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一、高级词汇的使用 1.准确具体。 在选择词语时,要避免用上位词来代替下位词,特别是形容词和副词。例如: very, 我们可以用更贴切的词来代替它, 如 extremely, remarkably, quite, strictly。 类似 的词还有: good:positive, favorable, promising, perfect, excellent, outstand

ing, superior; bad:dreadful, unfavorable, poor, adverse; people:individual, characters, folks; look:glare, stare, watch, glance, observe, glimpse thing:issue, matter, affair, problem, business 2.富有变化。 在很多情况下,在一篇文章里,我们可能会用一些不同的词汇来表达相同的意 思,从而使表达富有变化,避免了单调和重复。例如:I’m afraid 我们可以用“I’m frightened/scared/terrified” 等来代替。 同样地, “尽力去做某事” , 除了我们常见的 “try to do sth.” 之外, 我们还可选择 “try every means to do sth./do one’s best to do sth./strive to do sth./make efforts to do sth./make every endeavor to do sth. ” 。还有表示“ (日子) 近了”除了用“near”之外,还可以用“at corner” “at hand” 。 3.用词新颖 如果我们都用常见的词汇表达相应的意思,很可能会造成阅卷老师的审美疲 劳,分数也不会高,而如果我们选择新颖的词汇则可能使阅卷老师眼前一亮,精神 一振,结果也就会不一样了。例如:

I think:I argue/assume/claim/hold/insist I am of the opinion/view I cling to the idea that most of people:the majority of people many:numerous/plenty of/vast/endless at last:eventually/finally cold:freezing/icy/chilly want:desire go to school:attend school laugh:tease surprised:astonished/shocked/started 4.短语优先 恰当使用短语,一方面使文章更生动,另一方面也会展示学生扎实的基础。因

此,平时要多多积累和训练,在短语和词都表示同一个意思,优先使用短语。例如: remember:bear in mind;control:take control of; cause:lead to/result in;not know:have no idea; believe:hold the belief;know:be aware of; cry:burst into tears;see:catch sight of; appear:come into sight;visit:pay a visit; consider:take into consideration/account 5.引用谚语 英语和汉语一样,也有很多谚语。如果我们在写作中很好地使用它,会为文章

增添色彩。例如: (1).Easier said than done. (2).Look before you leap. (3).It’s never too old to study. (4).More haste, less speed. (6).All that glitters is not gold. (7).A fail into the pit, a gain in your wit. (8).Where there is a will, there is a way. (9).Experience is the mother of wisdom. (10).One false step will make a great difference. (11).Practice makes perfect. 熟能生巧。 患难见真交。 说起来容易做起来难。 三思而后行。 学无长幼。 欲速则不达。

(5).All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

发光的不都是金子。 吃一堑,长一智。 有志者,事竟成。 经历是智慧之母。 一失足成千古恨。

(12).A friend in need is a friend indeed. (13).No pains, no gains.


(14).An apple a day can keep a doctor away. (15).The early bird catches the worm. 早起的鸟有虫子吃。

(16).People who live in glass house shouldn’t throw stones. 我们不应该批评别人,除非我们是完美的。 (17).What is food to one man may be poison to another. 萝卜青菜各有所爱。 (18).If you’re going to America, bring your own food. 人们都有自己的饮食习惯。 6.善用习语

习语是语言的结晶,是语言使用者长期以来使用的形式简洁且意思精辟的定形 性的、文化承载量最为丰富的词组或短语。恰当地使用它,会给文章增色,增强文 章的感染力,从而引人入胜。例如: (1).He has many enemies and he is viewed as a pain in the neck. (2).I’m so fed up. I can’t stand it any longer. (3).You’re milking the bull! Don’t waste time. (4).Watch your mouth. Do you know who you’re talking to? (5).I’m in the red, how can I buy a computer? (6).Disasters always come to you out of the blue. (7).He was really a dark horse. No one had expected that he should win. 二、较多语法结构的使用 文章的连贯性和紧凑感是很重要的,它直接反映作者的水平。如果行文结构松 散,语言啰嗦,那必然会大大降低文章的档次。要达到这一点,就要做到: 1.为了达到简洁的目的,我们常常把从句转化为短语。这其中包括: (1).转化为不定式短语。例如: Tom is such a generous boy that he often gives money to others. 转化为:Tom is such a generous boy as to often give money to others. He is so old that he can’t walk far. 转化为:He is too old to walk far. (2).现在分词和动名词短语。例如: While they were planting trees, the students saw a big bird flying towards them. 转化为:While planting trees, the students saw a big bird flying towards them.

As soon as they went out of the park, they took different ways. 转化为:On going out of the park, they took different ways. If conditions permit, we’ll have a get-together tomorrow. 转化为:Conditions permitting, we’ll have a get-together tomorrow.

(3).过去分词短语。例如: If he is often encouraged, he’ll do better and better. 转化为:If often encouraged, he’ll do better and better. The driver sped up and other divers followed him. 转化为:The driver sped up, followed by other drivers. When he was asked how old he was, the boy kept silent. 转化为:When asked how old he was, the boy kept silent. (4).with 复合结构。例如: The prisoner came in and his hands were tied behind. 转化为:The prisoner came in with his hands tied behind. The boy slept while the light was on. 转化为:The boy slept with the light on. As time went by, the poor boy began to worry about his father. 转化为:With time going by, the poor boy began to worry about his father. 2.我们也可以使用复合句把两个以上的简单句连接起来从而使句子变得紧凑。例 如: (1).The girl came to Japan. She stayed there for two weeks. 转化为:The girl came to Japan, where she stayed for two weeks.

(2).Xiao Ming was always cruel to animals. His mother didn’t know why. 转化为:His mother didn’t know why Xiao Ming was always cruel to animals. (3).Lily is the best student in Class 4. This makes her parents very proud. 转化为:Lily is the best student in Class 4, which makes her parents very proud. 3.选择别人少用的句式将为你带来更多的注意,也会给你带来意想不到的收获。 例如: (1).倒装句 Many students are accompanying the superstar. 转化为:Accompanying the superstar are many students. Shelly didn’t tell her parents about her work until they asked her again and again. 转化为:Not until they asked her again and again did Shelly tell her parents about her work. (2).强调句 What he saw in the dark room make him very frightened. 转化为:It was what he saw in the dark room that make him very frightened. He began to cry when he saw the national flag being raised. 转化为:It was when he saw the national flag being raised that he began to cry. (3).虚拟语气 If it hadn’t been so hot, the vegetables wouldn’t have died. How I wish I had worked hard to achieve my goal. But for your kindness, I would have suffered a lot in the snow. They could have seen their friends off, but their car broke down.

4.为了使句子表达生动,可使用感叹句和反问句。例如: (1).We were very surprised to see the panda swimming. 转化为:How surprised we were to see the panda swimming! (2).He has made so few mistakes in the exam. 转化为:What few mistakes he has made in the exam! (3).They can do it better. 转化为:Can’t they do it better? 我们还可以使用比喻、拟人等修辞手法。修辞手法能给读者留下深刻的印象, 具有强大的感染力。例如: Her hair was so soft. It was like silk. Look at him. He is as strong as an ox. These years has seen China change greatly.

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