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2016.9.9 任玲:写作 (总体框架)


TEM4
LESSON ONE: FRAMEWORK 专四作文整体框架

考试题型
改革前题型(至2015年) ? 2. 改革后题型(2016年) ? 3. 新大纲题型(2015年)
? 1.

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PART VI WRITING [45 MIN]
Read carefull

y the following excerpt on ……, and then write your response in NO LESS THAN 200 words, in which you should: summarize the main message of the excerpt, and then comment on whether …… You should support yourself with information from the excerpt.

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Framework:框架
? 一、段落结构

三段式 ? 引言段、正文段、结尾段 ? 2. 四段式 ? 引言段、正文部分(二段)、 结尾段
? 1.

Framework:框架
? 二、段落字数分配:

引言段 第一段(摘要) (4-5句) 60--70 words

Framework
主体部分 第二段(第三段) (8-9句)140 words 论点(1句) 分论点1+论据(解释/例证)(3-4句) 分论点2+论据(解释/例证)(3-4句) ……

Framework
结尾部分 最后一段 (3-4句)30--40 words 第一句:总结 第二句:重申论点 第三句:展望未来

Framework:框架
? 三、阅卷标准
? 1、语言:正确、类型多变。 ? 2、结构:清晰、主题句在句首。 ? 3、内容:论证合逻辑、论证充分。

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2006 PART VI WRITING (45 MIN) SECTION A COMPOSITION (35 MIN) Recently a Beijing information company did a survey of student life among more than 700 students in Beijing, Guangzhou, Xi’an, ……. The results have shown that 67 percent of students think that saving money is a good habit while the rest believe that using tomorrow’s money today is better. What do you think?

例年作文测试体裁
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Write on ANSWER SHEET THREE a composition of about 200 words on the following topic: You are to write in three parts. In the first part, state specifically what your opinion is. In the second part, support your opinion with appropriate details.

例年作文测试体裁
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In the last part, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary. You should supply an appropriate title for your composition. Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the instructions may result in a loss of marks.

例年作文测试体裁
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2006 Saving Money or Using Tomorrow’s Money

议论文

真题
Saving Money or Using Tomorrow’s Money

第一段

背景介绍

According to a recent survey, most college students think saving money is a good habit; the rest are convinced that spending tomorrow’s money is better. I assume saving money best suits me and renders me the greatest enjoyment.

论点

(40 words)

真题
第二段 分论点一
First things first, saving money is a preparation for a secured live. The best way to be free from poverty and anxiety about future is to have a certain amount of money in hand. In our daily life, various things unexpected and emergent may fall upon us. In these cases, if we have savings, we can manage to overcome these crises more easily.

论据

真题
第二段 分论点二
In addition, luxurious life can weaken us since it can spur people to make more money to enjoy life. Gradually, spending money freely becomes a habit and we buy many things we do not need. Just as Albert Einstein puts it, “A simple and unassuming life is good for everybody physically and mentally. ” (120 words)

论据

真题
第三段
In short, saving for a rainy day, a fine Chinese tradition, can provide us with the greatest security and the best satisfaction of life. (24 words)

总结/重申论点

真题
? ?

PART VI WRITING (45 MIN) SECTION A COMPOSITION (35 MIN) It is often seen that some people choose to leave big cities and live in the countryside, while others lay themselves out to seek a living in big cities. What is your opinion?

真题
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Write on ANSWER SHEET TWO a composition of about 200 words on the following topic: Is it Better to Live in the Countryside or in a Big City? You are to write in three parts. In the first part, state specifically what your opinion is. In the second part, support your view with one or two reasons.

真题
Is it Better to Live in the Countryside or in a Big City?

第一段

背景介绍

To live in the countryside or to live in a big city? That is a tough question. Many people 过 think that living in the countryside is boring and 渡 monotonous. But I assume that it is better to 语 live in the countryside. (41 words)

论点

真题
每二段 分论点一
To begin with, living in the countryside keeps people healthy. It is known to us that the air pollution is quite serious in cities because of the large number of cars. With the deteriorated air quality, they are more susceptible to lung diseases and breathing problems. If they live in the countryside, they do not have to worry about the air pollution, which is beneficial to their health.

论据

真题
每二段 分论点二
Besides, life in the countryside is simple and easy. Unlike people in big cities, people in the countryside are away from the material pursuits and hustle and bustle. They also keep a far distance from the crowd. The simple life style makes them content, which ultimately benefits their mental health. (118 words)

论据

真题
每三段
As has been mentioned above, living in the countryside is better than living in cities, because it will result in physical health and psychological well-being.

