题的正确选项所包含的信息通常连续出现在同一段,而且 往往无列举标志词,如first,second,third等。做题时只需阅读 有关段落,根据一个选项中的关键词在其前后找其他两个正确先项 ,剩下一个原文中未提到的,为正确答案。

分析题干能力

分析题干能力
2、例证题 例子为高考阅读理解的常见考点之一,这类题的基本结构为: The author provides in line…(或Paragraph…)an example in order to… 意思是问文中举出某现象或例子的目的。 文章中举出一些例子无非是为了说明一定的道理。关键在于这个例 子在原文出现的位置,但不管如何,这个例子之前或之后不远处通 常都有一句总结说明性的话,这句话就是答案,即举例的目的。如 果例子与全文主题有关,则例证主题,答案为主题句。如果例子与 段落主题有关,就例证段落主题,则答案为段落主题句;此外,答 案为例子前后总结说明性的话。

3、年代与数字: 这个考点有几种出题方式,但不管以何种形式出 现,只要题干问年代与数字,答案就对应于文章中的年代与数字。 4、比较: 比较考点的表现形式主要有: a.比较级与含有比较意义的词汇手段和句型结构; b.表示绝对意义的字眼: first(第一),least(最不),most(最)等; c.表示惟一性的词汇:only, unique等; 阅读最好能圈出表示最高级、惟一性和绝对意义的词汇,便于做题 时回原文定位。

分析题干能力

5、原因:
result, reason;

分析题干能力

这种题的答案在原文通常有一些表示因果关系的词汇手段提示:

result in(结果),result from(由于,
base…on…(以……为基础),be due to (由于); because, for, why; as a result, consequently等。 阅读时对这些提示词应该予以注意。原文相关句出现的格式都是先 说原因,后说结果,而在题干中通常给出结果,就其原因提问。

Invited by Mr. Ye Huixian, host of the well received TV programme “Stars Tonight”, Miss Luo Lin, Miss Asia of 1991,appeared as the guest hostess on the Shanghai TV screen last Sunday.? Born in Shanghai and taken to Hong Kong when she was only six years old, Luo Lin has never dreamed of being Miss Asia. Her childhood dream was to be an air hostess. Before she took part in the competition, she had been an airhostess in Cat hay Airline for seven years. However,it still took her three months to learn the art of walking on the stage, dancing, singing, making-up and other proper manners, designed by the Asia TV Station.? “It’s really a hard job for me. I won’t enter for such competition any more. Anyhow, I am quite lucky. I am also glad to have had more chance to work for the social welfare since I won the title. This time, in Shanghai, I'd love to make a deep impression on my TV audience, " said Luo Lin with a sweet smile.? Q: Which of the following is NOT true?? A. Luo Lin is a native of Shanghai.? B. Luo Lin moved to Hong Kong with her parents.? C. Luo Lin won the title of Miss Asia in 1991.? D. Asia TV Station helped Luo Lin to become Miss Asia.?

解析: A、C 和D都可在原文找到答案,而B项原文列的是: taken to Hong Kong可判断不是moved to Hong Kong with her parents,因此选B。

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主旨大意题的提问方式有以下几种: 1)The general/main idea of the passage is about ____. 2)Which of the following best states the theme of the passage? 3)In this passage the author discusses primarily ____. 4)The passage is mostly about ____. 5)The passage is mainly concerned about ____. 6)What is the main topic of the passage? 7)What is the best title for the passage? 8)The subject discussed in this text is _____ 9)The author’s main purpose in writing the passage is to … ?10)The passage is meant to …. ?11)The purpose of this article is to …

分析题干能力

在解主题大意时,以下方法可供参考。 分析题干能力 1.认真阅读文章的第一段或每段的第一个句子。 2.文章的主题作者往往有意识地反复论述。抓住反复出现的中心词, 即高频词,也叫做主题词。( 04 年全国卷 1 (河南等) E 篇中 major 出现 过八次,尽管其词性、词义有所不同,但它就是关键词)。 3.文章或段落的主题句常常会出现在一些标志性的提示后。 例如:On the whole , in short, therefore… I agree with the opinion that… Given all these points above , I would support the idea that… For all the reasons mentioned above ,I would prefer… 掌握了找主题句的方法,就可以依据主题句归纳主题。但归纳主 题容易出现以下三种错误,需要同学们注意。 1.以偏概全。即只抓住了主题的一个侧面就误以为是主题。 2.过于笼统。即归纳的主题太泛,与细节脱节或是没有对细节 加以充分论证。 3.把观点强加给作者。读者往往根据自己的常识对文章进行判 断而忽视了作者的见解。

如何寻找主题句
Sample 1 People have different tastes in food. Some feel that they haven't eaten a meal unless they have had steak or other red meat. Some prefer chicken or fish and eat one or the other at every meal. Others prefer vegetables and fruits or grains and would enjoy a meal of spaghetti, eggplant, and fresh fruit. Others could live on what were called fast-foods: a hamburger or hot dog, French fries and a soft drink.

