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经济学人英汉对照


Contents [2011.12.31] Ron Paul’s big moment 罗恩?保罗的大日子 1 [2011.12.31] Christians and lions 宗教自由:基督徒和狮子 4 [2011.12.31] Foreign languages: The gift of tongues 学习外语的天赋 6 [2011.12.31] Kim Jong Il

少帅金正日 9 [2011.12.29]NHS reform 英国医改 12 [2011.12.27] Vocabulary: Words of the Year 年度词汇 14 [2011.12.26] Rejoice for Utopia is nigh! 庆之,乌托邦已近 15 [2011.12.25] Havel, Hitchens & Kim: Things come in threes 事不过三 18 [2011.12.19] The death of North Korea's Kim Jong Il 朝鲜金正日之死 20 [2011.12.19] Kim Jong Il: Farewell, earthlings 朝鲜宣布金正日的死讯 21 [2011.12.17] Belgian beer: Brewed force 比利时啤酒酝酿实力 22 [2011.12.17]Euphemisms 委婉语向导 29 [2011.12.17] What is the Chinese language? 中文是什么? 36 [2011.12.17] The not-so-naked ape 人类:并非“全裸”的类人猿 37 [2011.12.14] Fantasy turned reality 幻想成真 39 [2011.12.10] The long life of Homo sovieticus 长命的苏维埃人 43 [2011.12.05]Inequality street 不平等的大街 54 [2011.12.03] Tribal Japan 部落日本 55 [2011.12.03] The hopeful continent: Africa rising 非洲崛起 58 [2011.12.01] Crazy sexy Teutonic 狂野而又诱人的德国风格 62 [2011.11.26] William Turnbull: Art's quiet man 安静的艺术家 64 [2011.11.26] Chinese export porcelain 中国外销瓷 66 [2011.11.26] Making aircraft: Full throttle 开足马力 67 [2011.11.26] Cosy club or sword of righteousness?惬意的俱乐部,还是正义之剑? 70 [2011.11.26]Accessories after the fact 事后从犯 79 [2011.11.19] The trouble with Newt 纽特的麻烦 81 [2011.11.19] Joe Frazier 悼一代重量级拳王 84 [2011.11.18] THE BEST TIME: EARLY CHILDHOOD 最佳时代 6 87 [2011.11.18] THE BEST TIME: AMERICA, C.15,000BC 最佳时代 4 88 [2011.11.18] THE BEST TIME: PRINCETON, 1949 最佳时代 3 89 [2011.11.18] THE BEST TIME: JAPAN, 784-1185AD 最佳时代 2 91 [2011.11.15] Thanks but no thanks 谢谢你的提议,不过我们不接受 92 [2011.11.09] THE BEST TIME AND PLACE TO BE ALIVE 历史上最好的时间地点 94 [2011.11.08] Snow Flower and the Not-So-Secret Metaphor “雪花秘扇” 98 [2011.11.05] The Republicans: A dangerous game 共和党一场危险的游戏 100 [2011.11.03]This time they really mean it 这次它们动真格了 110 [2011.10.26] Mormons are Christians 摩门教徒是基督教徒 111 [2011.10.22] A tale of three islands 三个岛的故事 113 [2011.10.22] Adventures in capitalism 在资本主义中探险 124 [2011.10.21]The benefits of early money-laundering 早期“洗钱”的益处 131 [2011.10.17]The occupy protests:Cross continents 跨五大洲的占领抗议 135 [2011.10.15] Winged words 带翼之语 136 [2011.10.13] The editor's inbox 编辑的邮箱 141

[2011.10.12] The birth of the Black Death 黑死病的诞生 143 [2011.10.11] The Nobel prize in economics 诺贝尔经济学奖 145 [2011.10.10] Six things a film actor should never do 电影演员六戒 148 [2011.10.08] Rajoy’s burden 拉霍伊的负担 151 [2011.10.08]The machine wins 机器获胜 153 [2011.10.08] The inkblot protests 墨迹抗议 155 [2011.10.01]Beloved bully 亲爱的恶棍:狄更斯的一生 160 [2011.09.24]Goodness has nothing to do with it 功利主义与善良无关 162 [2011.09.24]Pensions, Ponzis&pyramids 老金,是庞氏骗局还是老鼠会 164 [2011.09.17]Licence to loot 打劫许可证 167 [2011.09.17]Bargain-hunting 找便宜货 169 [2011.09.10]Shape-shifting 翻译——文字转换 171 [2011.09.03]Ground Zero plus ten 原爆点的十年 173 [2011.09.03]Samuel Menashe 纽约吟游诗人辞世 177 [2011.09.03]Game theory in practice 博弈论的应用 180 To Tie and Untie The Knot <原创> 187 [2011.08.27]End-game in Libya: Going, going?卡扎菲穷途末路 190 [2011.08.27]Steve Jobs:The minister of magic steps down 魔法部长卸任 194 [2011.08.20]A burning imagination 伯恩燃烧的想象力 198 [2011.08.20]What's Schadenfreude in Chinese? 幸灾乐祸? 201 [2011.08.15]summer fiction(1)夏日小说 (1) 204 [2011.08.13]After the inferno 骚乱之火后 206 [2011.08.13] Nancy Wake 英国女特工辞世209 [2011.08.13] Politics this week 本周时政 212 [2011.08.13]Emerald blues 爱尔兰蓝调 215 [2011.08.06]Sex selection: Cat got your tongue? 性别选择 哑巴啦? 218 [2011.08.06]An underperforming president 奥巴马的表现不如人意 222 [2011.08.06]Gathered in the marketplace 在奴隶市场上聚集 225 [2011.08.06] Attack of the clones 克隆人来袭 227 [2011.08.06]Time for a double dip?二次探底的时候到了吗? 231 [2011.08.01]The trouble with democracy—and dictatorship 民主与独裁所面临 234 [2011.07.30]Connubial bliss in America 幸福婚姻在美国 236 [2011.07.30]Lucian Freud 一代奇人画師辞世 239 [2011.07.23]Betty Ford 美国前第一夫人去世 241 [2011.07.21]A novel idea 出书新招 245 [2011.07.21]Grape gripes 葡萄嚎啕 246 [2011.07.19]Rupert & James Murdoch before Parliament 默多克父子 249 [2011.07.18]Down to the wire 最后一刻 252 [2011.07.14]Look ahead, not back 向前看,莫回首 254 [2011.07.14]Hacked off 黑客入侵, “大鱼”栽了 256 [2011.07.07]Of penguins and politics “小企鹅”涉政记 258 [2011.07.07]Julian Assange and the new wave 朱利安?阿桑奇卷起新浪潮 259 [2011.07.06]Boxing cleverer 更聪明的出击 265

[2011.12.31] Ron Paul’s big moment 罗恩?保罗的大日子 The obstetrician, numismatist and hater of the Fed and the UN who just might win in Iowa 这位仇 视美联储和联合国的产科医生兼货币学家可能拿下爱荷华 Dec 31st 2011 | from the print edition PEOPLE who say that politicians are all the same may be in for a surprise next week. Heading the polls in Iowa, whose caucuses on January 3rd mark the true start of the Republican race for a presidential candidate, is a 76-year-old libertarian from Texas with a worldview so wacky and a programme so radical that he was recently discounted as a no-hoper. Even if he wins in quirky Iowa, Ron Paul will never be America’s president. But his coming this far tells you something about the mood of Republican voters. A substantial number like a man who wants to abolish the Federal Reserve, introduce a new currency to compete with the dollar, eliminate five departments of the federal government within a year, pull out of the United Nations and close all America’s foreign bases, which he likens to “an empire”. 那些认为天下政客一般样的人们下周可能会大吃一惊。爱荷华州的初选定在 1 月 3 日举行, 标志了共和党总统候选人竞选的真正开始。 而此刻在爱荷华州民意调查榜首的是一位来自得 克萨斯州,76 岁的自由主义者。由于他的世界观太过古怪,竞选政纲太过极端,直到最近 人们都认为他无望获胜而因此忽视他。就算罗恩?保罗成功拿下了怪异的爱荷华州,他永远 也不可能被选为美国总统。但是他能走到这一步很大程度上透露了当前共和党选民的心情。 有很多选民喜欢这个竞选人,尽管他想要废除美联储,引入一种新货币和美元竞争,上任一 年以内取消五个联邦政府部门,让美国退出联合国,关闭美国所有在海外,被他喻为“一个 帝国”的军事基地。 How did such a man rise to the top of the polls? One thing to note is that his support has a ceiling: in no state do more than about a third of Republican voters favour him, though in Iowa’ crowded s race that could be all he needs. Also, liking the man does not require liking his policies. During the candidates’ debates of 2011, Mr Paul won plaudits for integrity. Where slicker rivals chop, change and pander, the rumpled Mr Paul hews to his principles even when they are unpopular. Unlike Newt Gingrich, who seldom misses a chance to play on fears of Islam, Mr Paul insists on the rule of law and civil liberties and due process for all—including suspected terrorists. Unlike Michele Bachmann and Rick Santorum, who adore Israel and can sound impatient to bomb Iran, Mr Paul has no great love for the Jewish state, even though this hurts him with the evangelical voters of Iowa. He opposed the Iraq war from the start and wants America to shun expensive foreign entanglements that make the rest of the world resent it. 这样一个人是怎么上升到民调榜首的呢?值得注意的是他的支持是有上限的, 没有一个州支 持保罗的共和党选民超过三分之一, 不过在爱荷华人满为患的初选中这点支持率可能就足够 让他拿下该州了。同样,喜欢一个竞选人并不代表要喜欢他的政策。在 2011 年的竞选人辩 论中, 保罗因为其刚直不阿而赢得赞扬。 当他的那些更圆滑的对手在见风转舵, 逢迎讨好时, 满年皱纹的保罗坚守其原则, 即使这些原则不受选民欢迎时依然如故。 和从不放过任何机会 来利用人们对伊斯兰教的恐惧大做文章的纽特?金里奇不同,保罗坚持捍卫法制,公民自由 以及所有人,包括恐怖分子疑犯都应经历正当的法律程序。和宠爱以色列,听上去急不可耐 要轰炸伊朗的米歇尔?巴克曼以及里克?桑托勒姆不同, 保罗对于这个犹太国并没有特别的好 感, 即使这种态度会影响爱荷华州福音选民对他的支持也还是一样。 他从一开始就反对伊拉 克战争,想让美国避开那些砸了大钱却又让世界其它国家憎恶的国际纠纷。

These, however, are sideshows compared to the central belief that animates Mr Paul’s politics. Born in 1935, he remembers the tail-end of the Depression and the shortages during the second world war. At five, he and his brothers were put to work helping their father run a small dairy from their basement. His job was to check that the bottles were clean. For each dirty one he spotted, he received a penny. Thus, he says in “Ending the Fed”, the book he wrote after the financial collapse of 2008, was born a fascination with numismatics. This flowered into a preoccupation with the money supply and a lifelong conviction that governments must be prevented from debasing the currency. 不过这些政见和赋予保罗政治理念活力的核心信念相比就小巫见大巫了。出生于 1935 年, 他有对于大萧条时代最后几年的记忆,并经历了第二次世界大战期间的物资短缺。5 岁时, 他和他的兄弟们开始在家中的地下室工作, 帮助他们的父亲经营一家小型奶制品店。 他的工 作就是检察奶瓶是否干净。 他每找到一个脏奶瓶就可以获得 1 美分的奖励。 因此, 他在 2008 年的金融危机之后所著的书《终结美联储》内提到这一经历让他着迷于收集钱币[注 1]。这 种兴趣后来导致了他对于货币供应非常关注, 并且让他产生了一种终生信条-应该阻止政府 贬值货币。 Not all of Mr Paul’s positions are unpopular. Like other conservatives, he defends the God-given right to keep and bear arms, “the guardian of every other right” He is pro-life, which he believes . begins at conception. He champions home-schooling. But only he combines a general dislike of the overweening federal government with a particular, obsessive hatred of what he considers the corrupt system of money at its secret heart. 保罗的政见并不是都不受欢迎。 和其他保守分子一样, 他捍卫上帝赋予的持有及携带枪支权 利,称其为“所有其它权利的守护” 。他反对堕胎,相信生命开始于受孕之时。他拥护在家 教育[注 2]。但是保罗认为在联邦政府那不为人知的中心存在着一个腐败的货币体系,虽然 保守分子大多厌恶骄傲自大的联邦政府, 只有他把这种厌恶和针对货币系统的特定偏执仇恨 结合起来, Pauline conversion 醍醐灌顶[注 3] In 1972, though hard at work as an obstetrician and gynaecologist, he travelled 50 miles to Houston to hear the elderly Ludwig von Mises offer an “inspiring” denunciation of socialism. Several years later he dined with Friedrich Hayek. The good doctor’s conversion to the Austrian school of economics turned him into a crusader who has come to see the operations of the Fed— indeed the entire banking system, with its reliance on paper money no longer backed by gold—as a dangerous confidence trick. The Fed has “ominous powers that Congress barely understands,” he says. “Trillions of dollars can be created and injected into the economy with no obligation by the Fed to reveal who benefits.” Though ending the Fed would take time, this is his panacea: it would end dollar depreciation, remove America’ ability to fund endless wars and stop the growth s of government. 1972 年,即使身为妇产科医生工作繁忙,他还是抽空赶了 50 英里的路前往休斯敦,专程来 倾听年老的路德维希?冯?米塞斯[注 4]的一场讲话。这场讲话围绕在对社会主义的批判上, 内容“很有启发” 。几年之后他曾和弗里德里希?哈耶克[注 5]一起共同就餐过。这位和蔼的 医生在皈依奥地利经济学派之后,摇身一变成为了一名理念斗士,将美联储的运作,以至整

个依赖不再和黄金挂钩的纸币的银行系统看成是一个危险的骗局。他说,美联储拥有“国会 几乎完全不理解的邪恶力量, 它可以印制数万亿美元的纸币注入经济, 且没有义务透露谁是 最终受益者。 ”虽然要终结美联储会花时间,他认为这是一贴万能药:这会结束美元贬值, 令美国再也不能在无止境的战争上砸钱,也会停止政府的膨胀。 One consequence of Mr Paul’s rise in the polls has been a flurry of speculation about his true intentions. Having run for president twice before, he is not naive about politics. He has served a dozen terms in the House of Representatives, failing to find allies for his radical measures. He cannot expect actually to win the nomination, let alone become president. His real aim appears to be didactic: he wants the widest possible hearing for his ideas. And since the financial collapse of 2008, more Americans have indeed been listening. His quest for the Republican nomination that year gave him respectability and an audience he could not reach as the nominee of the Libertarian Party in 1988. 随着保罗在民调中的崛起而来的是大量对于他真正目的的猜测。 过去曾两次竞选总统, 他在 政治上可不天真。 他一共被选担任过十几期的众议员, 却一直没找到支持他的极端措施的志 同道合者。他并不期望自己会赢得总统候选提名,更不要说当选总统了。他的真实目的似乎 是教诲民众:他希望能获得最宽广的平台来传播他的思想。而且在 2008 年金融危机之后, 确实有越来越多的美国人开始倾听他的政见了。 那一年他竞选共和党总统候选人赋予他广泛 的听众群, 并赢得了很高的尊重, 这是 1988 年他作为自由党[注 6]总统候选人所无法比拟的。 How long will Mr Paul stay in the race? Though the nomination may be out of his reach, he has dedicated supporters and the ability to raise lots of money through small donations. That could keep him going longer than most of his rivals, and perhaps give him enough delegates to shape August’s nominating convention in Tampa. Or he could run as a third-party candidate. But that would help Barack Obama, embitter a mainstream party on which he has at last made a big impact and damage his like-minded ophthalmologist son, Rand, now a Republican senator. 保罗会在竞选中呆到什么时候?虽然总统候选提名可能不在他力所能及的范围内, 他还有一 群尽心尽力的支持者, 也有能力通过小额捐款集资。 这可能会让他在初选中比大部份对手都 能走得更远, 也许还会让他赢得足够的选举人票, 影响 8 月在坦帕举行的共和党提名大会的 结果[注 7]。他也可以选择作为第三党人选参加大选。但是那么做将会帮到巴拉克?奥巴马, 招致一个他好不容易才对其产生巨大影响的主流政党的怨恨,也会对他儿子兰德?保罗的仕 途不利。兰德和他父亲政见相似,原为眼科医生,现在是共和党参议员。 As Mr Gingrich has learned, rising poll numbers bring extra scrutiny. The Christmas period has revived interest in a group of newsletters published under Mr Paul’s name in the 1990s, some of which included toxic remarks about blacks and Jews. Mr Paul says that he neither wrote nor approved of those words, and that they do not reflect his opinions. That still leaves him with some explaining to do. It is true that in recent years Mr Paul has stuck to his core principles: sound money, small government, individual liberty and bringing the troops home. But the newsletters shed light on some of the unsavoury fellow-travellers he has collected on his long political road. In the end, Mr Paul’s obsession with the Fed is an anti-government conspiracy theory. And in America, anti-government conspiracy theories attract a lot of wingnuts, some of whom have never read Hayek or von Mises. 正如金里奇已经体验到的,民调上升就会带来更多的详细审查。圣诞节期间一系列 90 年代

以保罗的名字发表的通讯报道重燃了大众的兴趣, 这些报道中的一些含有针对黑人和犹太人 的恶毒言论。保罗指出他既没有写过这些报道,对其中的言论也不赞同,而且这些言论并不 反映他的观点。就算这样他还是得费心给自己解围。确实,最近几年保罗一直恪守他自己的 核心原则:合理的货币政策,小政府,个人自由以及海外撤军。但是这些报道中也透露了保 罗在他漫长的政治道路上结识的一些令人不敢恭维的志同道合者。 说到底, 保罗对美联储的 执著就是一种反政府阴谋论。而在美国,反政府阴谋论会吸引大量的政治疯子[注 8],他们 中的很多可从没读过哈耶克或冯?米塞斯的书。 译者注 1 - numismatics,货币学,虽然 numismatist 一词通常指钱币研究者或钱币收藏家,但是货币 学的真正意义更为广阔,研究纸币,硬币以及一切支付方式的一门学问。对于货币的使用和 发展的经济及历史研究是其不可分割的一部份。 2 - home-schooling,在家教育,或译为在家自学,指不送子女去学校,在家教育子女,通常 是父母担当教导一职,偶尔也可能是家教。在很多,尤其是发达国家这是一种常见的教育方 式, 需要占据父母很大的时间精力, 在家教育的孩子是否学业较为出色这一点目前还有待进 一步考证,正反两面的研究结果都有。在美国一般在家教育覆盖中小学教育,持续到孩子上 大学为止。因为这种教育方式避开了政府斥资的学校系统,很大程度上让父母自己作主,所 以在政治上受到共和党支持。 3 - Pauline conversion,谚语,指门徒保罗(Paul)在感化前(原名扫罗,Saul)本为一名基督 教迫害者,后来在去大马士革(Damscus)路上受到感化,皈依基督教,后来成为基督教早 期的重要使徒之一。该谚语因此指突如其来,改变世界观的巨大变故。其它类似谚语如 Damascene conversion 和 road to Damascus 也是同一意思。 4 - Ludwig von Mises,经济学家,哲学家,古典自由主义者,是奥地利经济学派的重要人物, 1940 年逃避纳粹来到美国,代表作为“Human Action”《人类行为》。20 世纪中期他对于 ( ) 美国的自由主义发展有着深远的影响。 5 - Friedrich Hayek, Ludwig von Mises 的学生, 是 经济学家, 哲学家, 以捍卫古典自由主义, 自由市场资本主义,反对社会主义和集体主义著称。1974 年获得诺贝尔经济学奖,被认为 是 20 世纪最重要的经济学家和政治哲学家之一。对奥地利经济学派影响很大。 6 - Liberty Party,自由党,为美国第三大政党。其政见基本为自由主义,强调最小程度控制 的自由放任市场,高度公民自由,最小程度控制移民,外交奉行不干涉主义。2010 年 1 月 全美共有 151 名自由党人身居民选公职。历史上共有 12 人被选入州立法院,此刻全美只有 罗德岛州众议院内有一位自由党人。 7 - 初选参照总统大选方式,每州初选投票推举出一些代表人(delegates) ,这些代表人可能 受到法律约束要投票给某一竞选人(binding) ,也可能选出的代表人可以自由决定要投票给 谁(non-binding) ,最后在大选前的全国党会(National convention)上所有选出的代表人集 结投票选出该党的总统提名竞选人。今年共和党全国党会定于 8 月 27 日于佛罗里达州的坦 帕举行,届时将定出谁是 11 月总统大选的共和党代表。 8 - wingnuts,美国政治代名词,指一个持有极端,通常是非理性的政治观点的个人。可理解 为“疯子,狂人,极端者” 。在美国政坛,相对左翼该词更常和右翼联系。左翼类似的形容 词包括 Moonbat 和 Loony Left。 另注 - 画中描述的是唐吉柯德挑战风车的故事,象征挑战不可能战胜的事物。 http://ecocn.org/thread-62174-1-1.html 译者:nayilus [2011.12.31] Christians and lions 宗教自由:基督徒和狮子

