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高中英语人教版选修 8 课文翻译 Unit1 一个多元文化的国家

加利福尼亚是美国的第三大州,而且是人口最多的州。加州与众不同 之处在于它也是美国最具多元文化的一个州, 它吸引了来自世界各地 的人们。这些移民的风俗习惯以及语言在他们的新家都得以延续。当 你了解了加利福尼亚的历史后,你就不会对此感到惊讶了。 美洲土 著人

最早的一批人具体

是在什么时候来到我们现在所知道的加利福尼亚 地区的,谁也说不清楚。然而,很可能至少在 15 ,000 年以前美洲土 著人就住在加利福尼亚了。科学家们认为,这些迁居者通过一条史前 时代曾经存在的大陆桥穿越北极地区的白令海峡到达美洲。 欧洲人在 16 世纪来到这儿后,土著人遭受了极大的苦难,成千上万的人被杀 害或被迫成为奴隶。此外,欧洲人带来了疾病,使许多人染病而死, 不过,还是有一些人在经历了这些恐怖时期后活下来了。今天住在加 利福尼亚的美洲土著人比任何其他州的都要多。

西班牙人

在 18 世纪的时候,加利福尼亚是由西班牙统治的西班牙士兵最早是 在 1 6 世纪初期来到南美洲的,他们同土著人打仗,并夺去了他们的
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土地。两个世纪以后,西班牙人在南美洲的大部分地区定居下来,而 且还在我们现在称之为美国的西北沿海地区住下来。在首批移 居加 州的西班牙人中,大部分是宗教人士,他们的职责是向原住民传授天 主教。1821 年,墨西哥人从西班牙获得了独立-加利福尼亚于是成了 墨西哥的一部分。1846 年美国向墨西哥宣战,美国赢得战争胜利后, 墨西哥被迫把加利福尼亚割让给美国。但是,这个州至今仍然保留着 很强的西班牙的影响。 这就是为什么今天还有 40%的加利福尼亚人仍 然把西班牙语作为第一或第二语言的缘故。

俄罗斯人

19 世纪初期,一批最初到阿拉斯加的俄罗斯猎人开始在加利福尼亚 定居下来。今天,住在圣弗朗西斯科(旧金山)及其周边地区的美籍 俄罗斯人约有 25,000 人。

淘金矿工

1848 年,在美国同墨西哥开战之后不久,在加利福尼亚发现了金矿。 发财梦很快就吸引了世界各地的人。 距离最近因而来得最早的是南美 洲人和美国人。随后跟着来的有欧洲和亚洲的探险家。事实上很少有 人圆了发财梦。一些人死了或回家了,但是尽管条件十分艰苦,多数 人还是留在了加利福尼亚劳作谋生,并在新的城镇或农场里定居下
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来。到 1850 年加利福尼亚成为美国第 31 个州的时候,它已经是一个 有着多种文化的社会了。

后来的移民

虽然中国移民在淘金热时期就开始到来了, 但是更大批量的移民却是 在 1 9 世纪 60 年代为了修建贯穿美国东西海岸的铁路而来的。今天, 加利福尼亚州各地都有美籍华人, 尽管有很大比例的华人还是选择住 在洛杉矶和圣弗朗西斯科(旧金山)的“中国城”里。

19 世纪后期,其他国家的移民,比如意大利人来到了加利福尼亚, 他们主要是渔民,也有制酒工人。1911 年,丹麦的移民建立了自己 的城镇,至今仍然保留着丹麦文化。 20 世纪 20 年代,电影业在加 州的好莱坞建立了起来。这个行业吸引了大量的欧洲人,包括许多犹 太人。今天,加利福尼亚的犹太人口在美国占第二位。

日本农民是在 20 世纪初期开始到加利福尼亚来的,而从 20 世纪 80 年代以来就有更多的日本人在加利福尼亚定居了。非洲人从 1 9 世纪 就在加利福尼亚住下来,他们是从墨西哥向北迁来的。然而,更多的 非洲人是在 1942 年至 1945 年期间来到加利福尼亚的, 当时他们是到 船厂和飞机厂工作。