(1)主题句在段首
一个主题句常常是一个段落的开头,其后的句子则是论证 性细节。在论说文,科技文献和新闻报道中多采用这种格 式。

Sample 2

Some students prefer a strict teacher who tells them exactly what to do. Others prefer to be left to work on their own. Still others like a democratic discussion type of class. No one teaching method can be devised to satisfy all students at the same time.

(2)主题句也会出现在段尾。作者先摆出事实依据,
层层推理论证, 最后自然得出结论, 即段落的主题。本 段的中心思想在结尾句得到体现,它是此段内容的结论。

Sample 3 Nothing is as useful as a flashlight on a dark night if a tire goes flat. Few inventions are so helpful to a child who is afraid of the dark. In fact, the modern flashlight brings light to many dark situations. Finding something in the back of a closet is easy with a flashlight in hand . A camper also needs one after the light of the campfire has been out.

(3)在短文中间

当主题句被安排在段中间时, 通常前面只提出问题, 文中的主题由随之陈述的细节或合乎逻辑的引申在 文中导出, 而后又作进一步的解释, 支撑或发展.
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有关推理的试题常常包括以下类型: 1) It can be inferred from the text that ______.? 2) From the text we know that ______.? 3) The story implies that ______.? 4) The paragraph following the passage will most probably be ___. 5) The writer’s attitude toward...is ______.? 6)The author implied(suggested)that...

7)It may be concluded from the passage that... 8)Which of the following statements does the passage support? 9)With which of the following does the author agree?

分析题干能力

考作者观点态度的提问方式有: 1)The author seems to think that ______. 2)The writer is trying to present a point of view in ______. 3)The author wants to appeal to _______ . 4)The author’s style is ______ . 5)The author’s tone would be best described as _______ . 6)What is the author’s opinion of ______? 7)The writer believe that________? 8) What is the author's main purpose in the passage? 9)In the author's opinion_________?

分析题干能力

推断题 1.解推断题应注意:? (1)不能以自己的观点代替作者的观点;? (2)推理的根据来自于上下文。 2.解推断题的方法:? 解推断题最主要的方法是根据词义关系推断具体细节。
?

分析题干能力
确定作者态度,可以有两种思路: 1、问全文主体事物的(包括主题),可以根据阐述主题或有关主体 事物的相关句中的形容词、副词或动词确定作者的态度;

2、如果问的是对某一具体事物的态度,则可以定位到具体相关句, 然后确定答案。

Example 1 One day a man walked into a pet shop and said to the shop assistant,“I need two small mice and about five dozen roaches (蟑螂) and two spiders.”? “What do you need these things for?” the shop assistant was very surprised.? “Well,”replied the man,“I’m moving out of my apartment and the landlord insists that I should leave the house in exactly the same condition as I found it.”?

Q: The passage suggests that when the writer moved into the house, it was ______. A. very clean? B. just cleaned by the landlord? C. tidy and comfortable ?D. dirty and full of insects?
解析:他要搬出所租的房子,而房东要求房屋必须是他租进来时的原 样,所以他须买些老鼠和蟑螂等昆虫对房屋进行“恢复”,因此推出 答案为D。

Example 2 Some people are never right. They never have good luck. They usually do the wrong thing and say the wrong thing. And even if what they say or do is OK,they as a rule say it or do it at the wrong time. So these people always have problems. They often break dishes. They sometimes miss buses and airplanes. Mr. Neff is different. He is always right. He is never wrong. He usually has good luck. He seldom has problems. He never breaks dishes. He never misses buses or airplanes. Even if he does miss them,it is always the fault of the buses or air planes. Mr. Neff knows almost everything. He doesn’t ask questions;he answers questions. He never says,“I don’t know.”? Q: Which of the following best describes the writer’s attitude to Mr. Neff?? A. He finds Mr. Neff hard to understand.? B. He thinks Mr. Neff wonderful.? C. He feels pity for Mr. Neff.? D. He does not like Mr. Neff.? 解析:从作者的语气中我们可以体会他的态度,特别是Even if he does miss them,it is always the fault of the buses or the airplanes. 误了车或飞 机本该是人的失误怎能归咎于车或飞机呢?明显是讥讽,也是暗示他 对Mr. Neff的讨厌之情。答案为D。 return

如何根据上下文判断词语的涵义这种题型常见的设题方式有:
1)The underlined word(phrase)in the passage means ____. 2)The word "it(them)"in the first paragraph refers to ____.

3)The underlined sentence in the last paragraph means ____.
4)Which of the following is closest in meaning to the underlined word in the second paragraph?

分析题干能力

(一)根据常识、经验猜生词
例如:

猜词能力

The old man put on his spectacles and began to read. The door was so low that I hit the head on the lintel.

(二)根据上下文解释做出判断:其方法主要有: 猜词能力 1.根据文中的定义、解释猜生词 。例如: Skimming means looking over a passage quickly to get the main idea before you begin to read it carefully. The harbor is protected by a jetty—a wall built out into the water. 2.利用事例或解释猜生词 。例如: The doctor is studying glaucoma and other diseases of the eye. 3.利用重复解释的信息猜生词 。例如: Mr. Smith always arrives home punctually,neither early nor late.