The world’s most widely followed faith is gathering persecutors. Even non-Christians should worry about that 世界上最流行的宗教信仰正在各处受到压制,即使非基督徒也应对此关切 CHRISTIANITY is growing almost as fast as humanity itself, but its 2.2 billion adherents cannot count on safety in numbers. That is partly because the locus of the world’s largest religion is shifting to hotter (in several senses) parts of the world. According to a report published by the Pew Forum in December, the Christian share of the population of sub-Saharan Africa has soared over the past century, from 9% to 63%. Meanwhile, the think-tank says, the Christian proportion of Europeans and people in the Americas has dropped, respectively, from 95% to 76% and from 96% to 86%. 基督教徒的数量几乎和世界人口数量同步增长,但是,22 亿信徒的众多数量并不能自然地 保障他们的安全。部分原因是,这个世界上最大宗教的地域越益向世界更热的地方扩展(这 里“热”字有多种含义) 。据 Pew 论坛今年 12 月发表的一份报告,黑非洲(撒哈拉以南) 的基督教人口占总人口的比例,在上个世纪中从 9%猛增至 63%。与此同时,欧洲和美国人 口中基督徒的比例却分别从 95%和 96%降到 76%和 86%。 But moving from the jaded north to the dynamic south does not portend an easy future. In Nigeria scores of Christians have died in Islamist bomb attacks, targeting Christmas prayers. In Iran and Pakistan Christians are on death row, for “apostasy”—quitting Islam—or blasphemy. Dozens of churches in Indonesia have been attacked or shut. Two-thirds of Iraq’s pre-war Christian population have fled. In Egypt and Syria, where secular despots gave Christianity a shield of sorts, political upheaval and Muslim zeal threaten ancient Christian groups. Not all Christianity’s woes are down to Muslims. The faith faces harassment in formally communist China and Vietnam. In India Hindu nationalists want to penalise Christians who make converts. In the Holy Land local churches are caught between Israeli encroachment on their property and Islamist bids to monopolise Palestinian life. Followers of Jesus may yet become a rarity in his homeland. 但是,基督教从疲惫的北方向富有活力的南方扩展,并不能预示基督徒在南方的安宁生活。 在尼日利亚, 几十名基督徒在针对圣诞节祈祷者的伊斯兰炸弹袭击中死亡。 在伊朗和巴基斯 坦,基督徒因为“变节” (放弃原来的伊斯兰信仰)或“亵渎”罪被判死刑。在印尼,几十 座教堂被袭击或关闭。 在伊拉克, 战前基督教人口的三分之二已逃离那里。 在埃及和叙利亚, 虽然世俗的独裁者多少给了基督徒一些保护, 但政治动荡和穆斯林的狂热在威胁着那里历史 悠久的基督教团体。此外,穆斯林并不是基督徒遭受磨难的唯一根源。基督教信仰在形式上 的共产主义国家中国和越南也受到烦扰。 在印度, 印度教民族主义者要求惩罚那些变换信仰 转为基督徒的人。在耶路撒冷圣地,当地的教堂受到两方面的夹击:以色列人对基督教财产 的侵蚀和巴勒斯坦人独占耶路撒冷的要求。耶稣的家乡可能会罕见基督徒了。 Compared both with the wars of religion that once tore Christendom apart and with various modern intra-faith struggles, such as those within Islam, little blood is being spilt. But the brutality matters. Even if Western powers no longer see promoting Christianity’s interests as a geopolitical priority, it is hard to imagine American evangelicals ignoring a full-scale clampdown on house churches in China. And whatever their own beliefs, Western voters have other reasons to worry about the fate of Christians. Regimes or societies that persecute Christians tend to oppress other minorities too. Sunni Muslims who demonise Christians loathe Shias. Once religion is involved,

any conflict becomes harder to solve. 与历史上那些基督教徒之间的宗教战争和现代的宗教内部冲突(如伊斯兰)比较起来,目前 对基督教的烦扰还不算太血腥, 但仍然是残酷的。 即便西方大国已不再把扩展基督教作为地 缘政治的优先目标, 仍然很难想象美国的传教士们会漠视中国对家庭教堂的全面禁止。 不管 他们自己的宗教信仰是什么,西方的选民们有其它原因对基督教徒的命运感到关切。因为, 压制基督教的政权或社会通常也会压制其他少数人群。 把基督徒视为魔鬼的逊尼派穆斯林同 样诅咒什叶派穆斯林。只要宗教问题缠绕进来,任何冲突都变得难以化解。 Just don’t call it a crusade 绝非十字军运动[注 2] Among liberal values, the freedom to profess any religion or none has a central place. America’s government is bound by law to promote that liberty. In line with its own ideals, America is rightly as concerned by the persecution of Muslims of any stripe as by the travails of Christians in China or Jews and Bahais in Iran. And it objects when Christian lands, like Belarus, practise persecution. Other more secular Western countries should do more to defend that right. 在自由主义的价值观念中, 信教或不信教的自由有着极为重要的地位。 美国政府有促进宗教 自由的法律义务。基于它自己的理念,美国理应对所有形式的宗教压制感到关切:不管是穆 斯林受到的迫害,还是中国的基督教徒、伊朗的犹太教徒和巴黑伊教派经受的磨难,都是一 样。当基督教占统治地位的国家(如白俄罗斯)发生压制其他宗教现象时,美国同样表示了 反对。其它宗教色彩较淡的西方国家也应当在保护宗教自由上承担更多责任。 What about those who see persecuting other religions as part of their calling? No faith is blameless: from Delhi to Jerusalem many of those stirring up hatred are men of God. But there is a specific problem with Islam. Islamic law (though not the Koran) has often mandated death for people leaving the faith. There are signs of change. The 57-member Organisation of Islamic Co-operation has, with American encouragement, toned down its bid to outlaw “blasphemy” in various UN resolutions. It also condemned the attacks in Nigeria. But more Muslim leaders need to accept that changing creed is a legal right. On that one point, the West should not back down. Otherwise believers, whether Christian or not, remain in peril. 有些人把迫害其他宗教看做是自己的使命,这在各个宗教里都不少见:从德里到耶路撒冷, 很多煽动宗教仇恨的人自称为神意的执行者。但伊斯兰的问题更大一些。依照伊斯兰法(不 是可兰经) ,对于改变信仰的人通常必须执行死刑。不过,现在已经有改变的迹象。有 57 个成员国的伊斯兰合作组织,已不再要求把一些联合国决议中的词句视为“亵渎伊斯兰”和 非法, 这个态度得到了美国的鼓励。 这个组织还谴责了尼日利亚发生的袭击基督教徒的事件。 但是,更多的穆斯林领导人需要承认人们改变信仰的权利。在这一点上,西方不应退缩。不 然的话,宗教信徒们(不管是不是基督教徒)仍然难以摆脱困境。 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[注 1]在基督教早期受到的迫害中,曾有古罗马把基督徒喂给狮子的酷刑。 [注 2]这里是说反对迫害基督徒并不是像十字军东征那样站在基督教立场上反对异教,而是 要反对一切形式的宗教压制。 http://ecocn.org/thread-62095-1-1.html 译者:西米 [2011.12.31] Foreign languages: The gift of tongues 学习外语的天赋

What makes some people learn language after language? 何者吸引一些人接二连三地学习多门语言? Babel No More: The Search for the World’s Most Extraordinary Language Learners. 消逝的巴别塔:寻找世间最卓越的语言学习者 By Michael Erard. Free Press; 306 pages; $25.99. Buy from Amazon.com CARDINAL MEZZOFANTI of Bologna was a secular saint. Though he never performed the kind of miracle needed to be officially canonised, his power was close to unearthly. Mezzofanti was said to speak 72 languages. Or 50. Or to have fully mastered 30. No one was certain of the true figure, but it was a lot. Visitors flocked from all corners of Europe to test him and came away stunned. He could switch between languages with ease. Two condemned prisoners were due to be executed, but no one knew their language to hear their confession. Mezzofanti learned it in a night, heard their sins the next morning and saved them from hell. 博洛尼亚的 Mezzofanti 红衣主教是一个身处于俗世的圣人。尽管他从未演示过任何奇迹而 被正式册封为圣徒,其能力也近乎超自然了。据说 Mezzofanti 可以说 72 抑或 50 种语言, 若说精通则是 30 种。对此,没人能说得准,但总之很多。成群结队从欧洲各地赶来验证他 能力的游客都带着瞠目结舌的神情离去。 他可以轻松地任意在几种语言之间切换。 曾有两个 被 定罪 的囚犯 即将 行刑, 却因 说一口 无人知 晓的 语言 使得最 后的忏 悔无 人听 得懂。 Mezzofanti 用一夜学会了这种语言,并于隔天早晨倾听了他们的罪孽,救赎了他们的灵魂以 免于沦落地狱。 Or so the legend goes. In “Babel No More”, Michael Erard has written the first serious book about the people who master vast numbers of languages—or claim to. A journalist with some linguistics training, Mr Erard is not a hyperpolyglot himself (he speaks some Spanish and Chinese), but he approaches his topic with both wonder and a healthy dash of scepticism. 如此这般,传言之谓。 《消逝的巴别塔》是 Michael Erard 所写的有关于精通或声称自己精通 许多种语言之人的第一本严肃书籍。Erard 先生虽是个受过些许语言学训练的记者,但却并 没有通晓超多种语言的特殊能力(他能说一点西班牙语和中文) ,不过他在处理论题时,即 带着惊奇艳羡,又带着几许健康的怀疑态度。 Mezzofanti, for example, was a high-ranking clergyman born in 1774. In most of his interactions, he would have been the one to pick the topic of conversation, and he could rely on the same formulae he had used many times. He lived in an age when “knowing” a language more often meant reading and translating rather than speaking fluently with natives. Nonetheless, Mezzofanti clearly had speaking talent; his English accent was so good as to be almost too correct, an Irish observer noted. 如 Mezzsfanti 生于 1774 年,曾是高级神职人员。多数情况下,他可能正是在与人交流中掌 握选择话题主动权的人,如此,他便能够仰仗用过许多次的同一种模式交谈了。他所生活的 年代对于“知晓”一种语言的理解更多的是指能读能译而非能够流利地与母语使用者交流。 尽管如此,Mezzofanti 显然还是拥有语言天赋的:一个爱尔兰目击者指出,他的英语口音好 到几乎过了头。 To find out whether anyone could really learn so many languages, Mr Erard set out to find modern

Mezzofantis. The people he meets are certainly interesting. One man with a mental age of nine has a vast memory for foreign words and the use of grammatical endings, but he cannot seem to break free of English word-order. Ken Hale, who was a linguist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and died in 2001, was said to have learned 50 languages, including notoriously difficult Finnish while on a flight to Helsinki. Professional linguists still swear by his talent. But he insisted he spoke only three (English, Spanish and Warlpiri—from Australia’s Northern Territory) and could merely “talk in” others. 为了弄清是否真有人能够学如此多的语言,Erard 先生启程去寻找现代的“Mezzofantis” 。他 果真遇到了有趣之人。 一个心理年龄仅 9 岁的男子拥有大量关于外语单词和词尾的记忆, 但 似乎不能打破英语词序的思维定式。另据说 Ken Hale,这位于 2011 年去世的麻省理工学院 的语言学家,生前学习了 50 种语言,甚至在一架飞往赫尔辛基的航班上学会被公认极难的 芬兰语。 语言专家们至今仍对他的天赋确信无疑。 而他本人确坚称自己只会三门语言 (英语, 西班牙语和沃匹利语——来自于澳洲北领地) ,而对于其它语言,聊聊尚可。 Mr Erard says that true hyperpolyglottery begins at about 11 languages, and that while legends abound, tried and tested exemplars are few. Ziad Fazah, raised in Lebanon and now living in Brazil, once held the Guinness world record for 58 languages. But when surprised on a Chilean television show by native speakers, he utterly flubbed questions in Finnish, Mandarin, Farsi and Russian (including “What day is it today?” in Russian), a failure that lives in infamy on YouTube. Perhaps he was a fraud; perhaps he simply had a miserable day. Hyperpolyglots must warm up or “prime” their weaker languages, with a few hours’ or days’ practice, to use them comfortably. Switching quickly between more than around six or seven is near-impossible even for the most gifted. Erard 先生称真正的精通超多语言者应从掌握 11 门语言算起,而且尽管传言四起,能经受住 考验的实例确少之甚少。成长于黎巴嫩现居于巴西的 Ziad Fazah 曾因会 58 种语言而被载入 吉尼斯世界纪录, 却在一台智利的电视节目中在无准备状态下受到母语使用的突袭, 以至于 完全弄错了用芬兰语、普通话、波斯语和俄语问的问题(包括俄语的“今天周几?”,这个 ) 失败带了的耻辱在因 YouTube 得以长存。也许 Ziad Fazah 是个骗子,也许他那天只是特别 倒霉。 精通超多语言者必须对他较薄弱的语言进行几小时甚至是几天的热身或者说是 “事先 准备” ,才能自如运用这些语言。而迅速地在六、七种语言之间来回切换,即使对于那些天 赋异禀者来说,也几乎是不可能的。 Does that mean they don’t really know them? Is instant availability of native-like competence the only standard for “knowing” a language? How should partly knowing a tongue be tallied? What if you can only read in it? Mr Erard repeatedly peppers his text with such questions, feeling his way through his story as a thoughtful observer, rather than banging about like an academic with a theory to defend or a pitchman with a technique to sell. 这就意味着他们并非真正知晓这些语言么?拥有与母语使用者那样呼之即来来之能用的能 力即是 “知晓” 一种语言的唯一标准吗?该如何评估部分知晓一门语言呢?又如果你仅能阅 读呢?Erard 先生在他的文章中接二连三地提出问题,如一个善思考的观察者根据故事寻找 线索,而非言辞激烈地如同一个专家用理论来辩解或像个宣传员以技巧来销售自己的观点。 Hyperpolyglots are more likely to be introverted than extroverted, which may come as a surprise to some. Hale’s son always said that, in his father’s case, languages were a cloak for a shy man.

Another, Alexander Arguelles, has learned dozens of languages only to read them, saying “It’s rare that you have an interesting conversation in English. Why do I think it would be any better in another language?” Emil Krebs, an early-20th-century German diplomat who was also credited with knowing dozens of languages, was boorish in all of them. He once refused to speak to his wife for several months because she told him to put on a winter coat. 令很多人感到惊奇的是,精通超多语言者们的性格更趋于内向。Hale 的儿子总是说,在他 父亲看来,语言是腼腆者的伪装。另一个名为 Alexander Arguelles 的人会许多种语言却都仅 限于阅读,他解释说“如果你对用英语交谈都罕有兴趣的话,又怎会对说其他语言有更多好 感呢?”20 世纪上半叶的德国外交官 Emil Krebs 也被公认会几十种语言,但不管说哪一种 都是生硬无礼。他曾有一次几个月都拒绝跟他妻子说话仅因为她让他添一件冬衣。 Different hypotheses may explain part of the language-learner’s gift. Some hyperpolyglots seem near-autistic. In support, Mr Erard points to the theory of Simon Baron-Cohen, of Cambridge University, that autists have an “extreme male brain” that seeks to master systems. Another hypothesis is the “Geschwind-Galaburda” cluster of traits. Supposedly resulting from abnormal antenatal exposure to hormones, this cluster includes maleness, homosexuality, left-handedness, poor visual-spatial skills, immune disorders, and perhaps also language-learning talent. Brain areas are also keyed to certain skills. The left Heschl’s gyrus is bigger than average in professional phoneticians. People who learn new vocabulary quickly show more activity in the hippocampus. Krebs’s brain, preserved in slices at a laboratory in Düsseldorf, shows various unusual features. 不同的假说也许能够解释语言学习者的部分天赋。有一些精通超多语言者显现出自闭的倾 向。Erard 先生以剑桥大学 Simon Baron-Cohen 的理论作为例证,即自闭症患者拥有“极端 男性大脑” 以寻求对事物系统性地掌握。 另一个假设则是 “Geschwind-Galaburda” 的特征簇。 这一被推测为因孕期非正常接触到荷尔蒙而导致的特征包括男性向、同性恋、左撇子、立体 空间辨别力差、免疫系统紊乱,也可能是学习语言的天赋。大脑的区域与特定的人体机能相 联系。 专业语音学者的左听皮质区比常人大, 而能够快速学习新词汇的人大脑海马区域较常 人活跃。Kreb 的大脑切片被保存在杜塞尔多夫的一个实验室里,其显示出多种不同寻常的 特质。 The discovery of the FOXP2 brain gene, a mutation of which can cause language loss, was met with considerable excitement when it was announced over a decade ago. But the reality is that many parts of the brain work together to produce speech and no single gene, region of the brain or theory can explain successful language-learning. In the end Mr Erard is happy simply to meet interesting characters, tell fascinating tales and round up the research without trying to judge which is the best work. 十多年前,对 FOXP2 大脑基因突变会导致语言能力丧失这一发现的公布使众人激动不已。 事实上,话语能力是大脑的许多部分共同运作而产生的,没有任何单独的基因、大脑区域或 理论的不同领域可以成功解释语言学习。最后,Erard 先生只能满足于结实有趣之人、叙述 精彩故事和搜集科研的喜悦之情,而非对这些研究的优劣妄加评判。 At the end of his story, however, he finds a surprise in Mezzofanti’s archive: flashcards. Stacks of them, in Georgian, Hungarian, Arabic, Algonquin and nine other tongues. The world’s most celebrated hyperpolyglot relied on the same tools given to first-year language-learners today. The

conclusion? Hyperpolyglots may begin with talent, but they aren’t geniuses. They simply enjoy tasks that are drudgery to normal people. The talent and enjoyment drive a virtuous cycle that pushes them to feats others simply shake their heads at, admiration mixed with no small amount of incomprehension. 然而,在著述的末尾,他在 Messofanti 的档案资料中找到令人惊讶的发现:抽认卡——一大 堆的抽认卡,格鲁吉亚语,匈牙利语,阿拉伯语,阿尔贡金语以及另外九中语言——举世最 著名的通晓超多语言者也要依靠这一现今我们为语言初学者所准备的工具。 结论呢?精通超 多语言者最初确实可能由能力而起, 但他们也并非天才而只是能够对一般人觉得单调乏味的 工作感到乐在其中。 这一由天赋和兴趣所形成的良性循环驱策着他们成就另他人望而却步的 事业,而在得到他人钦佩的同时也伴随着更多的不解。 http://ecocn.org/thread-62090-1-1.html 译者:stella_tang [2011.12.31] Kim Jong Il 少帅金正日 Kim Jong Il, dictator of North Korea, died on December 17th, aged 69 or 70 朝鲜独裁者金正日少帅 12 月 17 日撒手人寰,享年 69 或 70 岁 Dec 31st 2011 | from the print edition IT WAS all bogus, he said once. The gaggle of pretty young women jumping up and down at a state reception, screaming out praises of Kim Jong Il, didn’t really mean it. It was a lie, too, he said, to show North Korean children on television with plump, rosy cheeks singing hymns to the Motherland. It would have been more truthful to show them in rags and starving. But he preferred to maintain the illusion. 他曾说过,这全都是在造假。一群漂亮的年轻妇女在国宴厅上窜下跳,口中狂呼对少帅的赞 美之词,这也只是做做样子而已。他也说,电视上高唱祖国颂歌的朝鲜儿童脸蛋胖嘟嘟、粉 嫩嫩,这也是一派谎言。如果人们看到的是他们衣不蔽体、食不果腹的样子,那才与真相相 去不远。但他情愿让假象继续。 Had he not been born the son of Kim Il Sung—still North Korea’s Great Leader and eternal president—and therefore Son of God, Mr Kim might have been a filmmaker. He wrote a book “On the Art of Cinema” and owned perhaps 20,000 films, of which his favourites were “Friday the 13th” and “Godzilla” Because North Korean films seemed perfunctory to him, he kidnapped . a South Korean director, Shin Sang-ok, to shoot a “Godzilla” of his own devising. There was really no need. He had inherited his own set, North Korea, on which to shoot his own disaster movie: small fat man, with nuclear capability and supreme indifference to the fate of his own people, runs rings round world. 他的父亲金日成大帅至今还是朝鲜的 “伟大领袖” 与不朽主席; 如果不是因为生为 “神之子” , 他或许会成为一位电影制片人。他写过一本题为《电影艺术》的书,据说还拥有两万部电影 拷贝, 其中他最欣赏的是 《13 号星期五》 ( “Friday the 13th” 和 ) 《怪兽哥斯拉》 ( “Godzilla”。 ) 他似乎觉得朝鲜电影难入法眼,就劫持了一位韩国导演申相玉(Shin Sang-ok) ,让他炮制一 部由他设计的《怪兽哥斯拉》 。其实这倒大可不必。世袭得来的朝鲜就是他的布景,他可以 在上面编导自己的灾难大片:一个肥胖矮小的男人,手挥核武大棒,对自己人民的命运漠不 关心,但却力压群雄,冠绝世界。 To many, the plot seemed absurd. The hero was improbable, with Babygro zipped-up suits