总结/重申论点
(25 words)

Framework:框架
? 阅卷标准

、语言:正确、结构多变。 ? 2、结构:清晰、主题句在句首。
?1 ? 3、内容:论证充分。

Framework:框架
? 论证方法:

1)举例法 ? 2)因果法 ? 3)比较与对比法 ? 4)引用论证 ? 5)综合法
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三段式作文写作手法综述
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2. 作文主体部分的写作 论证手法 1)举例法 当段落的主题为一理论性论点,就需要举 例或例证来加以支持,以说服读者。举例或例 证使抽象的概念具体化,而所举的事例也应该 具有充分的说明力,同时逻辑严密。

三段式作文写作手法综述
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2)因果法 当段落的主题是要解释“为什么”时,便 可采用因果法。因果法根据事物的原因推导出 来结果,它以事实和证据为根据,推导过程合 乎逻辑和常理,因果关系可分为前因后果,前 果后因,一因一果或多果多因等多种形式。

三段式作文写作手法综述
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3)比较与对比法 当段落的主题是要指出两个以上的事物的 相同或不同之处时,用比较或对比法。 比较的顺序采用两种方法: ①逐点进行比较对照 排列顺序为:A1, B1; A2, B2; A3, B3;…… ②分别进行比较对照 排列顺序为:A1, A2, A3; B1, B2, B3;……

三段式作文写作手法综述
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4)引用论证 适当的引用,可以是某人的一句话、一句名 言或一句谚语,加深读者对文章的感受。 Widening Gap Between the Rich and the Poor The Confucius once said, “A nation is not trouble by poverty, but by disparity.” Unfairness in distribution of wealth puts the society at stake. “民不患寡而患不均”

三段式作文写作手法综述
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5)综合法 在段落发展中同时应用几种不同手段。在 段落写作中都是各种不同方法的综合应用,很 少单纯采用一种方法来展来段落或是文章,常 见的为两、三种方法混合使用,例如因果法与 例证法合用,因果法与引用论证同时使用等。

例年作文测试体裁
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2011 Should Private Car Owners Be Taxed for Pollution?

议论文 立场选择型

例年作文测试体裁
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2011 PART VI WRITING (45 MIN)
SECTION A COMPOSITION (35 MIN) Recently government agencies in some big cities have been studying the possibility of putting a “pollution tax” on private cars. The amount of tax private car owners would have to pay would depend on the emission levels, i.e. engine or vehicle size. This has caused quite a stir among the public. Some regard it as an effective way to control the number of cars and reduce pollution in the city. But others don’t think so. What is your opinion?

真题: 立场选择型
引言部分 第一段 (2-3句) 40 words 第一句:背景介绍 第二句:过渡语 第三句:论点

真题: 立场选择型
Should Private Car Owners Be Taxed for Pollution?

第一段

背景介绍

Recently, putting a “pollution tax” on private cars has become a lot topic among the public. Some people are in favor of this idea while others are against it. As far as I am concerned, private car owners should be taxed for pollution. 论点 (45 words)

真题: 立场选择型
主体部分 第二段 (4-6句)120 words 分论点1+论据(解释/例证)(2-3句) 分论点2+论据(解释/例证)(2-3句) ……

真题: 立场选择型
第二段 分论点一
First of all, the increase of cars will result in environmental pollution. Therefore the private car owners are obliged to bear the responsibility of pollution and pay the taxes on their own. The purpose of collecting pollution tax is to raise the fund and then utilize the tax to protect our environment.

论据

真题: 立场选择型
第二段 分论点二
Secondly, it is very useful and meaningful for people to raise their environmental awareness. And if people are going to suffer from the financial loss, they probably hesitate to make a big decision to buy cars. Consequently, the number of the private cars can be controlled. (104 words)

论据

真题: 立场选择型
第三段
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总结

All in all, there are more and more environmental and social problems caused by the growing number of private cars. Levying the pollution tax on private car owners is a proper measure to control the number of cars and reduce pollution in the city. (44 words)

重申论点

样卷分析及点评
优秀作文(14分)

例年作文
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2007 PART VI WRITING (45 MIN) SECTION A COMPOSITION (35 MIN) Nowadays the Internet has become part of people’s life, and millions of young people have made friends online.

例年作文
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Write on ANSWER SHEET THREE a composition of about 200 words on the following topic: Is It Wise to Make Friends Online You are to write in three parts. In the first part, state specifically what your idea is. In the second part, provide one or two reasons to support your opinion.

例年作文
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In the last part, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary. Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the instructions may result in a loss of marks.

例年作文
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2007 Is It Wise to Make Friends Online

议论文

Is It Wise to Make Friends Online
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With the Internet becoming an indispensable part of modern people’s life, making friends online enjoys its great popularity, especially among young people. However, is it wise to make friends online, as many parents and teachers are worrying about? As far as I am concerned, I strongly oppose being addicted to making friends online.
(55 words)

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(第二段) Firstly, too much attention to online friends distracts your concerns to the true friends and families in the real world. If we look around, we often find a lot of young people staying online and chatting with online friends all day long. By the same time, the communication between them and the friends around them are becoming less and less. Therefore, they feel lonelier in real life and spend more time on the Internet. (61 words)

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(第三段) Besides, online friends are often disguised. A large number of cases have proved that many criminals make use of Internet to cheat of money or love. Even if they are not cheaters, they tend to be totally different persons when you get in actual contact with them. There’s always a gap between the real world and the imaginary one. (60 words)

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(结尾段) Nevertheless, it is unwise to make friends online. Those who are indulging in Internet should cast their eyesight to the friendship and kinship in the real life. What they should do is to seek solution, but not to escape. (40 words)

HOMEWORK
? 修改错误并背诵范文。


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