4.根据同位关系进行判断:

猜词能力

阅读中出现一些难词,有时后面就是一个同位语,对前面的词进 行解释,这种解释有时也用连词“or”连接。 a)(NMET2001,D篇)...,and other Germanic and Nordic peoples,who spoke what we now call Anglo-Saxon (or Old English),a Germanic language. b)(NMET2002,A篇)The "Chunnel",a tunnel(隧道) connecting England and France,is now complete.

猜词能力
(三)利用标点符号和提示词猜测词义 One of the obstacles to false reading is vocalizing— saying the words to themselves in a low voice. The early scientific study of chemistry,known as alchemy,grew up in Egypt in the first few centuries A . D.

文章中的代词it,that,he,him或them可以指上文提到的人或物,其中it和 that还可以指一件事。有时代词指代的对象相隔较远,要认真查找;也有时需要 对前面提到的内容进行总结,才能得出代词所指代的事。 例如(NMET2002

(四)根据上下文的指代关系进行选择

猜词能力

, A 篇) 原题第 57 题: What does the underlined word "it" ( paragraph 2)refer to? A.Discovering the moon's inner space. B.Using the earth's inner space. C.Meeting the "moon people“ again. D.Traveling to outer space. 原文:However,the question that " moon people" asked is still an interesting one.A growing number of scientists are seriously thinking about it. 由此可以看出it指上句中的the question,而the question又指第 一段中"月球人"所提的问题。所以根据第一段中的问题"Why are you traveling to outer space when you don't even use your inner space?"就可以判断出答案为B。

(五)根据转折或对比关系进行判断 根据上下句的连接词,如:but,however,otherwise等就可以 看到前后句在意义上的差别,从而依据某一句的含义,来确定另一 句的含义。分号(;)还可以表示转折、对比或不相干的意义。 He has been getting better , but during the night his condition deteriorated.

猜词能力

(六) 根据因果关系进行判断

根据原因可以预测结果,根据结果也可以找出原因。 ( NMET2001 , A 篇 ) Biggest power failure in the city's history… All of our ice-cream and frozen foods melted.
后一句承接前一句,前一句的原因导致后一句的结果。根据因果 关系,停电很可能导致冰淇淋和冷冻食品溶化,所以melted的 词义应为"溶化"。

猜词能力

(七)根据构词法(合成、派生、转化)进行判断 英语中,有很多词可以在前面加前缀,后面加后缀,从而构成一 个词,乍看起来,这个词可能是生词,但掌握了一定的构词法知识 ,就不难猜出它的词义。 例如( NMET2002 , B 篇) Market research shows that Gold and others who buy organic food can generally give clear reasons for their preferences--but their knowledge of organic food is far from complete. 我们知道, prefer 的意思是 " 宁愿;愿意 " ,根据上下文可以 判断 prefer 的名词形式 preference 的含义应是 " 偏爱;爱好 " 。

猜词能力

根据近年来高考阅读理解对同学们提出新的要求,建议同学们在 以下几个方面加强自我训练! 猜词能力 1.猜测熟词新含义 例1: The major market force rests in t he growing population of white collar employees (白领雇员),who can afford the new service.? 例2: “It was the best night we had ever had”, said Angela Carraro, who runs an Italian restaurant. 猜测熟词含义除了要求同学们有较强的语境分析能力外,还要求 同学们有较宽的知识面,对常见有新含义的熟词要弄清其用法,并 将这些词进行简要归纳整理。 2.猜测词性变换新词含义 ? When men and women lived by hunting 50,000 years ago, how could they even begin to picture modern life? 利用熟词的新词性来抽象词义,关键应在理解原词的基础上,分 析它的新词性,并结合原词含义发挥合理想象,从而概括抽象出它 的新词义。

猜答案能力
反问法; 绝对词否决法;答案项中有绝对语气词的一般不是正确答案项。这 些语气词有: must, always, never, the most, all, only, have to, any, no, very, completely, none, hardly等。 怀疑词判断法:选项中含有不十分肯定的语气词一般是正确答案 项 。 这 些 语 气 词 有 can, could, may, should, usually, might, most(大多数), more or less, relatively, be likely to, possible, whether or, not necessarily 等。 关键词对应法
(ABC=ABC法; ABC=A’B’C’法; ABC=CBA法; ABC≠ABD法)

选项中照抄原文的一般不是答案项,而同义替换的一般是选项。

猜答案能力
锅盖法: 较全面、有针对性地表达文章中心思想的,选项一般是答案项。
A. to be more successful in his career B. to solve technical problems C. to be more specialized in his field D. to develop his professional skill B“解决技术问题”;C“深化专业”;D“发展职业技能”。这三项表 达的意思都比较具体,而A项则概括地有深度,包括了B、C、D三项 内容。选项中表达意义较具体的、肤浅的(字面意思)一般不是答 案项,而概括性的、抽象的、含义深刻的是答案项。

猜答案能力
其他技巧: 1.文长题少

2.文短题多
3. 重点读段首句和段未句,看是否有主题句

4.问题要求解答案数字、人名、地名、时间
5. 抓关键词的办法 6.画下不懂的难句

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