stretched over his pot belly, oversized sunglasses, platform shoes and bouffant hair, all adding precious height and heft to his five feet two inches. For years, too, he was invisible: not seen by the world until the 1970s, improbably taking English lessons from Dom Mintoff in Malta, and never heard in North Korea until he came briefly to the microphone, at a parade in 1992, to cry “Glory to the heroic soldiers!” Yet since the 1960s he had been a feared force in his father’s Propaganda and Agitation Department: eliminating internal rivals, possibly plotting foreign assassinations (the Korean Air bombing of 1987, in which 115 died, and the Rangoon bombing of 1983, killing three South Korean ministers, were both attributed to him), building up the cult of his father in statues and birthday celebrations and, incidentally, stoking high the cult of himself. 对许多人来说,这一情节似乎荒谬。他 157cm(five feet two inches)的身高被塞进了包裹全 身、扣子一直扣到领口的套装,还让啤酒肚把它撑得高高隆起;再加上鼻梁上一副大得离谱 的蛤蟆镜,以及脚上的厚底坡跟鞋与蓬松高耸的“云鬓” :哦,这些对提高他的身高可以说 弥足珍贵,但要成就主角?简直荒诞不经。而且他曾多年隐形,直到上世纪 70 年代才为世 人所见,据说是因为一直师从马耳他前总理明托夫(Dom Mintoff)修习英语,但这一说法 可信度不高。他的伟大声音只在 1992 年才初次于朝鲜境内震响,当时他在阅兵式上一下子 拿过话筒高呼: “光荣属于英勇的人民战士! ”但从 60 年代起,他便在大帅的“宣传与煽动 部” (Propaganda and Agitation Department)中成就了令人战栗的威名:排除内部竞争者、可 能策划了在国外的暗杀(人们认为,令 115 人丧生的 1987 年大韩航空公司(Korean Air)客 机爆炸案和令三名韩国部长毙命的 1983 年仰光(Rangoon)爆炸案都出自他手) 、以塑像高 筑与生日庆祝铸就了对大帅的个人崇拜、也顺便搭起了对他自己的个人崇拜。 Sun and fog 骄阳与迷雾 That fairytale film began with his birth, in 1942 in a log cabin frosted with February snow at a revolutionary training camp on holy Mount Paektu: his coming foretold by a swallow, accompanied by a double rainbow and a new star in the heavens. (His actual birth, in Russia’ Far s East a year earlier, was dull and forgotten.) He learned to walk in three weeks, to talk in eight; he wrote six operas and 1,500 books while a student at Kim Il Sung University, and scored five holes-in-one in his first game of golf. Apart from being “the greatest writer who ever lived” and “greatest musical genius”, he was, by diktat, the Glorious General from Heaven, the Guiding Star of the 21st Century, and more than 200 other things. His bad temper could shake buildings; his cheerier moods could melt ice; and on a visit to South Korea fog shrouded him to keep him safe from snipers. 1942 年,朝鲜圣山长白山(Mount Paektu)上的一个革命训练营里,2 月的冰凌霜雪覆盖着 一间原木小屋,他就诞生于那里,我们这一虚幻的影片也同时开始:展翅春燕飞传喜讯,双 重彩虹辉耀蓝天,苍穹新星光灿大地。 (他实际上在此一年前出生于俄罗斯远东,过程平淡 无奇,没有谁还记得起来。 )他出生后三周会走路,八周吐人言;还在“金日成大学”读书 时就谱写了 6 部歌剧,写下了 1500 部书籍;在首次打高尔夫球时便有 5 次一杆进洞。除了 “古往今来最伟大的作家”和“最为超凡的音乐天才”之外,他还坐拥“天授神传的光荣统 帅”“21 世纪的启明星”与其他法定头衔 200 余个。少帅一怒,楼宇摇撼,狼奔豕突;少 、 帅一喜,春风沐雨,冰融雪霁。在去韩国访问期间,他四周迷雾环绕;如斯神佑,狙击手为 之怅叹,威胁消弭于无形之间。 The ideas that guided North Korea—from juche, or self-reliance, to songun, or “military first”,

were also his own great creation, as much as his father’ Both were disastrous in a country which, s. after 1991, had lost its Soviet subsidies and was on the brink of economic collapse. The subsequent famine of the mid-1990s killed perhaps 1m people, or 5% of the population: most from sheer starvation, others from the effects of eating grass. Meanwhile the Dear Leader dined on shark’s-fin soup, gulped sashimi cut from living fish, sent his chefs to Naples to learn the art of thin-crust pizza, and chose wines from a cellar of 10,000 bottles—as well as deciding, in his “warm benevolence”, that the answer to hunger was to breed giant rabbits. 指引朝鲜前进的光辉思想,从“主策” (juche,即“主体思想”,到“颂枪” ) (songun,即 “先军政治”,都是两帅携手的神来之笔,少帅所做贡献不次于大帅。但这两大思想对在 ) 1991 年以后丧失了苏联资助、在经济崩溃边缘上苟延残喘的朝鲜来说都是灾难。随后发生 于 20 世纪 90 年代中叶的饥馑或许让 100 万人,也就是朝鲜总人口的 5%丧生;这些人中大 部分是直接被饿死的,其他的是因吃草果腹而亡。与此同时,朝鲜人民的“亲爱领袖”享用 着鱼翅羹, 品尝着活鱼身上切下的生鱼片。 他派遣厨师远赴那不勒斯学做薄皮比萨饼的艺术, 从珍藏 1 万瓶美酒的酒窖中挑选饮品。同时,出于“温暖的慈爱” ,他给出了“大力喂养巨 兔” 的战略部署以对抗饥饿。 No one advised him. Where his father had accepted counsel, young Mr Kim saw it as a sign of disloyalty. The groups of extravagantly capped commanders who attended him were there to smile fawningly in the background as he made his minute, tireless inspections of cucumbers, cheese, pipe-valves or barley fields. And they were also there to prove that the army was important to the man who had been made head of it, in 1991, without a shred of military experience—unless you counted the cinematic days when, as a child, he trained alongside his father’s fighters with a wooden rifle, and dreamed of killing Japanese with it. That was his best toy until, in 2006, he tested a nuclear device, using it to scare the Americans witless and to pressure the world into sending in food. 他用不着顾问。虽然大帅接受劝谏,但少帅将此视为不忠的迹象。当他不辞劳苦地精心视察 黄瓜、奶酪、管阀或者大麦田时,那一群群头顶奢华帽子的随侍军官们则带着谄媚的微笑远 远地站在一边。他们在那里也是为了证明,军队对这位 1991 年以来便被委任为最高统帅的 人来说是重要的,尽管他没有丝毫军旅经验。如果硬要说有,那只能用一段经历来充数:那 就是在我们的虚幻影片开始后不久, 他与大帅的士卒一起操练。 他当时是一个手持木制步枪 的孩童,幻想着用它击毙日本人。直到 2006 年,那杆木枪都一直是他最好的玩具。而在那 一年,他试爆了一颗核弹,用它把美国人吓得晕头胀脑,逼得全世界都向朝鲜运送食物。 Even as it did so, outsiders mocked him. Inside the country, no one dared. Mr Kim knew exactly how the population lined up: loyal core, 5-25%; wavering, 50-75%; hostile, 8-27%. But those who dissented—even in a whisper, even by hanging his portrait askew—ended in prison camps, subject to forced labour and starvation. Perhaps one in 20 North Koreans passed through Mr Kim’s gulags. Possibly 200,000 remain there. The rest were either brainwashed or, as he said, pretended to be. 尽管情况如此,外界还是嘲笑他。在朝鲜国内可没有谁敢这么干。少帅清楚地知道朝鲜人民 是如何站队的: 忠于他的核心, – 25%; 5 摇摆不定者, – 7 5%; 50 敌对分子, – 27%。 8 但那些与他意见相左的人——哪怕只是小声嘀咕过, 哪怕只是把他的肖像挂歪了——都会被 送入监禁集中营,接受强制劳动、忍受饥饿。或许 20 个朝鲜人中就有一个曾进过少帅的古 拉格群岛[注]。可能有 20 万人仍在那里。其他的人或者已经被洗脑,或者像他说的那样,

假装自己已经被洗脑。 His death, too, might well have been scripted by himself: on one of his beloved trains (he feared flying), as he visited his people to offer “on-the-spot guidance”, while a snowstorm paused, and the holy mountain of his birth glowed red with the rising Sun. “Forgive me,” he once said to Shin, as he half-heartedly apologised for kidnapping and imprisoning him. “I was playing a role.” To the bitter end. 他的死亡或许也是煞有介事地根据他自写的脚本发生的: 那是在一场暴风雪暂停之际, 初升 的朝阳将他诞生的圣山染成一片血色,他乘坐他心爱的一辆火车(他有飞机恐惧症)出外视 察,对他的子民进行“现场指导”“原谅我, 。 ”他曾半心半意地为劫持并监禁申相玉向他道 歉: “我是在扮演一个角色。 ”他把角色一直演到了苦涩的结尾。 [注] 《古拉格群岛》 (俄语原名:А р х и п е л а г Г у л а г )是由苏联作家亚历山 大?索尔仁尼琴写的一部最有力和最有影响的反映苏联奴隶劳动和集中营故事的书。这里的 古拉格群岛代指朝鲜的集中营。 http://ecocn.org/thread-62087-1-1.html 译者:悠悠万事 97 [2011.12.29]NHS reform 英国医改 Under the knife: Paying for priority 开刀手术:谁付钱谁优先 Dec 29th 2011, 11:38 by Under the knife In this series of blog posts, an administrator at a Greater London hospital reports on what life is really like inside the National Health Service 在这个系列的博文中, 一个大伦敦医院的管理员报导了在英国国民医疗保健制度下的生活的 真实情况。 THE health secretary’s recent proposal to lift the cap on private patient income for NHS foundation trusts worries me. It is not the economic arguments which I find concerning: a nifty source of extra income for cash-strapped hospitals would be useful, though some seem to think it would cause the death of the National Health Service. Rather I worry that it would lead to NHS patients being seen less promptly in hospitals that took large numbers of paying customers. 卫生福利及食物局长最近提出的提高自费病人的上限, 将收入纳入医保信托基金会的建议真 正使我担心。 我觉得重点不是经济原因: 一个稳定的额外收入来源对于缺乏资金的医院来说 是很有用的, 尽管有些想想可能会引起国民医疗保健制度的终结。 我更担心的是这将使公费 病人因为医院要接收大量付费病人而更不能及时救治。 Private patients have long been treated alongside NHS ones: my own department sees a few private patients every week, and the care it offers to NHS patients does not suffer as a result. But if the proportion of private patients substantially increased, that could change. 自费病人和公费病人一直是同时治疗的: 我的医科部门每周都要看几个自费病人, 而这不影 响公费病人的诊治。但是如果这个比例大幅提高了,那情况就会有所改变。

The basic problem is that private patients are treated differently (in every sense) to those on the NHS. It doesn’t matter how stringent the rules are about care being assigned according to need and people not being allowed to jump the queue just because they have money, it doesn’t work out like that. 基本的问题是自费病人(从各个方面来说)和公费病人是差别对待的。不管这些关于医疗资 源按病人需要而分配, 以及任何人都不允许因为有钱就插队的规定有多严格都没用, 他们不 按规定做事。 My department’s official policy, for example, is simply to see patients as soon as possible, with the most clinically urgent cases given priority. There are some spare appointments to fit in anyone who needs to be seen at short notice (inpatients, for example), and if a doctor wants a private patient seen then we will squeeze them in if we can, but we won’ bump anyone else down the list t so the private patient gets seen quicker. Simple, relatively efficient and fair. 例如,我的部门的办公政策非常简单,看病尽量快,同时优先临床紧急病例。剩下还有一些 预约,任何短期需要照看的病人都可以预约(如住院病人) 。如果一个医生想看自费病人, 我们就会挤压其他病人的时间。 但是我们不会裁掉看病名单上的任何人来让自费病人看得更 快。很简单,这是效率和公平的相对平衡。 At least, that is the theory. And most of the time, that is what we actually do as well. But when they are treating a private patient doctors are more pushy than they are when treating an NHS patient. I would estimate that consultants are perhaps two or three times more likely to chase up whether a private patient has been given an appointment than if the patient is being treated on the NHS. 起码,那是原则。而且大部分时间里,我们实际上也是按它做的。但是当医生在治疗自费病 人时会比治疗公费病人时更有干劲。 我可以估计出会诊医生追求是否有自费病人预约的积极 性比追求公费病人是否被医治的积极性高两到三倍。 Sometimes, if my department is busy and the waiting time is longer than normal, a consultant will pop into the office and casually mention that they believe we might have a private patient of theirs on our list and they would appreciate it ever so much if we could find a way to get them seen promptly. Only rarely will a doctor overtly say they want a patient to be seen faster because he is a paying customer, but that is the direction I am being nudged in. 有时候,如果我的部门很忙,候诊时间比平时要长,一个会诊医生就会突然进入办公室并且 不经意地提到他们相信我们的名单里可能有一个他们的自费病人, 如果我们能想办法帮他们 得到及时治疗, 他们会感激不尽。 虽然几乎没有医生会公然地说他们想让自费病人能快点诊 治因为他们付了钱,但我一直在被鼓动着朝那个趋势去做。 And sometimes, because it is the path of least resistance, the nudging works and a private patient is seen quicker than would been the case had we been left to our own devices. When the number of private patients is relatively small the impact of this on other patients is minimal, but if private patients constituted a substantial proportion of the people being seen in our department, the pressure to bump NHS patients down the list could be considerable. 因为这么做就不用再受他们的百般阻挠,有时候,这种鼓动就起了效果,于是一个自费病人 就能会比按照我们排的看病顺序更快地得到会诊.当自费病人的数量相对较少的时候这种影

响对其他病人很小, 但是如果我们部门中自费病人在问诊人群中占了很大一部分比例, 公费 病人从名单中被挤掉的压力就会变得很大。 So if the NHS is to take more paying customers, I think we need to introduce stronger measures to ensure that patients are treated according to clinical need rather than ability to pay. At the moment, when money talks, it is hard not to listen. 所以如果英国国民医疗保健制度要接收更多的付费客户, 我想我们需要更多有力的手段来确 保病人能按照他们的临床需要得到治疗, 而不是按照他们的经济能力。 到时候, 当钱开了口, 恐怕很难有人不听的了。 http://ecocn.org/thread-62561-1-1.html 译者:狐狸耳 [2011.12.27] Vocabulary: Words of the Year 年度词汇 Dec 27th 2011, 13:24 by R.L.G. | NEW YORK IT'S that time of year. Fretting about pounds put on over the long holiday break. Throwing Christmas wrapping into the fire. Contemplating gift returns. Beginning to wonder how much you really needed a long break with your extended family (though I must say truthfully that my in-laws are dead easy to spend two weeks with). Wondering which New Year's party will be the best. (My tip: low expectations correlate strongly with fun New Year's Eves. Expectations for the Best Party Ever guarantee disappointment.) 每年都免不了有这个时候。 为长假中吃喝添的膘而烦躁。 收受圣诞节礼物带来的一堆包装纸 需要烧掉。盘算下哪些礼物可以拿去“交换” 。还有,我们真的需要这么长的一个假期跟七 大姑八大姨厮混吗,这倒是要开始想一想了(不过,天地良心,我的姻亲们不讨厌, 跟他 们泡上两周忒容易了。 另外, 还要考虑参加哪个除夕酒会最好。 ) (我的经验是:无论选择 哪个酒会, 都要降低自己的期望,期望越低往往玩的越开心。 抱着非去一个平生最佳的酒 会不可的心理, 注定要失望的。 ) It's also the time of the year when dictionary-writers and lexicographers pick a Word of the Year. I've admitted that I'm not a Word of the Day person, nor am I particularly a Word of the Year person, with a polite and apologetic tip of the hat to a Johnson friend, Ben Zimmer, the New Words supremo at the American Dialect Society. The reason I personally don't get too excited is just how rarely the winners tittilate. A neologism or new sense of a word catches on, unlike the many neologisms that didn't, and lexicographers ratify what everyone else already knew: that lots of people were saying "occupy" this year, or that in Britain, the "squeezed middle" was the top political catchphrase of 2011. Merriam-Webster, being a dictionary maker, picked a word that many people looked up on its website, and so went with "pragmatic" instead of "occupy". Nonetheless, "occupy" is the frontrunner to win the Oscar of WOTYs, that given by the American Dialect Society. 这也是辞典的撰写者和编撰者们开始挑选年度词汇的时候。首先我承认既不热衷于"今日一 词",也不热衷于"年度词汇"。在此,请允许我向 Johnson 专栏的朋友,美国方言学会的新词 权威本?齐默致以礼貌而歉疚的脱帽礼。我个人对此不感兴趣,仅仅因为选出的词很少触动 到我。与许多没有流行起来的新词不同,有一个新词或者一个单词的新意流行起来,辞典编 撰者们认可了其他人已经知道的:今年有许多人说“占领” ;在英国, “受挤压的中产阶级” 是 2011 年最热门的政治标语。作为辞典出版社,梅里亚姆-韦伯斯特公司挑选了一个许多人

在其网站上查阅的词汇,于是“务实”一词取代了“占领” 。不过, “占领”一词依然是赢得 美国方言学会承办的“年度词汇奥斯卡”的热门词选。 But WOTY season does give us a bit of time to talk about what a "word" is. Many people have objected to "squeezed middle" on the grounds that it is a tedious bit of political pandering. But others complain that it "isn't a word", but two words. Two words can be an ordinary phrase, as in "tall tree". Or they can become a compound, with a meaning above and beyond the compositional meaning of the two units. Last month Geoff Pullum wrote on Language Log that the Word of the Year "should be a word" and that "squeezed middle" was merely a compositional phrase. Mr Zimmer replied in rebuttal. So instead of being a Grinch about the WOTY business—I know many of you are wordniks, even if I'm not—I'll do a good turn and recommend this fascinating discussion about wordness. 不过, “年度词汇”季给予我们一些时间来讨论什么是“词” 。许多人反对“受挤压的中产阶 级”入围,因为这一词有种政治迎合在里,略显沉闷。而另外一些人抱怨说这根本就“不是 一个词” ,这是两个词。两个词可以是一个普通的词组,比如“高高的树” 。或者两个词能够 组成一个复合词, 意思将超出两个词汇的字面意义。 上月, Geoff Pullum 在语言日志上写道, 年度词汇“应该是一个词” ,而“受挤压的中产阶级”不过是个合成词组。本?齐默回复时反 驳了这一观点。所以,为了不扫“年度词汇”评选之兴——我知道你们都是单词迷,尽管我 不是——我将送个顺水人情,推荐这次关于词汇的有趣讨论。 http://ecocn.org/thread-62032-1-1.html 译者:migmig [2011.12.26] Rejoice for Utopia is nigh! 庆之,乌托邦已近 Dec 26th 2011, 17:51 by J.D. | NEW YORK ONE hundred years ago an American immigrant invented science fiction. 100 年以前一位美国移民发明了科幻小说。 Okay, that’s not true. Not even close. People have been building fantastic narratives out of scientific gobbledygook since the days of the Greeks. Lucian of Samosata imagined a trip to the moon over 17 centuries before Jules Verne took a whack at it. And decades before 1911 Verne and H.G. Wells wrote the stories that established the contours of the genre: fantastic voyages in space and time, alien encounters, technology run amok, and so forth. The term “science fiction” wouldn’t even be invented until 1929. 好吧,这是假话。和事实相去甚远。自从古希腊开始人们就已经在利用晦涩扭曲的科学用语 编造一些奇幻有趣的故事了。萨莫萨塔的琉善曾幻想过一趟前往月球的旅行,这比儒勒?凡 尔纳尝试这一主题早了整整 17 个世纪。 而且凡尔纳和威尔斯早在 1911 年之前几十年就已经 写下了很多小说,给这一小说体裁打下了基础:例如在时间空间内的奇异旅行,和外星人接 触,科技失控等等。 “科幻”一词则是直到 1929 年才发明出来的。 But the genre as a coherent field of literary endeavour—as the thing that takes up a whole wall at your local Barnes & Noble or Waterstone’s—might not have come to be if it weren’t for a failed inventor-turned-publisher with aesthetic ambitions. Naive, utopian and romantic, a man named Hugo Gernsback ended up establishing a new strand of science fiction, one that helped shape (and was shaped by) the American century.

但是这类小说之所以会变成自成一体的文学体裁, 直至现在可以在你家附近的巴诺书店或是 沃特斯通书店内占据整整一面墙,可能是因为一个人的缘故。那就是雨果?根斯巴克,他的 志向具有审美情趣,先是想当发明家,失败后转行变成了出版商。天真,乐观,浪漫的雨果 最终建立了一种新的科幻小说流派,影响了 20 世纪的发展(同时也受到了其影响) 。 Gernsback had come to America in 1904 with the common immigrant dream of striking it rich. He planned to revolutionise battery technology, but when that didn ’ t pan out he turned to scientific-magazine publishing. He started out with mail-order catalogues for his imported radio-equipment business, but, as the years went on, his efforts took a more explicitly literary turn. Amazing Stories, which he founded in 1926, has a fair claim to being the first magazine dedicated solely to what he called “scientifiction”. It would go on to help define the genre, publishing the debuts of some of its greatest authors. The ever-expanding community of science-fiction readers and fans was so grateful it named its highest honour after him; there isn’ an science-fiction writer t from Asimov to Zelazny who hasn’t coveted a Hugo trophy. 根斯巴克在 1904 年来到美国,胸怀一个普通的移民梦,就是在新土地上大捞一票。他计划 革新电池技术,但是最终那个梦想破灭了,他转而投入科幻杂志出版业。他一开始印刷自己 的进口无线电装置生意的邮购目录,后来他的事业开始向文学方面偏转。他在 1926 年创刊 《惊奇故事》 ,很有资格宣称这是第一份完全出版他所谓的“科学幻想”小说的杂志。这本 杂志继续为这一体裁的确立作出贡献,并出版了历史上最伟大的几个科幻小说作家的处女 作。 日渐壮大的科幻小说读者和爱好者群体对他深表感激, 将科幻小说的最高荣誉以他命名。 只要是科幻小说作家,从阿西莫夫到泽拉兹尼没有一位不曾渴望获得雨果奖。 But in 1911 all that lay in the future—a topic which, to be fair, was something Gernsback was pretty interested in. As a young man of 27, he was witnessing a new century and a newly revitalised country all at once. America’s can-do spirit involved a gleeful embrace of technology (the trans-continental railroad! The wizard of Menlo Park: Thomas Edison! Henry Ford’s Model T!). New inventions, discoveries and achievements seemed to be rolling off the brand-new assembly line every day, and the factual articles of Modern Electrics, Gernsback’s magazine (its name a kind of romantic statement itself), were hardly capacious enough to contain the sense of possibility. And so he turned, diffidently, to fiction. 但是在 1911 年这些事还都只是未来,当然,根斯巴克对于未来的兴趣可不小。当时 27 岁的 他同时见证了一个新世纪和一个刚刚回复活力的国家。 美国的凡事皆有可能的精神中包含有 对于科技的乐于接受 (越洲铁路, 梅隆帕克的巫师: 托马斯?爱迪生! 亨利?福特的 T 型号!。 ) 似乎每天从崭新的生产线上都会产生新的发现, 发明和成就, 而根斯巴克的杂志 《现代电气》 (其名字本身在当时就带有一种浪漫特质) 里面的说明性文字并不足以承载当时那种皆有可 能的感觉。因此,他小心翼翼地开始经营小说。 "Ralph 124C 41+: A Romance of the Year 2660", a novel serialised in 12 parts in Modern Electrics, is arguably the first major work of American science fiction. It was avidly read, in later reprints in the 1920s, by the adolescents who would become the first generation of great science-fiction writers. Gernsback’s story was important and influential, but not without flaws. Jack Williamson, the late, great “dean of science fiction”, conceded upon rereading the book seven decades later that “though Gernsback was not concerned with literary art”, the story was more enjoyable than he had expected.