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最近期的移民

在最近的几十年里, 加利福尼亚成了更多的亚洲人的家, 包括朝鲜人、 柬埔寨人、越南人和老挝人。从 20 世纪 70 年代以来,计算机工业吸 引了印度人和巴基斯坦人来到加州。 未来展望

世界各地的人,由于受到气候条件和生活方式的吸引,仍然在继续迁 入加利福尼亚。人们认为,要不了多久,多种国籍的混合将会非常之 大,以致不可能存在一种主要的种 族或文化群体,而是多种族、多 文化的混合体。

Unit2 克隆:它将把我们引向何方?

克隆一直与我们同在,而如今它还要持续下去。这是一种用来生产与 原型完全相同的动植物的方法。 当园艺师从生长着的植物上剪下枝条 来培植新植物时,就会产生这种现象。这种现象也发生在动物身上, 从同一个原生卵子产生性别和相貌相同的双胞胎也是克隆。实际上, 这些都是自然克隆现象。

克隆技术有两大用途。第一,园艺师一直用它生产大量的供商用的植 物;第二,它在对新植物物种的研究以及对动物的医学研究方面都是 很有价值的。克隆植物简单,但克隆动物就比较复杂了,是一项很难
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完成的任务。克隆哺乳动物的多次尝试都失败了。但是,科学家的决 心和耐心最终得到了回报,这就是 1996 年具有突破性的克隆羊“多 莉”的诞生。它的程序如下图所示:

1.母羊(A)提供一个卵细胞。

2.在卵细胞中取出细胞核。

3.卵细胞准备接受新的细胞核。

4.母羊(B)提供一个供克隆的躯干细胞。该细胞核应包含生产一头新 羊所需要的全部基因。

5.取出该细胞的细胞核。

6.用电把母羊(B)的躯干细胞核和母羊(A)的卵细胞结合起来。

7.细胞分裂并生长成胚胎。

8.把胚胎植入另外一头母羊(C)体内,母羊(C)就是克隆羊的代孕者。

9.这头小羔羊就是母羊(B)所提,供的细胞核克隆而成的。
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一方面, 整个科学界都在关注着首例成功的克隆动物多莉羊的成长¨ 多莉看来是在正常地成长着,这很令人鼓舞。接着传来了多莉病重的 坏消息。 研究克隆的科学家发现多莉得的病更容易发生在年老的羊身 上.这让他们很沮丧。多莉总共只存活了六年半,这是它的原型羊寿 命的一半。可悲的是,同样无法控制的命运也在影响着其他物种,如 克隆鼠。科学家的脑海里产生的问题是: “这是不是所有克隆动物的 一个主要困难呢?这种现象会不会永远发生?如果改进程序, 问题会 不会解决?

另一方面,多莉的出生引起了一阵强烈的反对,对,对媒体和公众的 想象力也产生了巨大的影响。它引起了争议,因为它突然打开了人们 的眼界,看到了有可能:用克隆技术来治疗重病,甚至克隆出人类。

尽管目前供克隆研究的人体卵细胞和胚胎还很难得到,但报纸报道 说,有些邪恶头目希望把自己克隆出来以实现他的野心。宗教领袖也 提出了道德方面的问题。各国政府惶恐不安而且更加谨慎,有些政府 开始改革司法制度,明令禁止进行克隆人类的研究。但是其他国家如 中国和英国, 则还在继续收集克隆技术有可能提供丰富有的医疗救助 的证据。然而,科学察们仍对克隆技术有助于人类还是有害于人类, 以及克隆技术将把我们引向何处困惑。

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Unit3 蛇的困扰

我给住在乡下的母亲打电话的时候,她感到很心烦。 “我们院子里有 几条蛇, ”她告诉我说, “蛇时不时地爬到屋子旁边来,似乎是在屋子 附近离胡桃树不远的地方安家了。你能不能把它们赶走?”我感到很 自豪。这回我有机会来表现一下自己了。我要发明某种仁慈的