《拉尔夫 124C 41+:2660 年罗曼史》 ,这是一部分成 12 部份在《现代电气》上连载完成的 小说,它可以说是美国科幻小说的第一部大作。它之后在 20 年代重印,被大批少年们贪婪 地争相阅读, 这些少年中的一些后来成为了第一代的科幻大师。 根斯巴克发表的故事非常重 要,也很有影响力,但并不是全无缺点。已故的杰克?威廉森-伟大的“科幻主任” ,在发表 70 年之后重读该书,承认“虽然根斯巴克并不关心文学艺术” ,这个故事比他预计的还要更 有意思。 Williamson was being charitable. “Ralph 124C 41+” is a bad book. Actually, that’s also charitable. It is, in fact, a terrible book, full of creaky plot concepts, wooden dialogue, flimsy characters and subtle undertones of racism. (The romance between the titular Ralph and a gal named Alice is almost ruined by an evil Martian kidnapper, who flouts the laws preventing inter-racial marriage—laws which, the book implies, aren’t such a bad idea.) It is worth noting that “Ralph” was produced at almost the same time as “Birth of a Nation”. 威廉森是嘴上积德。 《拉尔夫 124C 41+》写得并不好。其实,这么说还算是嘴上积德。实 际上,这本书糟透了,全书充斥着老套的情节,僵化的对话,肤浅的人物以及微妙的种族主 义影射。 (全书主人公拉尔夫和一个名叫爱丽丝的女孩的浪漫故事几乎被一个邪恶的火星绑 架者所破坏,该绑架者蔑视禁止异族通婚的法律,而该书暗示这样的法律并不坏) 。值得注 意的是《拉尔夫》成书于和《一个国家的诞生》差不多的时间。 But all that’ a sideshow to the book’ appeal: its real“romance” isn’ between Ralph and Alice, s s t who are kind of drippy anyway, but between science-loving humanity and the bright, shining future created for them by technological innovation. Like much of the most captivating science fiction, “Ralph” suggests a future that combines the entirely plausible and the insanely far-fetched. This is the main reason the book is so significant (if not quite readable) today. The first real invention suggested in the novel is the Telephot, which, it emerges, is basically Skype mixed with a dash of Chatroulette (the latter by accident: a crossed wire connects Ralph with his love interest, a sign of the novel's structural sagginess). And then there's the Newspaper, essentially an iPad that runs on microfilm; and one of Ralph’s inventions, Permagatol, a gas that helps retrieve people from the jaws of death. 但是对于该书的吸引力来说这些都是浮云: 它的真正的 “罗曼史” 并不在于拉尔夫和爱丽丝, 这两个角色反倒有点烦人, 真正的浪漫是在热爱科学的人类和他们通过科技创新建造的明亮 灿烂的未来之间。和很多最为扣人心弦的科幻作品一样, 《拉尔夫》中的未来既包括了完全 合理的事物,也掺杂了极端牵强的事物。这也是该书今天还这么重要(即使可读性不强)的 主要原因。小说中提到的第一个已经实现的发明就是“电照” ,本质上来说,这不过是 Skype 加上了一点聊天轮盘的味道 (之所以说像聊天轮盘是因为一次意外的错线把拉尔夫和他的爱 人连接在了一起,这正说明了这本小说结构上的松散) 。还有就是报纸机,这个不过就是一 个用胶片驱动的 iPad,以及拉尔夫自己的发明之一,永久气,这是一种可以救回濒死之人的 气体。 Permagatol may seem like nonsense now, but who knows? Gernsback, in his introduction to the 1925 edition, made a reasonable point that catches at the heart of every science-fiction fan. “The author appreciates that many of the predictions and statements appear to verge upon the fantastic,” he writes, but he adds that that’s what readers thought when they read about Jules Verne’s submarine in “Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea”. If anything, Verne had too modest an

imagination, Gernsback added; science was progressing so quickly that “it seems fair to assume that the conception herein described will, 750 years hence, be found to have fallen far short of the actual progress made in the interim.” Remember Telephot, ye Skypers, and rejoice, for Utopia is nigh! 永久气在今天看来可能是无稽之谈,但是天知道以后会怎样?根斯巴克,在他的 1925 年版 本的序言里,提出了一个可以抓住每个科幻迷心的论点。他写道: “作者理解书中很多预言 和描述都是接近幻想的” ,但他也补充了读者在读到儒勒?凡尔纳的《海底两万里》中的潜水 艇时不也曾做如是想。现在呢?他也说,如果有什么不足的话,凡尔纳的想象力其实太有限 了,科学的进步如此之快, “可以很公平地假设书中描述的概念将会远远落后于在未来 750 年之间的实际科技进步。 ”汝等 Skype 用户,忆电照而庆之,乌托邦已近! It’ no coincidence that this gee-whiz, awestruck and optimistic faith in technology is portrayed in s the novel as American. A character admiringly remarks, 750 years after Gernsback’s time, that “You Americans still lead the world?Upon my word, the old saying that 'nothing is impossible in America' still holds good.” Gernsback’ European predecessors were less sanguine about what s the future held, with science fiction that tended towards the dystopian (think about Wells’s "The Time Machine", with its Morlocks, or, for that matter, Mary Shelley’s "Frankenstein" with its out-of-control technology). But Gernsback’s Ralph, however, says confidently that “Today it is not brute force that counts, but scientific knowledge.” 这本书内的对技术的那种惊人且又乐观的信心被描述为是属于美国的这也不是巧合。 书中一 个角色充满崇敬地说道,根斯巴克之后 750 年, “你们美国人仍然领导着世界??我可以保 证,有句老话现在还是没错: ‘在美国凡事皆有可能。”根特巴克在欧洲的前辈们则对于未 ’ 来没有那么乐观,他们的科幻小说经常描述反乌托邦(想想威尔斯的《时间机器》里的莫洛 克人,或者说玛丽?雪莱所写的《弗兰肯斯坦》中的失控科技) 。但是根特巴斯通过拉尔夫之 口,很有信心地表明了“今天蛮力不再重要,科学知识才是王道。 ” Within several years, of course, the Great War would show just how scientific mass destruction could be; but in that brief, shining moment, Gernsback, that heir of Ford and Edison, could spin a dream of better living through technology that seemed to breathe particularly American air. It’s a strain that’s had remarkable resilience through the century; Gernsback’s DNA can be seen in Heinlein and in Asimov and in Avatar (well, the good guys in Avatar, anyway). 当然,几年之内,世界大战证明了科学也可以大规模杀伤,但是在当时那短暂,闪烁的几年 内,根斯巴克,这位福特和爱迪生的精神传人,编织了一个通过科技更好地生活的梦境,似 乎在美国尤为真实。这个梦在 20 世纪长久不衰的延续了下去:根斯巴克的 DNA 可以在海 因来因,在阿西莫夫,在阿凡达身上看到(至少是阿凡达里面的好人那一方) 。 So happy birthday, Ralph. You won't be born for roughly 625 years, but that's no paradox a good work of science fiction can't resolve. 所以祝你生日快乐,拉尔夫。你要再过大约 625 年才会出生,但是这一点矛盾难不倒一本好 科幻小说 http://ecocn.org/thread-62179-1-1.html 译者:nayilus [2011.12.25] Havel, Hitchens & Kim: Things come in threes 事不过三 Dec 25th 2011, 11:58 by Z.P. | NEW YORK

WHEN two prominent opponents of 20th-century totalitarianism die in the same week, that's tragedy. When their deaths are joined (and indeed eclipsed) by the death of a 20th-century dictator, perhaps that is comedy. Or maybe it is still tragedy 两位 20 世纪著名的极权主义反对者在同一星期内相继辞世,这是个悲剧;而他们的逝去跟 20 世纪的独裁者的离世搅在一起(实际上是被掩盖了) ,这可能是个喜剧。或者,这依然是 个悲剧。 Christopher Hitchens, Kim Jong Iland Vaclav Havel died within days of each other. First Hitchens, who succumbed to oesophageal cancer on December 15th, aged 62, a victim of his vices and DNA (his father died of the same disease). North Korea's ailing "Dear Leader" perished on Saturday, aged 69. And on Sunday Havel, who had been battling various illnesses for over a decade, died aged 75. 克里斯多福?希欽斯、金正日和瓦茨拉夫?哈维尔在数天内相继辞世。先是希欽斯,12 月 15 日,他因食道癌离世,享年 62 岁。患病原因一是酗酒,二是遗传——他的父亲死于同一种 病。星期六,朝鲜有疾在身的“亲爱领袖”寿终正寝,终年 69 岁。星期日,哈维尔在与多 种疾病抗争十多年以后溘然离世,享年 75 岁。 But let's forget about North Korea for a second and consider Havel and Hitchens, two singular men, noisy and smart. It would seem there is otherwise little to connect them. In the 1970s and 1980s Havel personally experienced the heavy hand of communism, his time in prison matched only by Hitchens's time in the pub. The Soviet system Havel protested against as absurd was something Hitchens was inclined to romanticise from the safe distance of his perch at the Nation. Havel was a moralist, influential and admired, yet shy and soft-spoken. Hitchens was a skilled and combative rhetorician with an imperious flair. A polarising figure, his support for the war in Iraq (which Havel also supported) ultimately alienated him from the left. Havel was a Czech president; it is amusing to imagine Hitchens running for elected office. 让我们暂时不管朝鲜这茬,来细想下哈维尔和希欽斯,这两位非凡的人——闹腾而聪明。除 此以外似乎没有什么能将两人联系起来。 上世纪 70 年代和 80 年代, 哈维尔经历了共产主义 的严酷镇压,他身陷囹圄的时间跟希欽在酒馆晃荡的时间有的一拼。哈维尔反抗苏联体制, 认为其荒谬不堪;而由于苏联体制苏联鞭长莫及,为《国家》杂志工作的希欽斯却倾向于将 其浪漫化。哈维尔是道德主义者,有影响力且受人尊敬,不过他生性害羞,言语温和;而希 欽斯则是位老练而好斗的雄辩家, 盛气凌人。 他还是一个分裂的人, 由于支持伊拉克战争 (哈 维尔也支持) ,希欽斯最终为左派疏远。哈维尔为一国总统,而想象一下希欽斯竞选公职就 会让人发笑。 Yet both men were effective polemicists, united by their faith in the power of language. Both believed in freedom, the rights of the individual and the uncompromising search for truth. Agree with them or not—and Hitchens enjoyed making it hard to agree—they held steadfast to their opinions. Time and age did not weaken them. Even as Hitchens grew increasingly ill, he had himself helped out of bed so that he could sit at his desk to continue his scribbling. 不过哈维尔和希欽斯都是让人印象深刻的辩论家, 他们对语言的力量有自己的信仰。 两位都 相信自由、个人权利以及对真相的不屈探索。不管你同意还是不同意他们,这两人可谓“固 执己见” (而希欽斯对于别人无法认同其观点还特别享受) 岁月与年龄一点也没有影响他们 。

的坚强,即便是病情加重之时,希欽斯也要独自从病榻挣扎起来,坐在书桌前奋笔疾书。 "Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent," Ludwig Wittgenstein observed. In some cases this silence is imposed, politically and aggressively. Speechlessness is often the self-preserving hush of the powerless and oppressed. It is for these people that Havel and Hitchens often spoke. There is much to mourn now that these men have fallen silent. And the silence that persists in North Korea is eerie. “对于不可说的东西,我们必须保持沉默。 ”维特根斯坦如是说。在某些情况下,这种沉默 是被强加的,靠的是政治外力,充满了敌意。 无言失语往往是无权势和被压迫者为求自保 的本能。 哈维尔和希欽斯正是为这些人常常大声疾呼。 现在, 这两人也逝去了、 沉默了, 这 真叫人可悲可悼。朝鲜的持续沉默令人不安。 http://ecocn.org/thread-62005-1-1.html 译者:migmig [2011.12.19] The death of North Korea's Kim Jong Il 朝鲜金正日之死 One Kim is gone; another takes his place 金正日走了,金正恩来了 Dec 19th 2011, 11:49 by J.A. WHAT happens next in North Korea (or more properly, if dishonestly, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) following the death of its “dear leader” Kim Jong Il? Frankly, Cassandra has , no idea—a state of ignorance, such is the isolation of the country, which is virtually universal. 在朝鲜“亲爱领袖”金正日身后,朝鲜(或者更恰当地,但名不副实的说法——朝鲜民主主 义共和国)将会出现什么局面?坦白地说,卡珊多拉专栏并不知道——由于朝鲜与世隔绝, 这种茫然无知的感觉实际上相当普遍。 We should, I suppose, be alarmed. The “hermit kingdom” must surely be one of the world’s most awful countries: stricken with frequent famine and ruled by a dictatorial regime with a history of nastiness both at home and abroad (remember, for example, the 1983 attempt in Rangoon to assassinate the president of South Korea and the 1987 bomb that downed a South Korean airliner). It also, of course, has long-range missiles and nuclear bombs, though not yet, apparently, the ability to marry the two. In other words, no one—not even their Chinese allies—is anxious to mess with the North Koreans. 窃以为, 我们应当有所警觉。 朝鲜这一 “隐士之国” 是当之无愧的世界最为可怕的国家之一: 常年遭受饥荒,被一个无论在国内还是国外以邪恶一以贯之的政权统治。 (比方说,回想下 1983 年试图在仰光暗杀韩国总统,1987 年韩国飞机爆炸)当然,朝鲜还拥有远程导弹和核 弹,尽管到目前为止,朝鲜似乎还没有能力将这二者结合起来。换句话说,没有国家——甚 至包括朝鲜的盟友中国——愿意招惹它。 Yet the paradox is that it is hard to take the North seriously. As The World in 2012 points out, Kim Il Sung, the “great leader” who was the North’s founding father, is, in fact, immortal and will in 2012 celebrate his 100th birthday. And, as The World in 2011 pointed out, his grandson, Kim Jong Un (pictured), is a podgy, Swiss-educated lover of basketball—just the sort of man to be the North’s new dictator, and even perhaps a villain in a new James Bond movie. Whether he is the sort of man to bring his country in from the cold is, of course, far from certain.

然而认真对待朝鲜这个国家却很难,这是个悖论。正如 2012 世界展望指出,朝鲜缔造者— —“伟大领袖”金日成实际上是永生的,将在 2012 年庆祝其第 100 个生日。并且,2011 年 世界展望指出,金日成的孙子金正恩(见图)是个五短身材的,有瑞士教育背景的篮球爱好 者——他正是那种或将成为朝鲜新任独裁者的人选,甚至可能成为最新詹姆斯?邦德电影里 的反派人物。金正恩能否将朝鲜带离目前这种被孤立的状态,远未可知。 http://ecocn.org/thread-61844-1-1.html 译者:migmig [2011.12.19] Kim Jong Il: Farewell, earthlings 朝鲜宣布金正日的死讯 Farewell, earthlings 人类,再见! Dec 19th 2011, 4:44 by D.T. | SEOUL NORTH KOREAN state media has just announced the death of leader Kim Jong Il. According to the report (on this site, when it's not overwhelmed by traffic), he passed away on Saturday 17th December, at 8.30am, while travelling on a train to visit an area outside of Pyongyang. 朝鲜官方媒体刚刚宣布了金正日的死讯。据报道(见此网站,请尽早访问,免得届时网站因 访问过多而瘫痪) ,他于 12 月 17 日(星期六)早上八点半乘坐火车前往平壤之外访问之时 辞世。 The report, delivered by a tearful, black-clad announcer, claimed that he died due to "an advanced acute myocardial infarction, complicated by serious heart shock," which was caused by "a great mental and physical strain caused by his uninterrupted field guidance tour for the building of a thriving nation." It is of course no secret that he had been unwell for several years, having suffered a stroke in 2008, and often appearing frail in public appearances. 全身黑衣、泪眼婆娑的播音员播报了这一报道。报道称,金正日死于“晚期急性心肌梗塞, 以及并发的严重心脏休克” ,这是“为建设强盛大国,马不停蹄的现场指导累积的巨大心理 和身体压力”导致的。金正日近年来身体状况不佳已不是秘密,2008 年他得了中风,在公 开露面时时常显得虚弱。 Kim’s declining health had prompted the regime to accelerate progress towards the planned succession of his third son, Kim Jong Un. The report itself exhorted viewers to “loyally follow” the Swiss-educated, would-be third-generation leader, whom his father chose ahead of two elder sons, apparently due a ruthless streak that runs beneath his pudgy features. 金正日健康日衰,促使朝鲜政权按既定方针加速向其三子金正恩过渡。报道告诫观者“忠诚 跟随”有瑞士教育背景、即将成为第三代领导人的金正恩。金正日之所以撇开金正恩的两位 长兄选他为继承人,似乎是因为他臃肿的容貌下透出一种残酷无情的神色。 Still in his late twenties, and with very little experience of leadership, the younger Kim may yet face trouble when it comes to grasping the reins of power. Kim Jong Il himself had already been the heir-apparent to his father, the founder of the North Korean state, Kim Il Sung, for almost two decades before he was declared the country’s “Dear Leader” and thrust upon the throne of the Democratic People’s Republic in 1975. Kim Jong Un will have no such luxury. But that does not mean that crisis is imminent. Kim Han-jong, who visited North Korea with South Korea’s

President Kim Dae-jung at a momentous summit in 2000, states we should “not expect Kim Jong Il’s death to be followed by big political change”, owing to China’s apparent support for the regime as well as to the internal efforts to speed up the succession. 金正恩现年还不到三十岁,领导经历十分有限,因此他或将面临掌权的麻烦。金正日在被称 为“亲爱领袖”并于 1975 年坐上朝鲜民主主义共和国王位之前约 20 年,已被其父亲——朝 鲜缔造者金日成选为储君。金正恩可没这么幸运,不过,这并不意味着危机迫在眉睫。2000 年,与韩国总统金大中一起访问朝鲜、出席重要会议的 Kim Han-jong 称,由于中国很明显 是支持朝鲜的,加之朝鲜内部为加速继位作出努力, “我们不要指望金正日之死会带来重大 政治变革” 。 South Korea is however on a state of high alert. The KOSPI index dived 3% at noon, following the announcement. In the coming days, all eyes will be on Pyongyang, and the attempts of one young man to lay his claim to the world’s only communist monarchy. 尽管如此,韩国依然高度警惕。在朝鲜宣布金正日死讯之后,韩国综合股价指数中午下跌了 3%。接下来的日子,所有目光将聚焦平壤,共同见证一位年轻人试图登上世界仅存的共产 主义君主制宝座。 http://ecocn.org/thread-61829-1-1.html 译者:migmig [2011.12.17] Belgian beer: Brewed force 比利时啤酒酝酿实力 How a small, unremarkable country came to dominate the world of beermaking 一个毫不起眼的小国,如何主导世界啤酒酿造业 Dec 17th 2011 | Leuven and Westvleteren | from the print edition THE Trappist Abbey of St Sixtus of Westvleteren has little to offer those wishing to gawp at ecclesiastical architecture. The 19th-century buildings—squat, brick and functional—sit on a quiet country lane amid flat farmland, close to Belgium’ border with France. Yet the vast visitors’ car s park is a clue that some people nevertheless consider the abbey worth a trip. For beer lovers, St Sixtus is a place of pilgrimage. 对于那些只想要盯着宗教建筑的游客来说,位于威斯特佛兰德伦的特拉比斯特派[注 1]圣西 克斯塔修道院没有什么可看。 该修道院位于离比利时和法国边境不远的一处平坦农地内的一 条幽静乡间小道上,其砖砌建筑群都是建于 19 世纪,外型低矮,讲究实用。但是从院外巨 大的访客停车场可以看出还是有人觉得该修道院值得一游。 事实上, 圣西克斯塔是啤酒爱好 者的圣地。 The abbey and its most famous brew, Westvleteren 12—a dark, strong ale—have taken first or second place in an annual poll of beer enthusiasts’ favourite tipples by RateBeer.com, a widely trusted reviewing website, for the whole decade that the survey has been running. Yet exactly how the American drinkers who predominate on the site get to knock back a Westvleteren 12 is something of a mystery. 该修道院最著名的啤酒是威斯特佛兰德伦 12 啤酒,一种色深味浓的艾尔啤酒[注 2]。 RateBeer.com 是一个在啤酒爱好者中口碑很好的啤酒品评网站, 它从十年前开始一年一度举 行排名活动,让啤酒爱好者给他们最爱的啤酒投票。自打该排名开始之后,圣西克斯塔修道 院和它的威斯特佛兰德伦 12 每年在榜上不是第一,就是第二。但是该网站主要的使用者都 是美国饮酒者, 他们到底是怎么搞到一瓶威斯特佛兰德伦 12 痛饮的, 这一点多少是个谜团。

Visit the abbey—no easy jaunt on public transport—and you can drink it to your heart’s content, or your head’s. But it is hard to buy elsewhere. The monks tightly ration takeaway sales of the tiny quantities they produce. The abbey’s website gives details of the brief windows when buyers may attempt to call with an order. If they are lucky and get through, they will be allotted a time to arrive at St Sixtus. They are then permitted to purchase two cases (four dozen 33cl bottles) in return for a solemn undertaking that the beer will not find its way to a third party. 亲自去修道院拜访(不过没有方便的公共交通可以使用) ,你可以喝到心满意足,或者头昏 脑胀为止[注 3]。但是要在别的地方买到就很难了。修道士们本身酿造的就不多,对于访客 可以买走的量更是严格控制。 首先买家要打该修道院的电话预约订单, 接受电话预约的时间 段非常短暂,其细节列在修道院的网站上。如果你运气好,电话打通了,修道院会分配给你 一个特定时间前去拜访圣西克斯塔。然后你可以在离开时购买最多两箱(4 打 33 厘升瓶装) 啤酒,作为交换,你要承诺不会把这些啤酒售让给第三方。 Evidently some people are prepared to lie to a monk for the sake of beer. Cases of Westvleteren 12, on sale at 39 ($53) at the abbey, turn up on online beer-sellers for as much as $800. (In a rare easing of the rules, in November the monks released a batch of 93,000 six-packs for the Belgian market, to pay for repairs to the abbey. Next year 70,000 six-packs will go on sale worldwide.) 当然有些人为了得到啤酒甘愿对修道士发假誓。几箱在修道院售价为 39 欧元(53 美元)的 威斯特佛兰德伦 12 被网上酒商出售,要价高达 800 美元。 (非常罕见的,修道士们 11 月决 定放宽限制,宣布对比利时市场发售一批啤酒,共计 9 万 3 千箱六瓶装,这是为了修道院整 修集资。明年他们也会在全世界发售 7 万箱六瓶装。 ) Pour reputation 誉满全球 As well as having a good claim to brew the best beer in the world, Belgium is also home to the world’s biggest brewer. Anheuser-Busch (AB) InBev, based in Leuven, a small university town half an hour by train from Brussels, turns out one in five of every beer sold around the world. Across the road from head office, the ultra-modern Stella Artois brewery pumps out one of the firm’s best-known international brands. 除了有资格宣称自己酿造的啤酒是世界最好的, 比利时也拥有世界最大的啤酒酿造商。 百威 英博公司总部位于大学城鲁汶, 这是一个离布鲁塞尔只有半个小时火车距离的小镇。 世界上 出售的啤酒每五瓶中就有一瓶是百威英博的啤酒。 在公司总部街对面就是时代啤酒超摩登的 酿造厂,那里生产的时代啤酒是百威英博在国际上最为知名的几个品牌之一。 If St Sixtus fails to match the splendour of a medieval cathedral, the main brewing hall at Stella Artois comes close. The quiet and cavernous interior is dominated by 15 immense stainless-steel brewing kettles, whose column-like spouts soar heavenwards. In different ways both St Sixtus and Stella Artois illustrate the reverence with which Belgians regard their beer. 如果说圣西克斯塔比不上中世纪大教堂的辉煌, 那么时代啤酒的主酿酒厅就差不多了。 安静 空旷的大厅内最显眼的就是 15 个巨大的不锈钢酿酒器,其柱子般的管口高耸直立。圣西克 斯塔与时代酿酒厂以各自不同的方式展示了比利时人对其啤酒的崇敬。 Their country also makes a bigger range than any other—1,131 at the last count. Apart from six

Trappist ales and other abbey beers, it churns out lagers such as Stella Artois and its stablemate Jupiler, the more popular brew in Belgium. Tipplers can also choose from an array of wheat beers, brown ales, red beers from West Flanders, golden ales, saison beers based on old farmhouse recipes, and any number of regional brews. Oddest are the austere, naturally fermented lambic beers of Brussels and the nearby Senne valley, a throwback to the days before yeast was tamed. These anachronisms have survived only in Belgium. 比利时生产的啤酒种类也比其它国家更多,最近一次数共有 1131 种。除了 6 种特拉比斯特 艾尔啤酒和其它修道院啤酒[注 1],比利时也生产大量的拉格啤酒[注 2],例如时代啤酒和同 厂出品,在比利时国内更受欢迎的 Jupiler。饮酒者还有各种其它选择,像是小麦啤酒,棕艾 尔酒,西弗兰德省的红艾尔酒,金艾尔酒,根据古老的农场配方酿造的赛森啤酒以及五花八 门的地方酿造啤酒。其中最古怪的一种就是出品于布鲁塞尔和附近的旋妮山谷,味道干涩, 自然发酵的郎比克啤酒, 它会把人带回到酵母菌还没有被驯服的古老时代。 这种穿越之酒现 在只有在比利时才能找得到。 The country generously shares its creations with the rest of the world. It is one of the biggest exporters of beer in absolute terms and as a proportion of national production (statistics boosted by the worldwide thirst for Stella Artois). More than half the booze it makes is sent abroad. 比利时很大方地把其创造的啤酒拿出来和世界分享。 不管以绝对出口量还是以出口量占国家 生产总量的比例(该比例被全世界对时代啤酒的饥渴拉高)来计算,比利时都是世界最大啤 酒出口国。它生产的啤酒中有超过一半远销海外。 How did a nation that, aside from its mussels and chips, renowned chocolate and reviled Eurocrats (the European Parliament is on the site of an old brewery), has made little impact on the world, come to dominate in beer? The answer lies in Belgium’s hybrid history and culture. 比利时除了其贻贝薯条[注 4],知名的巧克力和倍受辱骂的欧盟官员(欧洲议会就建在一家 古老酒厂的旧址上)之外对世界几乎没有什么影响。这样一个国家是怎么主导世界啤酒业 的?其答案就在比利时错综交缠的历史和文化背景中。 Beer is to Belgium as wine is to France. It is “ingrained in the culture” says Marc Stroobandt, an , expert on Belgian beer. Belgians have been at it for a long time: the Romans are said to have brought brewing to this part of Europe; many Belgian breweries have origins in the Middle Ages. Stella Artois traces its roots to the Den Hoorn brewery, founded in Leuven in 1366: the horn remains on the beer’s label to this day. Sebastian Artois brought his name to the brewery relatively late—in 1717. 啤酒之于比利时,犹如葡萄酒之于法国。用一位比利时啤酒专家,马可?斯特本德的话来说, 啤酒是“扎根于比利时文化之中的” 。比利时人酿造啤酒的历史可长了。据说古罗马人最先 将啤酒酿造带到了欧洲的这个地区, 而且比利时很多啤酒厂的起源都可以追溯到中世纪。 时 代啤酒可以追朔到 1366 年在鲁汶建立的号角酒厂,该啤酒的商标上至今还带着当年遗留下 来的号角图案, 而直到相对较晚的 1717 年才开始在啤酒厂的名字中加入新老板塞巴斯蒂安? 阿尔图瓦的姓。 Geography helped. A beer belt stretches across northern Europe, where it is too chilly to grow grapes that can be turned into half-decent wine. But the climate and the land are excellent for growing barley and hops, the basic ingredients of beer. Belgium is also known for its high-quality

water, vital for turning out good beer. The town of Spa, whose name has become generic, is in eastern Belgium. As Sven Gatz, director of the Belgian Brewers’ Federation, points out, being at a crossroads of Latin and Germanic Europe allowed Belgium to soak up influences from both that can still be tasted in its beer. 地理位置在啤酒的流行上也有所帮助。横跨北欧有一整个啤酒带,那里的天气过于寒冷,种 出来的葡萄连差强人意的葡萄酒也酿不成。但是这些地方的气候却很适合种植大麦和啤酒 花,这些都是啤酒的基本原料。比利时也以其高级水质而闻名,而这一点对于酿出好啤酒来 说是至关重要的。英语中水疗(spa)一词就来自于位于比利时东部的小镇斯帕。正如比利 时酿酒协会的主席斯文?盖兹指出,比利时地处拉丁欧洲和日耳曼欧洲的交界处[注 5],两边 都对其有着巨大影响,这些影响直到今天仍可以从比利时的啤酒中品尝出来。 Herbs such as coriander and liquorice, spices such as ginger, and fruits such as cherries and raspberries, once popular among French brewers, are all still in use in Belgium. This French tradition endured where that country’s influence is strongest, even after hops began to find a role in beermaking. Monastic brewers were disinclined or prevented from using that ingredient—the church deemed hops the “fruit of the devil”. One explanation for this attitude might be the monopolies granted to bishops over the gruyt (as the mixture of herbs and spices was known) that went into beer. An intense medieval PR campaign was waged in the battle between gruyt and secular hops. Hildegard of Bingen, a medieval mystic, favoured gruyt, attacking hops for causing melancholy and the gentleman’s affliction of “brewers’ droop”. 香菜和甘草这样的草药, 生姜这样的香料以及樱桃和覆盆子这样的水果都曾一度在法国啤酒 酿造师之间流行,而这些原料现在仍在比利时使用。即使啤酒花开始被用到酿造中之后,一 些受法国影响最深的比利时地区仍然保存了这些法国传统。 教会称啤酒花为 “恶魔的果实” , 并且不赞成, 甚至禁止酿酒的修道士们使用该原料。 这种态度的一个可能解释是当时主教们 拥有对 gruyt(当时草药和香料混合物的名称)原料的垄断。在教权控制的 guyt 和世俗使用 的啤酒花的战斗中, 教会掀起了一场激烈的中世纪公关活动。 一位中世纪神秘主义者-宾根 的希尔德加德支持 gruyt,声称啤酒花会引起忧郁以及男士问题“酒后阳痿”[注 6]。 Germany’s influence is still discernible, too. The Reinheitsgebot, a Bavarian beer-purity law dating back to 1516, banned anything but water, barley and hops. Where the Germanic tendency is more pronounced, hops have always been preferred. Elsewhere, Belgian brewers continued to try their luck with whatever they could find. 同时德国的影响也是至今亦然清晰可见的。巴伐利亚关于啤酒纯度的法律-《纯净法》可以 追朔到 1516 年。该法律禁止在酿造啤酒中使用除了水,大麦和啤酒花以外的任何成分。因 此德国倾向最明显的比利时地区一直以来都比较偏好使用啤酒花。 而在其它地区, 酿酒者们 还在继续实验使用五花八门的原料。 Almost a national religion 近乎国教 Only here for the beer 只为啤酒而来 Thus the turbulence of the country’s history has stimulated its brewers. At one time or another most of Europe’s great powers have held sway over Belgium; many have left behind influences and flavours. The Dutch, the last outside power to occupy Belgium before the first world war, sent

traders to scour the East Indies for new spices, many of which found their way into Belgian beer. (The Belgians kicked the Dutch out to gain independence in 1830 in part because they objected to heavy taxes on beer.) 由此可见, 比利时的啤酒酿造者们从国家动荡的历史中获得了灵感。 欧洲历史上的强国多多 少少都曾在某一时期控制过比利时, 它们中的许多给比利时啤酒留下了深远的影响和独特的 味道。 荷兰是第一次世界大战之前最后一个侵占比利时的外来强国。 它曾派出大量的商人前 往东印度[注 7]遍地寻找新奇的香料。这些香料中有很多最后都被用在了比利时的啤酒酿造 中。 (比利时 1830 年将荷兰侵略者赶出国土, 获得独立的一部份起因是比利时人受不了荷兰 在啤酒上苛收重税) As the gruyt wars suggest, the institutions of Catholicism played a part, too. Monasteries traditionally brewed beer to sell to support their abbeys, to offer to travellers staying as guests and as “liquid bread”, a source of nourishment during Lent. Until the end of the 19th century, even when laymen ran breweries it was often educated monks who were at the forefront of the art and technology of beermaking. 正如那场 gruyt 大战所表明的,天主教廷机构也在酿造啤酒中扮演了一定的角色。比利时的 修道院有酿造啤酒的传统,啤酒可以出售为修道院集资,也可以作为饮料招待作客的旅人, 在四旬期斋戒期间[注 8]还可以作为营养来源,被称为“液体面包” 。直到 19 世纪末,即使 普通民众可以建立运作酒厂之后,走在酿酒的艺术和技术前沿的往往是受过教育的修道士。 All these factors encouraged experimentation. Aside from herbs, spices and hops, other stranger substances such as mustard, coffee and chocolate have found their way into the country’s beer. Pete Brown, a British beer writer, is only half joking when he sees a common thread between the “strange and mad” brews that are the country’s hallmark and another of Belgium’s relatively few gifts to the world—surrealism. 所有的这些因素都鼓励实验创新。除了草药,香料和啤酒花,其它一些更为古怪的原料,像 是芥末,咖啡和巧克力都被用在比利时啤酒中。当英国一位啤酒作家彼得?布朗说到他在作 为比利时标志的 “古怪且疯狂” 的啤酒和比利时对世界作出的为数不多的贡献中的另一项- 超现实主义[注 9]之间看出了一种共同的思路,他并不是完全在开玩笑。 The number of breweries in Belgium peaked at the turn of the 20th century. By 1907 the country boasted nearly 3,400 commercial beermakers (compared with only around 100 today, or 12 per million people—still pretty generous compared with five per million in America). Belgians could and did enjoy a huge range of beers. 比利时的啤酒厂数目在 20 世纪开始的时候达到了顶峰。到 1907 年比利时夸耀其共有将近 3400 家啤酒酿造商(今天比利时只有大约 100 家,平均每一百万人有 12 家,仍然大大高于 美国的每一百万人 5 家) 。在这种背景下,比利时有条件酿造大量的啤酒种类,实际上它也 做到了这一点。 These brewers had considerable advantages over their counterparts in other countries. In Britain beer was a drink of the lower orders: no such snobbishness obtained in Belgium. Heavy import duties discouraged Belgians from buying French wine. Competition from spirits was blunted by the temperance movement, explains Mr Brown. In Belgium it led to hefty duties on genever, a gin-like drink consumed by the Dutch, hitting its popularity. Brewers, some of whom were also

politicians, managed to escape attack. Belgium’ strong beers owe something to this period: many s brewers upped the alcohol content to console drinkers forced to give up genever. 这些啤酒酿造厂和其它国家的同行相比, 享有巨大的优势。 在英国啤酒是一种下层阶级的饮 品, 比利时可没有流行这种势利看法。 巨额的进口关税减少了比利时人对法国葡萄酒的兴趣。 布朗解释说:当时的禁酒运动[注 10]也减弱了烈酒的竞争。在比利时,禁酒运动导致当时荷 兰人广为饮用的一种类似琴酒的饮料-杜松子酒的酒税大涨, 使其受欢迎程度大受打击。 而 啤酒酿造商中也包括一些政员, 使啤酒成功逃过了这一劫。 比利时的啤酒高度数有一部分原 因可以追朔到这个时期: 为了安慰那些被迫放弃杜松子酒的饮客们, 很多啤酒酿造商提高了 啤酒中的酒精成分。 This lack of alternatives guaranteed brewers a large and thirsty market. In 1900 Belgians drank 200 litres per head, roughly double what Britons and Germans were putting away. Today thirsts have dried up a little: a typical Belgian now quaffs just 84 litres a year. 由于缺乏其它酒精饮品替代,这确保了啤酒酿造商坐拥规模庞大且需求旺盛的市场。1900 年比利时人均每年喝下 200 升的啤酒, 大约是当时英国人和德国人饮用量的两倍。 今天这种 饥渴有所消解,一个普通的比利时人一年只喝下 84 升的啤酒。 The rise of AB InBev began in the halcyon years of the early 20th century. Before the first world war Belgian brewing was still highly fragmented. Start-up costs were low and transport expensive, so local, family-owned firms tended to predominate. 百威英博崛起于 20 世纪早期的和平年代。第一次世界大战之前比利时啤酒酿造业还是高度 分散的。开业成本低廉,交通运输昂贵导致地方家庭酿酒公司主宰了整个市场。 Technological advance led to rapid consolidation. Belgian beers (strictly speaking, ales) were top fermented: the yeasty foam produced in the brewing process sat atop the liquid. But by the end of the 19th century a technique invented in Bavaria and developed in Bohemia arrived in Belgium. Lager, where the fermentation takes place at the bottom of the brewing vessel at a much lower temperature, required much more investment for artificial chilling and longer maturing times. But the clear, golden beer that resulted quickly caught on with consumers. One such was developed by Artois, by then Belgium’s second-largest brewer. Its special Christmas brew of 1926 was decorated with a festive star: Stella Artois. 技术进步带来了快速的业内整合。比利时啤酒(严格说来,艾尔啤酒)过去是桶上发酵的, 酿酒过程中产生的带有酵母的泡沫是位于酒液上方的。 但是到 19 世纪末期在巴伐利亚发明, 波西米亚完善的一种技术传到了比利时。在低得多的温度下,发酵发生在酿酒桶底部,最后 产生的就是拉格啤酒。 这种技术需要大量资金来实现人工冷却, 酿成的啤酒也需要更长的成 熟时间。但是生产出来的透明,黄金色的啤酒很快在顾客中大受好评。当时比利时第二大酿 酒商-阿尔图瓦酒厂开发出一种拉格啤酒。1926 年它的圣诞节特别酿造上就加了一颗节日 星星作为点缀,那就是阿尔图瓦之星(Stella Artois,即时代啤酒) 。 After dominating Belgian brewing for much of the century, at the end of it the firm embarked on an international consolidation before the world’s other main brewers caught on. Interbrew, as Belgium’s biggest brewer was then known, bought Canada’s Labatts in 1995 and merged with Brazil’s AmBev to forge the world’s largest outfit in 2004. The merged firm, InBev, snapped up Anheuser-Busch, maker of Budweiser, in 2008.

在 20 世纪大多数时间内都主导着比利时啤酒酿造业之后, 百威英博在 20 世纪末赶在世界其 它主要啤酒公司还未追上来之前开始国际整合。 当时这家比利时最大的啤酒酿造公司名叫英 特布鲁,在 1995 收购了加拿大的拉巴公司,并在 2004 年和巴西的安贝夫公司合并,成为世 界最大的啤酒公司。合并后的英博公司又于 2008 年和百威啤酒的生产商安海斯-布希公司 合并,变成了今天的百威英博。 These days, as America’ microbrewing boom shows, discerning drinkers are keen to try new and s unusual brews. Belgium’s smaller breweries, with their niche beers, have benefited. 今天美国啤酒自酿文化的兴起表明有鉴赏力的饮客热衷于尝试新颖别致的啤酒。 于是比利时 的小型酒厂和其生产的利基[注 11]啤酒都从中获益了。 Still golden 亦然金灿 On the Grand Place in Brussels stand the ornate guild houses of the city’s ancient trades. The bakers’ and butchers’ houses are now restaurants. Another has become a bank. Yet the brewers’ house is still home to the Brewers’ Federation. 布鲁塞尔大广场上耸立着市里那些古老行业建造得富丽堂皇的行会总部。 面包商行会和肉商 行会现在都已变成了餐厅。 另一间行会已变成了一家银行。 而啤酒酿造商的行会到今天仍然 是啤酒酿造协会的总部。 The ceremony with which Belgian beer is poured and drunk betokens a love of beer that no other country can match. Arguments in a Belgian bar will not revolve around anything so trivial as politics or football. Fierce debate might centre on the correct glass in which to serve a Stella. In its hometown of Leuven it is a flat-sided tumbler; elsewhere only one with diamond mouldings near the base will do. A barman who neglects to inquire whether you prefer your bottle of Duvel shaken slightly to mix in the yeasty lees shouldn’t expect a tip. 从比利时斟啤酒和饮啤酒的仪式就可以看出这个国家对于啤酒有着其它国家无法比拟的热 爱。 比利时酒吧里的争吵不是围绕着政治或足球这类小事。 激烈的争辩中心可能是饮用时代 啤酒应该用怎么样的酒杯。 在时代的故乡鲁汶人们用的是平底酒杯, 在其它地方只有底部附 近有菱形花纹的酒杯才够格。 一位酒侍如果忘记问顾客要不要把点的瓶装督威啤酒先摇晃一 下,让富含酵母的沉积物和酒液混合,那他就甭想要小费了。 Though its brewers have much to celebrate, Belgium as a whole is troubled. Among the most pressing problems is the bitter Wallonian-Flemish political divide that left the country without a permanent government for much for 2010 and 2011. A dissolution of the nation no longer looks impossible. Still, Belgians intending to drown their sorrows at least have an excellent variety of beers with which to do the job. 虽然比利时的啤酒酿造商可喜可贺, 但国家本身目前是困难重重。 最迫切的问题包括弗拉芒 地区和瓦隆地区之间的政治分歧[注 12], 该分歧已经造成比利时 2010 和 2011 两年中大部份 时间都没有常任政府。现在看来国家分裂不再是那么不可能的一件事了。不过,想要借酒消 愁的比利时人至少有大量的啤酒可供选择。 译者注 1 - Trappist,罗马天主教隐修组织,严格遵守圣本笃教诲,因圣本笃提倡隐修人士要自力

更生, 一般特拉比斯特派的修道院都会生产物品出售来自给自足, 啤酒是其中非常著名的一 种。过去修道院啤酒通称为 Abbey beer,因该组织啤酒太过出名,被特列为 Trappist beer, 现在一般 Abbey beer(有时中译阿贝啤酒)专指非特拉比斯特修道士啤酒。 2 - ale(艾尔啤酒)和 lager(拉格啤酒) ,啤酒两大主要种类,主要区别为前者桶上发酵, 后者桶底发酵。艾尔酒历史较久,果味较重,颜色较深,有黑,棕,红等各种品种。拉格酒 历史较短,颜色一般为金黄色,呈透明状,现在中国啤酒一些主要牌子大多是拉格酒。除两 者之外较著名的啤酒种类还有 wheat beer(小麦啤酒) ,即在一般使用的大麦麦芽之外加入 小麦;Lambic beer(郎比克啤酒) ,完全不用人工酵母,采用自然材料自然发酵而成,是一 种远古啤酒。 3 - to your heart's content,谚语,即心满意足的意思。to your head's content 是仿照的幽默 用法,即喝酒除了喝到心满意足,也可能喝到“头满了” ,也就是头昏脑花,喝不下了。 4 - 比利时国菜:淡菜(一种贻贝)配薯条 5 - Latin Europe:指受古罗马帝国影响,现在使用拉丁语系语言的欧洲地区,主要包括法 国,意大利,西班牙和葡萄牙。Germanic Europe:指受日耳曼民族影响,现在使用日耳曼 语系语言的欧洲地区,主要包括德国,荷兰,英国和北欧诸国。比利时传统上一分为二,北 边的一半弗拉芒地区(Flanders)使用弗拉芒语(荷兰语的一种方言) ,南边一半瓦隆地区 (Wallonia)主要使用法语,因此是拉丁欧洲和日耳曼欧洲的交界国。 6 - 俚语,指一种男性性功能障碍,中世纪认为饮酒会引发,现代医学观点认为其原因是 过度大量酒精摄入 7 - East Indies,东印度,16 世纪后欧洲用的一个地理名称,传统上包括印度次大陆,东 南亚,大洋洲诸岛。包括马来群岛和菲律宾,但一般不包括中国,日本和喜马拉雅山以北的 其它国家。 8 - Lent,四旬期,亦称大斋期。基督教的一个重要斋期。具体日期各教派有所不同,大 约是每年复活节前 40 天左右的一段时期。斋戒内容,严格程度各个教派,时期都有所不同。 对应于圣经记述, 耶稣在公开传教之前独自在沙漠中斋戒了 40 天, 期间经受了撒旦的诱惑。 9 - 主要指 19 和 20 世纪比利时的 Les XX(二十人协会)团体,由一帮前卫艺术家组成, 对超现实主义的形成贡献很大。一些著名比利时超现实主义艺术家包括 James Ensor,Paul Delvaux 和 René Magritte 都属于这个团体。 10 - Temperance movement,禁酒运动,19 世纪到 20 世纪初主要是西方国家很有影响力 的一个社会运动,主要致力于批判过度摄入酒精,促进完全戒酒,或是向政府施加压力通过 反酒精法案。 11 - 利基,niche 的音译,利基市场(niche market)有三个特征,一是顾客群是消费者中 较小的一个群体,二是所需要的商品较专门化,有独特性,三是该市场缺少其它竞争者,利 润较丰厚。 例如电视台现在习惯制作专门针对某一观众群体的新颖节目即此类产品, 或称利 基产品(niche product) 。文中指味道较独特,对象为某些特定小众爱好者的啤酒。 12 - 见注 5 背景,2010 年 6 月 13 日比利时大选后,几个政党开始协商内阁组成。由于此 次大选结果非常分散,11 个政党选入议会,没有一个得到超过 20%议席,加上法语政党和 荷兰语政党无法就宪法改革达成共识,协商在 2011 年 10 月 11 日才完成,新政府在 12 月 5 日形成。破了民主国家在大选后形成政府的时间记录。这次政治危机被认为动摇国本,增大 了比利时可能根据语言分裂为南北两国的可能性。 http://ecocn.org/thread-62045-1-1.html 译者:nayilus [2011.12.17]Euphemisms 委婉语向导 Making murder respectable

让谋杀看起来正派 Phoney politeness and muddled messages: a guide to euphemisms 假装的礼貌和混乱的信息: 委婉语导引 Dec 17th 2011 | from the print edition SHORT sharp terms make big points clear. But people often prefer to soften their speech with euphemism: a mixture of abstraction, metaphor, slang and understatement that offers protection against the offensive, harsh or blunt. In 1945, in one of history’s greatest euphemisms, Emperor Hirohito informed his subjects of their country’ unconditional surrender (after two atomic bombs, s the loss of 3m people and with invasion looming) with the words, “The war situation has developed not necessarily to Japan’s advantage.” 简短而辛辣的言辞有助于廓清重要的论点。 可是人们往往喜欢软化自己的话语,使用婉言 隐语:婉言隐语乃是一堆混杂之物, 包括概念抽象, 隐喻比拟, 市井俚俗以及言不尽意 的轻描淡写, 以此掩饰无礼, 缓和刺耳, 减轻唐突。裕仁天皇于 1945 年向国民发表日本 (遭到两颗原子弹轰炸,三百万人丧生,亡国之危迫在眉睫之后)无条件投降诏书的时候这 样说: “战事未必对日本有利” 。这是历史上最著名的委婉语之一。 Euphemisms range promiscuously, from diplomacy (“the minister is indisposed”, meaning he won’t be coming) to the bedroom (a grande horizontale in France is a notable courtesan). But it is possible to attempt a euphemistic taxonomy. One way to categorise them is ethical. In “Politics and the English Language”, George Orwell wrote that obfuscatory political language is designed “to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable”. Some euphemisms do distort and mislead; but some are motivated by kindness. 从交际辞令( “部长有些不舒服”意味着他不会来了)到两性关系(横陈贵体在法语里是艳 名四播的贵胄情妇) ,委婉语涉及范围极广。不过我们可以把委婉语进行分类。一种方法是 按照道德标准分类。乔治?奥威尔(George Orwell )在《政治和英语》 (Politics and the English Language)一书中写道,含糊不清的政治语言可以使“谎言听起来真实可信,让谋杀看起来 正派合理。 ”有些委婉语起到了曲解和误导的作用,不过有些则出自善意的驱使。 Another way to typify them is by theme. A third—and a useful way to begin—is by nationality. A euphemism is a kind of lie, and the lies peoples and countries tell themselves are revealing. 第三种方法是按照国家分类,初级分类用此相当有效。委婉语实际上就是谎言,研究人们和 国家对自己编一些什么谎言可以揭示不少的东西。 American euphemisms are in a class of their own, principally because they seem to involve words that few would find offensive to start with, replaced by phrases that are meaninglessly ambiguous: bathroom tissue for lavatory paper, dental appliances for false teeth, previously owned rather than used, wellness centres for hospitals, which conduct procedures not operations. As the late George Carlin, an American comedian, noted, people used to get old and die. Now they become first preelderly, then senior citizens and pass away in a terminal episode or (if doctors botch their treatment) after a therapeutic misadventure. These bespeak a national yearning for perfection, bodily and otherwise.

美式委婉语自成一格, 主要原因在于这种委婉语压根儿用的就是一些难以得罪人的词儿, 随 后几经置换,代以一些没有意义且含糊不清的措辞:把便纸说成浴纱,把假牙说成牙具,把 旧货说成曾用,把看病医院说成健康中心,在那里,开刀手术就是程序执行。正如已故美国 喜剧演员乔治?卡林(George Carlin)所说:过去,人们老去而死。现在,他们先变成 前长 者,随后成为 资深者,最后要嘛在人生逆旅之末隐没,要嘛在治疗意外后(如果医生的治 疗失误)仙逝。这些委婉语都彰显出一个民族对于完美-----无论是身体上的还是别的方面的 完美------的追求。 Sensitive China, perfidious Albion 中国:敏感。英国:狡猾 Some Chinese euphemisms also stem from squeamishness. Rather than inquire about a patient’s sex life, doctors may ask if you have much time for fang shi (room business). Online sites sell qingqu yongpin, literally “interesting love products”. 有些中国委婉语同样脱胎于拘谨这一因素。医生询问病人时不会说“性生活” ,而是问是不 是“房事”过密。网络商城销售的是“情趣用品” 。 But Chinese circumlocution is often a form of polite opacity. Chinese people don’t like being too direct in turning down invitations or (as many journalists find) requests for interviews. So they will frequently reply that something is bu fangbian (not convenient). This does not mean reapply in a few weeks’ time. It means they don’ want to do it, ever. If they don’ want to tell you what t t is going on they will say vaguely they are bu qingchu: literally “I’m not clear.” 不过中国人讲话喜欢兜圈子, 他们通常都是出于礼貌性才会讲些难懂的话。 中国人不喜欢直 接拒绝邀请或者采访要求(许多记者均有此感) 。于是他们常说“有些不方便” 。这样说可不 是为了过几个星期再约时间, 而是说他们根本没有此意。 如果他们不想告诉你发生了什么事 情,他们会含糊地说“不清楚” 。 One feature of Chinese euphemisms comes from the tonal nature of the language. Yan is slang for cigarettes; jiu means alcohol. But, with different tones, the two syllables together can also mean “to research” So a corrupt official being asked to do something might suggest, “Let’ research . s (yanjiu) this issue together”, by which he would probably mean, “Give me some cigarettes and some alcohol and I’ll make it happen.” 中国式委婉语的特点之一源于中文的发音特质。香烟的俚语是烟,酒精饮料的俚语是酒。这 两个词和在一起的就是“研究” (烟酒) ,音调就大不相同了。某个贪腐官员想要贪污时就会 说“我们一起研究(烟酒)这件事情。 ”他的意思其实是“送我烟和酒,我就帮你办事。 ” The British are probably the world champions of euphemism. The best of these are widely understood (at least among natives), creating a pleasant sense of complicity between the euphemist and his audience. British newspaper obituaries are a rich seam: nobody likes to speak ill of the dead, yet many enjoy a hint of the truth about the person who has “passed away”. A drunkard will be described as “convivial” or “cheery”. Unbearably garrulous is “sociable” or the dread “ebullient”; “lively wit” means a penchant for telling cruel and unfunny stories. “Austere” and “reserved” mean joyless and depressed. Someone with a foul temper “did not suffer fools gladly”The priapic will have“enjoyed female company” nymphomania is“notable . ;

vivacity”. Uncontrollable appetites of all sorts may earn the ultimate accolade: “He lived life to the full.” 英国在使用委婉语方面可谓全世界无人能及。 一些最妙的委婉语通俗易懂 (至少英国本地人 能够明白) 。说委婉语的人和听众之间达成了某种愉悦的共通关系。英国报纸刊登的讣告可 谓最佳范例,人们不愿意诋毁死者, “仙逝者”哪怕是一丝的美德都会得到大加赞赏。醉汉 在人们口中成了“convivial(意为怡然自得) ”或“cheery(意为兴致很高) ”的人。那那些 唠唠叨叨令人不胜其烦的人就是很“sociable(意为合群),严重的可以是“ebullient(意为 ” 热情洋溢), ” “lively wit(意为活泼机智) ”是说有些人偏爱讲些惹人反感、无聊至极的事情。 “Austere(意为朴素) ”和“reserved(意味含蓄) ”则说明无趣与压抑。脾气暴躁的人则是 “did not suffer fools gladly(意为没有耐心与蠢人周旋) 。色男被称为“enjoyed female ” company (意为喜欢女性陪伴)“notable vivacity(意为众人皆知的活泼) 。 ”指荡女。放任 欲望不加约束则会赢得终极赞誉: “He lived life to the full(意为他的人生完满无憾)。 ” Such euphemisms are a pleasant echo of an age when private lives enjoyed a degree of protective discretion that now seems unimaginable in Britain. That left room for “a confirmed bachelor” (a homosexual) or someone “” (leaving the reader guessing whether the problem was indecent exposure, adultery or cross-dressing). 这些委婉语是英国私生活依然处于受保护时代发出的快乐回响, 而这种保护态度现在则不能 想象。 左边的房间是给那些 confirmed bachelor 意为确定无疑的单身汉) “a ( 即同性恋者” 或 者“burdened by occasional irregularities in his private life(意为在私生乎中偶尔犯规而背负重 担) ”的人(让读者去猜到底是露阴癖,通奸者还是易装癖) 。 Writing about dead people is a question only of taste, because they can’t sue. Describing the living (especially in libel-happy jurisdictions such as England) requires prudence. “Thirsty” applied to a British public figure usually means heavy drinking; “tired and emotional” (a term that has moved from the pages of Private Eye, a satirical magazine, into general parlance) means visibly drunk. “Hands-on mentoring” of a junior colleague can be code for an affair, hopefully not coupled with a“volatile”personality, which means terrifying eruptions of temper. References to “rumbustious” business practices or “controversial”, “murky” and “questionable” conduct usually mean the journalist believes something illegal is going on, but couldn’ stand it up t in court if sued. 描写死者纯属品味问题,因为他们无能提出控诉。描写活着的人则需要考虑周详(尤其是在 英格兰这种以审理诽谤案件为乐的司法区域) 。如果在英国公众人物的身上看到了“Thirsty (意为饥渴) ”的字眼,那就是说此人已经喝得不省人事,要是说“tired and emotional(意 为疲倦情绪化)(这个词最早出现在讽刺杂志《侦探》当中,后成为流行语)就是说已经喝 ” 得烂醉如泥。 “Hands-on mentoring(意为手把手指导) ”年轻同事可理解为风流韵事,但愿 不要再加上性格“volatile”的描述,因为这意味着脾气一触即发。记者要是提到商业惯例 “rumbustious(意为无法无天),或者“controversial(意为存在争议)、 ” ”“murky(意为黑 暗不堪) ”以及“questionable(意为疑点甚多) ”这些词汇的时候,就表示他们相信有人在 进行非法勾当,不过却不足以成为呈堂证供。 In the upper reaches of the British establishment, euphemism is a fine art, one that new arrivals need to master quickly. “Other Whitehall agencies” or “our friends over the river” means the intelligence services (American spooks often say they “work for the government”). A civil

servant warning a minister that a decision would be “courageous” is saying that it will be career-cripplingly unpopular. “Adventurous” is even worse: it means mad and unworkable. A “frank discussion” is a row, while a “robust exchange of views” is a full-scale shouting match. (These kind of euphemisms are also common in Japanese, where the reply maemuki ni kento sasete itadakimasu—I will examine it in a forward-looking manner—means something on the lines of “This idea is so stupid that I am cross you are even asking me and will certainly ignore it.”) 英国上层当局视委婉语为一项精细艺术, 新人要快速融会贯通。 “Other Whitehall agencies 意 ( 为白厅其它机构) ”或“our friends over the river(意为我们河对岸的朋友) ”则是说情报部门 (美国间谍则常说他们“work for the government 意为为政府工作”。公务员警告部长说这 ) 项决定应该“courageous(意为一往无前),就是在说这个决定不得人心,而“Adventurous ” (意为具有冒险性) 一词程度就要严重得多, ” 意即太疯狂了, 没有可行性。 “frank discussion (意为坦诚交谈) ”表示将要大吵一架, “robust exchange of views(意为全面交换意见) ”则 是要从头到尾吵个不休。 (这种委婉语在日本也很普遍,日本人要是说我会继续观察,那么 就表示这个主意愚蠢至极,你居然向我提起,我很生气,肯定不会当回事。 ) Euphemism is so ingrained in British speech that foreigners, even those who speak fluent English, may miss the signals contained in such bland remarks as “incidentally” (which means, “I am now telling you the purpose of this discussion”); and “with the greatest respect” (“You are mistaken and silly”). This sort of code allows the speaker to express anger, contempt or outright disagreement without making the emotional investment needed to do so directly. Some find that cowardly. 委婉语已经成为英国人演讲中不可或缺的一部分。 外国人甚至那些能讲一口流利英语的人都 可能错过那些毫不起眼的闲谈中所包含的信号。比方说, “incidentally(意为顺便地)(意 ” 思是“我现在告诉你的是此次谈话的目的”, )“with the greatest respect(意为给予最诚挚的 尊重) ”的意思是你错得愚蠢) 。说话者可以利用这些密码来表达愤怒、蔑视或者断然反对等 等情绪,从而避免了直抒胸意。不过有人认为这都是些懦弱的表现。 Boardroom, bathroom, bedroom 会议室、浴室和卧室 A thematic taxonomy of euphemism should have a category devoted to commerce. Business euphemisms are epitomised by the lexicon of property salesmen. A “bijou” residence is tiny (it may also be “charming” “cosy” or “compact” A “vibrant” neighbourhood is deafeningly , ). noisy; if it is “up and coming” it is terrifyingly crime-ridden, whereas a “stone’ throw from” s means in reach of a powerful catapult. Conversely, “convenient for” means “unpleasantly close to”. “Characterful” means the previous owner was mad or squalid. “Scope for renovation” means decrepit; “would suit an enthusiast” means a ruin fit only for a madman. 委婉语还应分为商务委婉语,是房地产销售人员使用词汇的集中体现。 “bijou 小巧”的住宅 就是面积极小 (还可能是 “charming 意为吸引力十足) cosy 意为舒适惬意) 或者 ( ” ( “ ” “compact (意为简洁紧凑)) ”。说邻居“vibrant(意为朝气蓬勃),实际上是指嘈杂地几近震耳欲聋。 ” 销售人员口中的“up and coming(意为前景良好) ”就表示该处犯罪活动猖獗,这些地方若 有 “stone’ throw from s (意为一步之遥) 就意味着还远着呢。 ” 相反地, “convenient for 干?? ( 很便利) ”实为“unpleasantly close to(和??近得令人不快)。 ”“Characterful(意为有个性) ”

表示前任业主要么疯狂不羁,要么拉里邋遢。 “Scope for renovation(意为可以翻新) ”实为 破败不堪。 “would suit an enthusiast 适合热情人士”就是说只有狂人才会适合那种破房滥瓦。 But the richest categories would centre on cross-cultural taboos such as death and bodily functions. The latter seem to embarrass Americans especially: one can ask for the “loo” in a British restaurant without budging an eyebrow; don’ try that in New York. Lavatory and toilet were once t euphemisms themselves; they in turn were replaced by water closet (WC) and the absurd “rest room”. British English encourages lively scatological synonyms: foreigners told that someone is “taking a slash” or “on the bog” may be mystified. 委婉语在不同文化里的禁忌方面得到了最全面的运用, 比如死亡和肉体机能。 美国人似乎尤 为因后者而不知所措:在英国的餐馆中你可以随意询问“loo 厕所”在哪,但是在纽约可不 能这样做。洗手间(Lavatory)和盥洗室(toilet)曾是美国人的委婉语,现在却改用 WC 和 rest room(荒唐无比的一个词)来表示厕所。英式英语鼓励人们使用并不雅观的同义词,比 如外国人说有人“taking a slash 正在撒尿”或者“on the bog 身陷险境”的时候,他们可能 会困惑不解。 Sex outstrips even excretion as a source of euphemism. The Bible is full of them: “foot” for penis, “know” for intercourse, with “other flesh” if transgressive. Masturbation was self-abuse or the sin of Onan to the Victorians; oral sex is “playing the bamboo flute” in Japanese. A prostitute accosting a client on the streets of Cairo will ask ? (Literally, “Do you have someone to wash your clothes?”) 性也是委婉语的来源之一, 比重甚至超过针对排泄物的委婉语。 圣经中这样的例子比比皆是: “foot(脚) ”表示阴茎, “know(任我们所为) ”表示性交,Masturbation(手淫)对维多利 亚时代的人来说叫作自我虐待或俄南之罪。日语当中的“演奏竹笛”意为口交。开罗街头的 妓女在和客人搭讪的时候会说“Fi hadd bitaghsal hudoumak (意为有人为你洗衣服吗)?” Even the most straight-talking obfuscate that line of work. Swedes, like many others, refer to v?rldens ?ldsta yrke (the world’s oldest profession). A brothel in Russian is a publichny dom— literally a “public house” which causes problems when British visitors with rudimentary Russian , try to explain the delights of their village hostelry. In China many hair salons, massage parlours and karaoke bars double as brothels. Hence anmo (massage), falang (hair salon) or a zuyu zhongxin (foot-massage parlour) can lead to knowing nods and winks. For obscure reasons, Germans call the same institution a Puff. In Japan, such places are called sopurando, (a corrupted version of “soapland”) or a pin-saro (pink salon). 即便是最直白的语言也会让妓女这种工作变得晦涩难解。 和其他国家一样, 瑞典将妓女称为 v?rldens ?ldsta yrke (意为最古老的职业) 。俄罗斯语的“旅店”就是指妓院,操着蹩脚俄文 的英国游客向别人解释他们乡村旅店的美丽之处的时候常会引发歧义。在中国,许多发廊、 按摩室和歌厅都兼营妓院生意,因此人们对按摩室、发廊和足疗中心的作用心知肚明。不知 道为何, 德国人把妓院称之为 “Puff。 而在日本, 妓院叫做 sopurando (洗浴中心, 是对 soapland 一词的错误拼法)或者 pin-saro(粉红沙龙) 。 Euphemisms for the act itself may be prim (carnal knowledge), poetic (make love) or crude (shagging). Over time such expressions lose their suggestive power and may even become off limits themselves. To engage in sexual intercourse in German is b umsen (to thump), along the

lines of the English “bonk”. To masturbate is wichsen (to polish). In both cases the slang sexual connotation has overtaken the original one. 对于性的委婉语可能是 prim(一本正经,意为性交) ,poetic(充满诗意,意为做爱)或者 crude(粗野,意为性交) 。久而久之,这些表述渐渐失去了挑逗力,不再被人们使用。德国 用 bumsen (意为重击) 这个词表示性交, 英语中则使用 bonk (意为重击) 这个词。 wichsen 用 (意为摩擦)表示手淫。在这两种情况下,性俚语的言外之意都超出了字面本身的含义。 Personal ads provide an entire subgenre of euphemism. “Cuddly” means “fat”. “Romantic” means needy and clingy. “Old-fashioned” means inconsiderate sex (if male) or infrequent (for females). “ Outgoing and fun-loving ” mean annoyingly talkative, promiscuous or both. “Open-minded” means desperate. 个人信息贡献了一整套委婉语。比如说,Cuddly(意为让人想拥抱他)表示肥胖。Romantic (意为浪漫的)表示贫困和依赖性强。Old-fashioned(意为老套)表示男性只顾自己爽的性 爱或者女性缺乏性生活。Outgoing and fun-loving(意为外向活泼)表示唠唠叨叨惹人厌烦, 或者男女乱交,或者两者皆有。Open-minded(意为心胸开阔)表示性饥渴。 Little white lies 善意的谎言 Orwell was right: euphemisms can be sneaky and coercive. They cloak a decision’s unpleasant results, as in “let go” for “fire”, or “right-sizing” for “mass sackings”. They make consequences sound less horrid—as, chillingly, in “collateral damage” for “dead civilians”. 奥威尔(Orwell)是对的:委婉语既鬼祟又强硬。使用了委婉语之后,某个决定令人不快的 结果就得到了伪装,比如说 let go(意为让他走人)表示解雇,right-sizing(意为合理精简) 表示大规模裁员。 Such jargony, polysyllabic euphemisms, often using long Latinate words instead of short Anglo-Saxon ones, can quickly become an argot used by slippery-tongued, well-educated insiders to defend their privileges. With luck, the real word may fall into disuse and the humble outsider will feel intimidated by the floppy, opaque language that masks wrongdoing or shortcoming. How do you begin to complain if you don’t know the lingo? 这类多音节的行话委婉语通常由较长的的拉丁字符组成, 而非简短的盎格鲁撒克逊字符, 它 们很快成为了油嘴滑舌受过高等教育的业内人士为保护自己的特权而使用的暗语。 运气好的 话, 原词会因为不使用而慢慢消逝, 那些可怜的行外人就会被这些委婉的、 难解的语言喝阻, 而坏事和缺点都已经被掩藏的毫无破绽。要是你对行话一无所知,该如何提出控诉呢? Politically correct euphemisms are among the most pernicious. Good and bad become “appropriate” or “inappropriate”. A ghastly problem becomes a less alarming “challenging issue”. Spending is investment; cuts are savings. “Affected by material error” (in European Union parlance) means money stolen from the budget. 政 治 委 婉 语 是 危 害 性 性 最 强 的 委 婉 语 。 好 与 坏 摇 身 一 变 成 了 “ appropriate 恰 当 ” 与 “inappropriate 不恰当” 。可怕的问题被说成是不那么令人震惊的“challenging issue(意为具 有挑战性的事件)。开销说成是投资,削减则变成了节省。 ” “Affected by material error(意为 受到物质错误影响)(按照欧盟的说法)则表示预算款项遭人挪用。 ”

But euphemisms can also be benign, even necessary. Sometimes the need to prevent hurt feelings justifiably takes precedence over clarity. Saying that dim or disruptive children have “special needs” or that they exhibit “challenging behaviour” does not make them easier to teach—but it , , may prevent them being teased or disheartened. “Frail” (of an old person) is nicer than doddery or senile. Euphemisms may be a species of lie, but some of them are white. 然而委婉语也有良性作用, 甚至是不可或缺的。 有时候避免伤害感情要比凡事清楚明白重要 得多。比如说那些智力低下或性格缺陷的儿童都是有“special needs(意为特殊需要),又 ” 或者他们在展现“challenging behaviour(富于挑战性的行动),这样做也许不会让孩子们乖 ” 乖听话,但却可以保护他们不被欺负,不会丧失信心。在形容老年人时,说“Frail 脆弱” 要比“doddery 衰老”或“senile 上年纪”亲和得多。虽与谎言别无二致,不过有些委婉语 却是出于善意。 A culture without euphemism would be more honest, but rougher. Here’ a New Year’ resolution: s s scrub your conversation of euphemism for a day. The results will startle you. 某种文化若没有委婉语来点缀, 虽会去伪存真, 却也显得稍欠雕琢。 来试试这项新年新计划: 尝试一天内不说一句委婉语。结果将会使你大为惊奇。 http://ecocn.org/thread-61961-1-1.html 译者:乌龙水草 [2011.12.17] What is the Chinese language? 中文是什么? Dec 13th 2011, 21:34 by R.L.G. | NEW YORK I HAVE exercised Chinese commenters with a few posts that were seen as either simplistic or biased. So let me offer two competing visions of Chinese that help explain what the two sides disagree on. These are archetypes which few partisans may agree with every word of. But they are the basic poles of thinking about Chinese, I think. I submit them for the good of commenters, who should debate them to shreds. 我曾用一些不是被看成太简单就是带有偏见的帖子惹恼过一些中文评论人。 因此让我来展示 两种相互对立的中文视野, 他们有助于解释这两方在什么地方产生了分歧。 这些原型是几乎 没有哪个铁杆支持者会完全赞同的。但我想,他们是对中文进行思考的最基本的极端。我将 其陈列于此以方便评论人,他们应该对其进行条分缕析。 (鄙人的几个帖子, 惹恼了一些热衷评论中文的读者, 要嘛被认为简单粗陋,要嘛被认为 偏执不公。 因此, 谨让我提供两种有关中文的彼此排斥的见解, 希望有助于说明各执一 端的双方究竟在哪些方面争论不休。 这是两大极端之论的典型, 即使派性十足的极端人士也 无法字字赞同。 不过, 我仍觉得, 这两种典型之论乃是对中文进行研考的最基本的极端。 我在此展列,以便这些评论员们能借此将之辩驳的体无完肤。——by yannanchen)① In brief, Chinese traditionalists believe 简单地说,中文传统论者认为: 1) Chinese is one language with dialects. 2) Chinese is best written in the character-based hanzi system. 3) All Chinese read and share the same writing system, despite speaking in different ways.

1)中文是一种有方言的语言。 2)中文最好按以汉字字符为基础的汉字系统来书写。 3)所有中国人阅读和分享同样的书写系统,虽然他们用不同的方式来说。 Western linguists tend to respond 西方语言学家往往认为: 1) Chinese is not a language but a family; the "dialects" are not dialects but languages. 2) Hanzi-based writing is unnecessarily difficult; the characters do not represent "ideas" but "morphemes" (small and combinable units of meaning, like the morphemes of any language). Pinyin (the standard Roman system) could just as easily be used for Chinese. Puns, wordplay and etymology might be sacrificed, but ease of use would be enhanced. 3) Modern hanzi writing is basically Mandarin with the old characters in a form modified by the People's Republic. Everyone else (Cantonese speakers, say) must either write Mandarin or significantly alter the system to write their own "Chinese". 1)中文不是一门语言,而是一个语族; “方言”不是地方话,而是语言。 2)基于汉字的书写不必是困难的。汉字不表示概念而表示词素(像任何语言的词素一样, 汉字词素是小的、可进行组合的意义单元) 。拼音(标准罗马系统)也可以(像汉字)一样 用来方便地书写中文。双关语、文字游戏、词源可能被牺牲,但易用性会被提高。 3) 现代汉字书写主要是用经过中华人民共和国修改的古代汉字来书写的普通话。 其他人 (比 如说粤语的人)必须书写普通话,要不就对系统进行较大改动,书写他们自己的“中文” 。 There are so many arguments packed into these two ideas that it's hard to start, much less finish, in a blog post. Since I'm (really) on holiday, I'll leave it to commenters to enlighten each other, and me on my return. 关于这两种观点有如此多在一篇博文中难以发端、更难尽言的争论。鉴于我正在休假(说真 的) ,我会把它留给评论家们以相互启发,等我回来再启发我。 (以上两种极端之论的论点后头, 支持性的论证汗牛充栋, 本博客的帖子容量太小, 既 难以落笔开头, 更不知何以成文。 我现在正在度假(说真的) 那就让评论员们先行相互 , 启发, 待我度假回来后, 再对我做启蒙吧。 )② ①②这两段为 yannanchen 在回复中提供的译文,既能达意,又具文采,个人很佩服。在这 里全部引用,一是不敢掠人之美,二是如果硬是嵌进去,恐怕与本人太过朴实的整篇文风不 合(虽然这未必是作者原意而是我本人的水平问题,呵呵) ,因此谨两存之以便大家参考学 习。 http://ecocn.org/thread-61957-1-1.html 译者:Rachelle.Liu [2011.12.17] The not-so-naked ape 人类:并非“全裸”的类人猿 Human body hair, once thought to be an evolutionary relic, has a real job to do 人类的体毛一度被认为是进化过程中遗留下来的东西,其实它们有着实际的功能 Dec 17th 2011 | from the print edition

Good night. Sleep tight. Mind the bugs don’t bite 晚安,睡个好觉,当心别被虫咬。 MUCH ink and many electrons have been spilled on the question of human hairlessness: why, as Desmond Morris put it in the title of a book published in 1967, Homo sapiens is “The Naked Ape”. This lack of hair has been attributed to everything from a putative aquatic period in the species’s past to the advantages of displaying a healthy skin to members of the opposite sex. 人们已经花费了许多时间和精力来研究为何人类没有体毛这个问题:正如戴斯德蒙?莫里斯 也在其 1967 年出版的著作的名字里提出了这个问题:为何人类会是《裸猿》 。人类没有体毛 这一特征被归结于各种原因,其中包括:智人曾在水下生存的假说、在求偶时利于向异性展 示健康的肌肤。 Less attention has been paid, though, to the fact that humans are not really hairless at all. Per square centimetre, human skin has as many hair follicles as that of other great apes. The difference is not in the number, but in the fineness of the hair that grows from those follicles. These fine human hairs do not seem to be performing any of the functions of their counterparts in more hirsute species (insulation and, through colouration, either signalling or camouflage). So what are they for? 然而,人们没怎么注意到的是,人类并非真的完全没有体毛。人类皮肤上每平方厘米的毛囊 数与其他的类人猿相当。不同之处并不在于毛囊数目,而是从中长出来的体毛的粗细度。人 类这些纤细的体毛其功能似乎与体毛更粗的类人猿迥然相异 (类人猿的体毛有以下功能: 保 暖、通过毛发的色彩发出信号或进行伪装) 。那么,人类的体毛有何作用呢? That is a question addressed by Isabelle Dean and Michael Siva-Jothy of Sheffield University, in Britain, in a paper in Biology Letters. Their conclusion is that humans have fine body hair to serve as an alarm system. 英国谢菲尔德大学的伊莎贝尔?迪恩和迈克?西瓦-乔希在《生物学快报》上探讨了这一问题。 他们的结论是,人类纤细的体毛是用以充当警报系统的。 Ms Dean and Dr Siva-Jothy were testing the idea that fine body hairs (known, technically, as vellus and terminal hairs) are there to alert their owner to creepy crawlies such as bed bugs, which might be intent on biting them, and that the hair may also get in the way of such arthropods’ activities, giving the owner more time to react before he is bitten. 之前,迪恩女士和乔西博士正在验证她们的观点:第一,人类纤细的体毛(在学术上称为毫 毛和终毛)的作用是提醒人注意如臭虫等恶心的小爬虫(可能会咬人) ;第二,人类的体毛 可能也能妨碍这些节肢动物活动,在它们咬人之前给人更多的反应时间。 The standard “lab rat” for this sort of experiment is the university student, and Ms Dean and Dr Siva-Jothy managed to recruit 29 eager volunteers for their study—19 men and ten women. Each had a patch of skin on one arm shaved, marked with a pen and surrounded by petroleum jelly (to fence the bed bugs in), and a commensurate patch on the other marked and surrounded, but not shaved. 进行这种实验的标准“实验室小白鼠”就是大学生,迪恩女士和乔西博士成功为其研究招募 了 29 名热心的志愿者——19 位男士及 10 位女士。每位志愿者的一只手臂上都有一块皮肤

的毛发被剃掉,然后用笔做标记并在周围抹上凡士林(以将臭虫围在里面) ;另一只手臂上 也取面积相同的皮肤作上标记、抹上凡士林,但此区域的毛发并没有被剃掉。 It was then time to get the bed bugs out. The bugs in question had been fed a week previously, and then starved, so they were eager to eat. Volunteers were asked to look away while a researcher put a bug on one of the skin patches. The volunteer was then supposed to record, using a press-button counter, the number of times he perceived the insect moving on his skin. 然后,该把臭虫取出来了。所使用的臭虫已有一个星期没有进食,因此它们都饥肠辘辘。当 研究者将一只小虫放在志愿者的其中一块皮肤上时,研究者要求志愿者把脸转过去。然后, 志愿者将用一个按钮计数器来记录他察觉到的小虫在皮肤上移动的次数。 The difference was significant. When the bug was on a hairy patch it was detected, on average, every four seconds. When it was on a shaved patch, more than ten seconds elapsed between detections. Moreover, the bugs seemed to find it harder to locate a good spot to bite when they were surrounded by hair. Though no volunteer was actually bitten, because the vigilance of the watching researcher meant the insects were removed when they extended their probosces prior to biting, bugs on hairy skin took about a fifth longer than those on shaved skin to attempt to bite their hosts. 有无体毛对实验结果影响非常大。 当小虫在有毛发的皮肤上活动时, 平均每四秒志愿者就有 所察觉。而当小虫在剃掉毛发的皮肤上活动时,每隔 10 秒多志愿者才察觉到小虫。而且, 当周围有毛发时, 那些小虫似乎更难找到一个适合叮咬的部位。 不过实际上志愿者都没有被 小虫叮咬, 因为一旦小虫伸出它们的口器准备叮咬, 就会立刻被时刻警惕的正在观察实验的 研究人员拿下来。 与毛发被剃掉的皮肤相比, 在有毛发的皮肤区域活动的小虫要多花五分之 一的时间来尝试叮咬宿主。 In both cases men (who are hairier than women, as measured by the density of follicles and the length of the vellus hair) were better off than women when the bugs were released on unshaven patches of skin, though there was no significant difference between the sexes when they were shaved. The upshot is that, whatever the reason why human body hair has shrunk, one reason it has not disappeared completely is because it warns and protects those who sport it from the attentions of hostile insects. 在两种情况下,当小虫被放在有毛发的皮肤上时,男性(就毛囊密度及毫毛长度而论,男性 比女性体毛更多)比女性更容易察觉到小虫。不过,在小虫被放在剃掉毛发的皮肤上时,男 女性的反应并没有很大差异。研究的结论是,不论人类的体毛为何会变得纤细,它们还没有 完全消失的一个原因是:人类的体毛能够提醒和保护人,免受对其不利的小虫咬啮。 http://ecocn.org/thread-61798-1-1.html 译者:contrary [2011.12.14] Fantasy turned reality 幻想成真 The Higgs boson 希格斯波色子 Fantasy turned reality 幻想成真

Those searching for the Higgs boson may at last have cornered their quarry 那些寻找希格斯波色子的人们可能终于将猎物逼到了角落 Dec 14th 2011 | from the print edition WELL, they’ve found it. Possibly. Maybe. Pinning down physicists about whether they have actually discovered the Higgs boson is almost as hard as tracking down the elusive subatomic beast itself. Leon Lederman, a leading researcher in the field, once dubbed it the “goddamn” particle, because it has proved so hard to isolate. That name was changed by a sniffy editor to the “God” particle, and a legend was born. Headline writers loved it. Physicists loved the publicity. CERN, the world’s biggest particle-physics laboratory, and the centre of the hunt for the Higgs, used that publicity to help keep the money flowing. 不错,他们找到了它。可能,也许。要想让物理学家对到底有没有发现希格斯波色子这一点 表态几乎和寻找这个难以捉摸的亚原子猎物踪迹一样困难。 因为事实证明要把该粒子孤立出 来是极难的,该领域的一位领衔研究者里昂?莱德曼曾称其为“天杀的粒子” 。而一位自命不 凡的编辑略加修改,将其更名为“上帝粒子” ,于是一个传说就这么诞生了。报刊头条记者 很喜欢这个名字。 物理学家则很喜欢这个名字带来的宣传效果。 世界最大的粒子物理实验室 -欧洲核子研究组织(CERN)是寻找希格斯子的中心,它利用这种宣传来保持研究资金源 源不断。 And this week it may all have paid off. On December 13th two of the researchers at CERN’s headquarters in Geneva announced to a breathless world something that looks encouragingly Higgsy. 本星期这些资金可能终于会收到一些回报了。 月 13 日 CERN 日内瓦总部的两名研究员向 12 屏息静气的全世界公布他们找到了一个看上去有很大希望是希格斯子的东西。 The Higgs boson, for those who have not been paying attention to the minutiae of particle physics over the past few years, is a theoretical construct dreamed up in 1964 by a British researcher, Peter Higgs (pictured above), and five other, less famous individuals. It is the last unobserved piece of the Standard Model, the most convincing explanation available for the way the universe works in all of its aspects except gravity (which is dealt with by the general theory of relativity). 为那些在过去几年没有对粒子物理学领域的细节报以关注的读者解释一下, 希格斯波色子是 1964 年英国研究员彼得?希格斯(上图照片)和其他五个没那么有名的人共同想象出来的一 种理论建构。 它是标准模型中还未被观察到的最后一个部份。 而标准模型是现有对于宇宙运 作方式的最令人信服的解释, 其中包括除了引力以外的宇宙所有方面 (引力是由广义相对论 来解释的) 。 The Standard Model (see table) includes familiar particles such as electrons and photons, and esoteric ones like the W and Z bosons, which carry something called the weak nuclear force. Most bosons are messenger particles that cement the others, known as fermions, together. They do so via electromagnetism and the weak and strong nuclear forces. The purpose of the Higgs boson, however, is different. It is to inculcate mass into those particles which weigh something. Without it, or something like it, some of the Standard Model’s particles that actually do have mass (particularly the W and Z bosons) would be predicted to be massless. Without it, in other words,

the Standard Model would not work. 标准模型 (见图) 包括一些人们熟悉的粒子, 像是电子和光子, 以及一些较专业晦涩的粒子, 像是作为弱相互作用力媒介的 W 波色子和 Z 波色子。大多数波色子都扮演着将其它称为费 米子的粒子联系起来的信使角色。 它们的这种媒介效应是通过电磁力, 强相互作用力和弱相 互作用力实现的。但是,希格斯波色子的作用不同。所有质量不为 0 的粒子都是由它赋予质 量的。没有它,或者任何功能类似的粒子,标准模型将会预测一些实际上有质量的粒子(特 别是 W 波色子和 Z 波色子)质量为 0.换句话说,没有它,标准模型就是错误的。 The announcement, by Fabiola Gianotti and Guido Tonelli—the heads, respectively, of two experiments at CERN known as ATLAS and CMS—was that both of their machines have seen phenomena which look like traces of the Higgs. They are traces, rather than actual bosons, because no Higgs will ever be seen directly. The best that can be hoped for are patterns of breakdown particles from Higgses that are, themselves, the results of head-on collisions between protons travelling in opposite directions around CERN’s giant accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Heavy objects like Higgs bosons can break down in several different ways, but each of these ways is predictable. Both ATLAS and CMS have seen a number of these predicted patterns often enough to pique interest, but not (yet) often enough to constitute proof that they came from Higgses, rather than being random fluctuations in the background of non-Higgs decays 这次 CERN 两个实验项目 ATLAS 和 CMS 各自的组长-法比奥拉?吉亚诺蒂和奎多?托尼利 宣布他们的仪器都观察到了看上去像是希格斯子踪迹的现象。 之所以是踪迹, 而不是波色子 本身是因为希格斯子是不可能直接观察到的。 最理想的就是找到希格斯子分裂之后的粒子事 件。希格斯子本身是在 CERN 的巨型粒子加速器-大型强子对撞机(LHC)中让高速相对 运行的质子进行对撞时产生的。 它这样的重粒子可以通过多种不同方式分裂, 但是每一种方 式都是可预测的。 ATLAS 和 CMS 实验都观察到了一些预测的事件, 出现的频率已可以让研 究者产生兴趣, 但还不足以作为这是来自于希格斯子, 而不是其它非希格斯子衰变背景产生 的随机干扰的证据。 The crucial point, and the reason for the excitement, is that both ATLAS and CMS (which are located in different parts of the ring-shaped accelerator tunnel of the LHC) have come up with the same results. Both indicate that, if what they have seen really are Higgses, then the boson has a mass of about 125 giga-electron-volts (GeV), in the esoteric units which are used to measure how heavy subatomic particles are. That coincidence bolsters the suggestion that this is the real thing, rather than a few chance fluctuations. 关键之处,也是人们这么兴奋的原因在于 ATLAS 和 CMS(位于 LHC 的环形加速器管道两 个不同部位) 都得到了同样的结果。 两个实验结果都表明, 如果它们观察到的真是希格斯子, 那么这种波色子的质量会是大约 125 千兆电子伏(GeV) 。电子伏是一种用来测量亚原子粒 子质量的专业单位。这种巧合令以下观点更有说服力:希格斯子是确实存在的,而不是一些 随机波动现象。 It also bolsters physicists’ hopes for the future. The Standard Model, though it has stood the test of time, is held together by a number of mathematical kludges. Most of these would go away, and a far more elegant view of the world would emerge, if each of the particles in it had one or more heavier (and as-yet undiscovered) partner particles. The masses of these undiscovered partners, though, are related to the mass of the Higgs. The bigger it is, the bigger they are. And if they are

too big, the LHC will not be able to find them, even in principle. Fortunately for the future of physics in general, and the LHC in particular, a Higgs of 125GeV is light enough for some of these particles to be found by the machine near Geneva. 这也令物理学家觉得未来更有希望。标准模型,虽然经历了时间的考验,却有是靠几种数学 上的取巧才得以维持的。 如果假设每种粒子都有一种或多种更重 (且尚未发现) 的伙伴粒子, 那么这些数学上的取巧大多都不再必要, 而且会产生一个简洁得多的宇宙理论。 而这些未发 现的伙伴粒子的质量是和希格斯子的质量息息相关的。希格斯子越重,这些粒子也就越重。 而如果它们太重,那么即使是理论上 LHC 也无法发现它们。希格斯子质量为 125GeV, 这 已足够轻,意味着 LHC 有发现某些这类伙伴粒子的可能。 对于物理学各科的未来, 特别 是对于 LHC 的未来而言,这都是一件很幸运的事情。 Wake up, little Susy 醒醒,小苏西 This model of a world of heavy partner particles that shadows the familiar one built up by the Standard Model is called Supersymmetry, and testing it was the real purpose of building the LHC. The search for the Higgs is a search for closure on the old physical world. Susy, as Supersymmetry is known to aficionados, is the new. The particular superness of the symmetry which it proposes is that every known fermion is partnered with one or more hypothetical bosons, and every known boson with one or more fermions. These partnerships cancel out the kludges and leave a mathematically purer outcome. For this reason, Susy is top of the “what comes next” list in most physicists’ minds. 这种重伙伴粒子组成的宇宙模型盖过了由标准模型建立的更为人熟悉的宇宙模型, 它被称为 超对称。而检验超对称模型也是建立 LHC 的本来目的。寻找希格斯子是旧物理世界的最后 一章。内行将超对称简称为苏西,它代表着新的物理世界。之所以称其“超”对称在于它提 出所有已知的费米子都有一个或多个假定的波色子相伴, 而每个已知的波色子都有一个或多 个费米子相伴。 这些伙伴对称性清除了所有需要数学取巧才能维持的地方, 得到了一个数学 上要更纯粹的结果。因为这个原因,在大多数物理学家心中苏西都是“接下来会发生什么” 清单上的第一名。 It might also answer a question that has puzzled physicists since the 1930s. This is: why do galaxies, which seem to rotate too fast for their own gravity to keep them in one piece, not fly apart? The answer always given is “dark matter”—something that has a gravitational field, but does not interact much via the three forces of the Standard Model. But that is simply to label it, not to explain it. No such particle is known, but Susy predicts some, and as they are the lightest of its predictions, they should (if they exist) be within the LHC’s range. If, that is, what Dr Gianotti and Dr Tonelli hope that they have seen is real. 这也可能回答一个从 20 世纪 30 年代开始就困扰物理学家们的问题。 那就是: 各个星系的旋 转速度似乎太快, 自身引力不足以使其保持凝聚, 那为什么星系不会四分五裂呢?这个问题 的答案一直以来都是“暗物质” ,那就是拥有引力场,但和标准模型中的三种基本力几乎没 有相互作用的物质的统称。但是这样只是给它起了个名,并没有解释其本质。现在还没有发 现过这样的粒子, 不过苏西模型预测了一些暗物质粒子的存在, 而且因为它们是苏西模型预 测的粒子中质量最小的,它们如果存在就应该在 LHC 的探测能力范围内。当然,前提是吉 亚诺蒂博士和托尼利博士观察到的确实如他们所希望的那样是希格斯子。

It might not be. As Rolf-Dieter Heuer, CERN’s boss, once quipped, physicists know everything about the Higgs apart from whether it exists. Technically, that is still true. Despite their having analysed some 380 trillion collisions between protons since the LHC got cracking in earnest in 2010, CERN’s researchers have yet to see signs of the Higgs in an individual experiment that meet their exacting standard of having only one chance in 3.5m of being a fluke. The actual number at the moment is more like one in 2,000. But that does not take account of the coincidence between the results of the separate experiments. And more data are being crunched all the time, so it should not be long before the result is either confirmed or disproved. 它也有可能不是。正如 CERN 的老总洛夫迪特?霍尔曾经风趣地说过,物理学家们知道关于 希格斯子的一切事情,唯一不知道的就是它到底存不存在。严格来说,这点仍然成立。自从 2010 年 LHC 非常认真地开始敲碎粒子的工作之后,物理学家们已经对大约 380 万亿次质子 对撞结果进行了分析,但是 CERN 的研究员还是没有发现过任何一个实验中希格斯子存在 的迹象可以达到他们确定发现所需要的严格标准: 即出错的可能性要低于 350 万分之一。 目 前的错误几率大约是在 2000 分之一的水平。但这并没有考虑几个分离实验结果的吻合。而 且数据分析仍在进行之中,因此实验结果是被确认还是被推翻,很快就会见分晓。 If it is disproved there will, after all the brouhaha, no doubt be a period of chagrin. And then the search will resume, for there are still unexplored places out there where Dr Higgs’s prediction could be hiding. After a 47-year-long search, physicists would not give the hunt up that lightly. 如果最终结果被推翻了, 在经历了这么大的喧闹之后毫无疑问会有一段沮丧期。 之后研究又 会继续下去,仍然有未探索过的地方可能是希格斯博士预测的粒子的藏身之地。在 47 年的 漫长搜索之后,物理学家们不会这么轻易放弃这场猎捕。 http://ecocn.org/thread-61804-1-1.htm 译者:nayilus [2011.12.10] The long life of Homo sovieticus 长命的苏维埃人 This week’s elections and upheavals in Russia show how hard it is, 20 years after the system collapsed, for the country to put away its Soviet past 本周俄罗斯的选举和动乱显示在旧体系解体 20 年之后,俄罗斯仍然很难摆脱那段苏联历史 Dec 10th 2011 | MOSCOW | from the print edition TWENTY years to the month since the Soviet Union fell apart, crowds of angry young people have taken to the streets of Moscow, protesting against the ruling United Russia Party (“the party of crooks and thieves” and chanting “Russia without Putin!” Hundreds have been detained, and ) the army has been brought into the centre of Moscow “to provide security”. Although the numbers are a far cry from the half-million who thronged the streets to bury the USSR, these were the biggest protests in recent years. The immediate trigger for this crisis was the rigging of the parliamentary elections on December 4th (see article). But the causes lie far deeper. 这个月是苏联解体 20 周年,成群的愤怒青年涌上莫斯科大街示威游行,他们在针对统一俄 罗斯党( “骗子和小偷组成的政党” )进行抗议,高呼“没有普京的俄罗斯! ”数百人已被拘 留,军队已进入莫斯科中心,美其名曰“提供安全保障” 。虽然在街上抗议的人数还远远不 到当年涌上街头,埋葬了苏联的 50 万人,这也是近年来最大的抗议活动了。引发这次危机 的导火索是 12 月 4 日议会选举中的舞弊现象。但是真正的原因要深入得多。

The ruling regime started to lose its legitimacy just as Vladimir Putin, Russia’s prime minister, declared a final victory for “stability” promised to return to the Kremlin as president and pledged , to rebuild a Eurasian Union with former Soviet republics. The Soviet flavour of all this had been underscored at United Russia’s party congress at the end of November, where Mr Putin was nominated for the presidency. “We need a strong, brave and able leader ?And we have such a man: it is Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin,” enthused a film director. A steelworker told the congress how Mr Putin had “lifted our factory from its knees” and supported it “with his wise advice”. A single mother with 19 children thanked Mr Putin for a “bright future”. 俄罗斯执政当局的正统性已经开始丧失,这正发生在俄罗斯总理弗拉基米尔?普京宣布“稳 定”的最终胜利,承诺他会回到克里姆林宫再任总统,以及宣誓会和前苏联的几个共和国一 起重建一个欧亚联盟的同时。这些言论的苏联色彩在 11 月底统俄党的大会上尤为明显,普 京在会上被提名为总统。一位电影导演很激动地说道: “我们需要一位强硬,勇敢且能干的 领袖??而我们有这么一个人选: 那就是弗拉基米尔?普京。 ”一位炼钢工人向大会讲述了普 京是怎样“让我们的工厂从此站了起来” ,并以“他睿智的教诲”支持了工厂。一位有 19 个孩子的单亲妈妈为普京带来了“光明的未来”而感谢他。 Such parallels with the now idealised late Soviet era were supposed to be one of Mr Putin’s selling points. No tiresome political debate, fairly broad personal freedoms, shops full of food: wasn’t that what people wanted? Instead, unthinkably, Mr Putin has been booed: first by an audience at a martial-arts event on November 20th, then at many polling stations, and now on the streets. The Soviet rhetoric conjured an anti-Soviet response. 这样和已经被理想化的苏联时代后期呼应的故事本是普京的一大卖点。 没有令人厌烦的政治 辩论,还算广泛的个人自由,商店里装满了食物:这些不是人们想要的吗?恰恰相反,大家 居然几次对普京报以嘘声, 这真是难以想象。 第一次是在 11 月 20 日一个格斗大会上被观众 嘘,之后又在多个投票站被选民嘘,现在轮到大街上的游行者来嘘他了。他苏联式的言论遭 致了反苏联回应。 According to Lev Gudkov of the Levada Centre, an independent polling-research organisation, this reaction against the monopolistic, corrupt and authoritarian regime is itself part of a Soviet legacy. It is driven by the lack of alternatives rather than a common vision for change. For Russia is still a hybrid state. It is smaller, more consumerist and less collective than the Soviet Union. But while the ideology has gone, the mechanism for sustaining political power remains. Key institutions, including courts, police and security services, television and education, are used by bureaucrats to maintain their own power and wealth. The presidential administration, an unelected body, still occupies the building (and place) of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. 根据独立民意调查机构-勒瓦达中心的列夫?古德科夫,这种针对独断,腐败且专制的当局 的反应本身就是苏联时代遗留下来的一部份产物。驱使人民如此反应的并非变革的共同意 愿,而是因为他们没有其他可选择的政府。这是因为俄罗斯仍然是一个混合体制国家。俄罗 斯比苏联小,更注重消费主义,没那么强调集体主义。但是虽然已摆脱过去的意识形态,延 续政治权力的机制仍然存在。一些关键社会制度,包括法院,警察及安全局,电视以及教育 都被官僚阶级用来维持他们自身的权力和财富。 非民选的总统班子现在仍在前共产党中央委 员会的原楼原址办公。 More important, the Soviet mental software has proved much more durable than the ideology

itself. When, in 1989, a group of sociologists led by Yuri Levada began to study what they called Soviet Man, an artificial construct of doublethink, paternalism, suspicion and isolationism, they thought he was vanishing. Over the next 20 years they realised that Homo sovieticus had mutated and reproduced, acquiring, along the way, new characteristics such as cynicism and aggression. This is not some genetic legacy, but the result of institutional restrictions and the skewed economic and moral stimuli propagated by the Kremlin. 更重要的一点,事实证明苏联的心理软件[注 2]比意识形态本身更坚固持久。1989 年,一群 由尤里?勒瓦达[注 3]带领的社会学家开始研究苏维埃人[注 1],即一种人为的心理建构,拥 有双重思想[注 4],家长主义[注 5],怀疑猜忌和孤立主义的特点。当时他们认为具有这种心 理建构的个人正在消失。在接下来的 20 年中,他们意识到实际上苏维埃人变异并繁衍了, 一路以来追加了新的特点,例如愤世嫉俗,好斗情绪等。这并不是某种基因传承的结果,而 是制度限制,再加上克里姆林宫所传播的那扭曲的经济和道德刺激所引发的结果。 This mental software was not a generational feature, as the Levada group at first suspected. The elections were rigged in Moscow not only by middle-aged people with Soviet memories, but by thousands of pro-Kremlin younger folk gathered from across the country and dispatched to cast multiple ballots around the city. Symbolically, they made their camp in an empty pavilion of the Stalinist Exhibition of People’s Achievements. Most of them had no memories of the Soviet Union; they were born after it had ceased to exist. 勒瓦达小组一开始怀疑这种心理软件是某一代人特有的, 之后否定了这一观点。 在莫斯科选 举中舞弊的人不仅包括那些对苏联时代有记忆的中年人, 还有数以千计的亲克里姆林宫的年 轻人从全国各地被召集起来, 分派出去在莫斯科市内的各个投票站一人投数票。 非常有象征 意义的, 这些人就在斯大林时代的人民成就展的一个空展馆内扎营居住。 这些人中大多数都 没有任何关于苏联的记忆:他们是在苏联解体之后才出生的。 Yet the election results also revealed the reluctance of a large part of Russian society to carry on with the present system. Thousands of indignant men and women, young and old, tried to stop the fraud and protect their rights. One election monitor, who was thrown out of the polling station, wrote in his blog that “I thought I would die of shame?I did not manage to save your votes? forgive me.” Such voices may still be a minority, but the clash between these two groups was essentially a clash of civilisations—and a sign that the process of dismantling the Soviet system, which started 20 years ago, is far from over. 但是选举的结果也暴露了俄罗斯社会中很大一部分人不愿让现有体系进一步继续下去。 数千 名愤怒的男女老少试图终止舞弊,保护他们的权利。一位竞选监察人在被赶出投票站之后, 在他的博客内写道“愧疚死了??我没能救下你们的投票??原谅我。 ”这样的声音还是少 数,但是这两个团体之间的冲突本质上是两个文明的冲突,这标志着 20 年前开始的苏联体 系解体,还远远没有结束。 A moral vacuum 道德真空 When the Communist regime collapsed in 1991 there was an expectation, both in the West and in Russia, that the country would embrace Western values and join the civilised world. It took no account of a ruined economy, depleted and exhausted human capital and the mental and moral

dent made by 70 years of Soviet rule. Nobody knew what kind of country would succeed the Soviet Union, or what being Russian really meant. The removal of ideological and geographical constraints did not add moral clarity. 1991 年共产党执政垮台之后在西方和俄罗斯内部都有一种期望,即俄罗斯可以接受西方价 值,加入到文明世界行列。但是这种期望无视了当时荒废的经济,短缺耗尽的人力资本,以 及 70 年苏联统治下的心理和道德创伤。当时没人知道取代苏联的会是哪种国家,也不知道 作为一个俄罗斯人到底意味着什么。 苏联解体消除了意识形态及地理上的限制, 但道德标准 却没有因此更加明确。 In particular, the intelligentsia—the engine of Soviet collapse—was caught unprepared. When their “hopeless cause” became reality, it quickly transpired that the country lacked a responsible elite able and willing to create new institutions. The Soviet past and its institutions were never properly examined; instead, everything Soviet became a subject of ridicule. The very word “Soviet” was shortened to sovok, which in Russian means “dustpan” In fact, says Mr Gudkov . of Levada, this self-mockery was not a reasoned rejection of the Soviet system; it was playful and flippant. Sidelined by years of state paternalism and excluded from politics, most people did not want to take responsibility for the country’s affairs. 特别是苏联解体的动力来源-知识分子们被搞得措手不及。当他们“无望的目标”突然成真 了, 很快一个问题就浮出水面: 俄罗斯缺少一个负责的精英阶层有能力且愿意创造新的社会 制度。苏联的过去和它的制度一直没有被好好地审视过,相反,所有和苏联相关的东西都成 为了可笑之事。就连“苏维埃”一词也被缩写成“索沃克” (sovok) ,俄语里“垃圾斗”的 意思。 勒瓦达中心的古德科夫认为, 实际上这种自我嘲讽并不是一种对苏联体系的理性否决, 它带有戏谑轻浮的色彩。由于多年以来被国家的家长主义排除在外,无法参与政治,大多数 人不想要承担起国家大事的责任。 The flippancy ended when the government abolished price regulation, revealing the worthlessness of Soviet savings, and Boris Yeltsin, faced with an armed rebellion, fired on the Soviet parliament in 1993. Soon the hope of a miracle was replaced by disillusion and nostalgia. As Mr Levada’s polling showed, it did not mean that most people wished to return to the Soviet past. But they longed for order and stability, which they associated with the army and security services rather than with politicians. 在政府取消了价格调控,暴露了苏联积蓄一文不值之后,这种轻浮态度结束了。1993 年鲍 里斯?叶利钦在面对武装反抗的情况下,向苏联议会开火。很快对于奇迹的希望被幻灭和怀 旧的感觉取代。勒瓦达的民调显示,这并不表示大多数人想要回到过去的苏联时代。但是他 们渴求秩序和稳定,并把这两点和军队及安全局,而不是政客联系起来。 Enter the hero 英雄登场 Mr Putin—young, sober, blue-eyed and calm—was a perfect match for people’s expectations. Although picked by Yeltsin, he made a striking contrast with the ailing leader. Though he owed his career to the 1990s, he stressed that his own times were very different. Two factors made him popular: a growing economy, which allowed him to pay off salary and pension arrears, and the prosecution of a war in Chechnya. Both symbolised the return of the state. 普京先生年轻,沉稳,头脑清醒而有一双蓝眼[注 6],这简直和人民的期望完全相符。虽然

是被叶利钦所挑选出来的,他和这位病怏怏的领导人形成鲜明对比。虽然他的仕途得利于 20 世纪 90 年代,但是他特别强调自己当政时期和那个时代很不一样。有两个因素让普京广 受民众欢迎,一是增长的经济,这让他可以支付拖欠的薪水和养老金,二是发动战争惩罚了 车臣。这两点都象征俄罗斯恢复为一个国家了。 In the absence of any new vision or identity, the contrast with the 1990s could only be achieved by appealing to a period that preceded it—the late Soviet Union. Yet although Mr Putin exploited the nostalgia for an idealised Soviet past and restored the Soviet anthem, he had no intention of rebuilding the Soviet Union either economically or geographically. As he said repeatedly, “One who does not regret the passing of the Soviet Union has no heart; one who wants to bring it back has no brain.” 在没有任何新的前景或身份的情况下, 要和 20 世纪 90 年代作比较就只能诉诸于那之前的时 期,也就是苏联后期。不过虽然普京巧妙利用了人们对理想化的苏联的怀念情绪,也重新恢 复了苏联国歌, 他并没有任何要在经济上或地理上重建苏联的企图。 正如他说过多次的那句 话: “不因为苏联的逝去而后悔的人是没良心,但那些想要重建苏联的人是没头脑。 ” As a KGB man, Mr Putin knew perfectly well that the state-controlled Soviet economy did not work and that the ideology was hollow. But also as a KGB man, he believed that democracy and civil society were simply an ideological cover-up adopted by the West. What mattered in the world —East or West—were money and power, and these were the things he set out to consolidate. 作为一名前克格勃[注 7],普京完全理解国家控制的苏联经济这条路是走不通的,其意识形 态是空洞的。 但也是因为在克格勃的经历, 让他相信民主和公民社会只是西方利用的一种意 识形态掩盖。世界上不管东方西方,最重要的就是金钱和权力,这就是他决定要联合巩固的 东西。 The country was tired of ideology, and he did not force it. All he promised (and largely delivered) was to raise incomes; to restore Soviet-era stability and a sense of worth; to provide more consumer goods; and to let people travel. Since these things satisfied most of the demands for “Freedom” that had been heard from the late 1980s onwards, the people happily agreed to his request that they should stay out of politics. Though Mr Putin was an authoritarian, he seemed “democratic” to them. 当时的俄罗斯已经很厌倦意识形态了,而他也没有勉强引入新的意识形态。他唯一承诺(而 且之后也基本上做到的) 就是提高收入, 重建苏联时代的稳定和价值感, 提供更多的消费品, 让人们可以自由旅行。因为这几条满足了 20 世纪 80 年代尾以来人民关于“自由”的大部份 需求,大家很乐于接受他的另一项要求,那就是不要搀和政治。虽然普京是个专制者,在人 民的眼中他很“民主” 。 The ease with which Mr Putin eliminated all alternative sources of power was a testimony not to his strength but to Russia’ institutional weakness. Yeltsin, who hated communism, had refused to s censor the media or interfere in the court system. Mr Putin had no such qualms. First he brought television under his control, then oil and gas. Igor Malashenko, who helped to establish NTV, the first private television channel in Russia, says he thought that “there would be enough young journalists who would not want to go back to the stables. I was wrong.” 普京轻而易举就消灭了所有除他以外的权力源头, 这并不说明他的实力, 却恰恰显示了俄罗

斯的制度脆弱。 仇恨共产党的叶利钦之前曾拒绝审查媒体或干涉法院体系。 普京可没有这种 顾忌。他首先把电视台牢牢控制在手中,然后是油气产业。曾帮助建立俄罗斯第一家私营电 视台-俄罗斯独立电视台(NTV)的伊戈尔?马拉申科提到他本以为“会有足够多的年轻记 者不愿再被牵回马厩中。事实证明我想错了。 ” Russia was much freer in the 1990s than it became under Mr Putin. But the change was gradual rather than sudden, and was based on a relationship between money and power inherited from a previous era. The privatisations of the 1990s put property in the hands of the Soviet officialdom and a small group of Russian oligarchs. As Kirill Rogov, a historian and analyst, has observed, the real problem was not that the accumulation of capital was unfair—it usually is—but that clear rules of competition and a mechanism for transferring property from less to more efficient owners were never established. 俄罗斯在 20 世纪 90 年代比在普京统治下要自由多了。 但是这种改变是潜移默化, 而不是突 然发生的。而且这种改变的基础来自于前一个时代遗留下来的金钱和权力的关系。20 世纪 90 年代的私有化将财产权交到了前苏联官员和一小群俄罗斯寡头[注 8]的手中。正如历史学 家及政治分析员克里尔?罗格夫发现,真正的问题不在于资本积累不公平,资本积累甚少是 公平的, 真正的问题在于将财产权从效率较低的持有者往能够更有效使用财产的持有者转移 的竞争规则及机制从未被建立起来。 Under Yeltsin, the oligarchs were shielded from competition by their political clout. Mr Putin simply flipped the formula, turning owners into vassals who were allowed to keep their property at his discretion. From now on it was the power of the bureaucrat, not the wealth of the owner, that guaranteed the ownership of an asset. The nexus between political power and property was never broken—as it must be in a functioning democracy. 在叶利钦手下,俄罗斯的寡头们通过政治影响力躲避了竞争。普京仅仅是反其道而行之,把 财产持有者变成了在他允许下才能保有财产的奴隶。 从那时起财产持有的保证就从持有者的 财富变成了官僚的权力。 政治权力和财产权利之间的纽带在正常运作的民主国家内必然会被 打破,而在俄罗斯,这种联系一直存在。 Monetising privilege 以权换钱 Under communism, the lack of private property was compensated for by power and status. A party boss did not own a factory personally—he could not even buy a flat—but his position in the party gave him access to the collective property of the state, including elite housing

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