东西,既可以把蛇捉住,而又不会伤害它们。我知道我的父母是不会 让我伤害这些生物的。 我所做的第一件事就是看看有没有现成的任 何产品能帮助我。但是,看来只有一种毒蛇的药粉。很明显,我得找 一种新的方法了。于是我就着手研究蛇的习性,以便能用最容易的方 法来捉住他们。好在这些爬行动物都很小,问题比较容易解决。

经过一番研究准备之后,我决定采用三种可能的方法:第一,铲除蛇 的栖息地; 第二, 用男人或女人的香水或食物把它们引进陷阱; 第三, 降低它们的体温,使它们困乏,这样就很容易把它们捉住。我决定采 用最后一种方法。我买了一个制冰淇淋的不锈钢碗。在碗的内壁和外 壁都抹上果冻,这些果冻冷却后会冻结。我把这个碗放进冰箱,冷冻 了 24 个小时。与此同时,我还准备了一些冰块儿。

第二次试验我用的还是冻结的碗和冰块儿, 但是这次我是在夜晚气温 开始变凉的时候把它们放在蛇窝的上方, 然后像以前那样用桶把碗罩
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住,通宵放在那儿。第二天一早我就去看结果。这一次我小心翼翼地 蹲下去检查的时候,发现蛇都是睡意浓浓的。但是一把它们提起来, 它们就要咬我。因为它们都是毒蛇,所以很显然我还得改进我的捕蛇 方案。

第三次试验重复了上一次的程序, 不过第二天早晨我的手里拿了一个 捕鱼用的小网。这是因为我预料蛇还全再咬人。但是经过仔细监视, 证明这些蛇是制造不了麻烦的,一切都按计划进行着。我把这些温顺 的蛇收集起来,第二天就愉快地把他们全都释放到野外去了。 由于 朋友和亲戚的敦促,我决定把我这次的发明运到专利局去,请他们对 我这次成功的思路给予认可。只有你得到这种承认,你才可以说你是 一个真正的发明者二(评定)专利标准非常严格,除非新的想法真是 新颖的,否则很难被接受。此外,你的想法如果属于下列情况,那么 你也不可能得到专利:

·一种发现·一种科学理论或数学模式·文学或艺术·一场游戏或一 笔交易·一个电脑程序 ·一种新的动植物物种

你的产品要经过仔细调查,证明它确实是与众不同的,你才能获得专 利。专利局还有一大批审查人员,他们的唯一职责就是审查你的专利 申请是否有效。如果通过了所有这些审查,你申请的专利就会在你提 出申请的 18 个月之后公布出来。于是,我填了表,向专利局提交了
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申请书。现在就是等,待和期盼了。将来你看看我的银行结余金额就 会知道我是否成功了祝我好运吧。

Unit4 皮格马利翁

主要人物:

伊菜扎·杜利特尔(伊) :穷苦的卖花姑娘,立志要改善自己的生活

希金斯教授(希) :语音学专家,坚信一个人的英语水平决定这个人 的社会地位

皮克林上校(皮) :陆军军官,后来成了希金斯教授的朋友,并给他 安排了一项任务 第一幕 决定性的会面

1914 年的某日晚上 11 点 15 分,在英国伦敦某剧场夕。正下着倾盆 大雨,四处响着出租车的鸣笛声。有一位男士在躲雨,边听人们谈话 边观察着人们的反应。他一边观察,一边作记录。附近一个穿着黑色 衣裙围着羊毛围巾的卖花姑娘也在躲雨。这时有位先生(先)从这儿 路过,他迟疑了片刻。

伊:长官,过这边来呀,买我这个苦命的孩子一束花吧!
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先:对不起,我没有零钱,

伊:长官,我可以给你找零钱呀。

先: (惊奇地)一个英镑你找得开吗?没有再小的钱了。

伊: (带有希望的神色)啊!好啦,从我这买一束吧。拿这一束,只 要三个便士 o(举起一些已经枯萎的花)

先: (不舒服地)现在别烦我,好姑娘。 (在他的口袋里找什么,这时 语气好些了)等一等,这儿有几个零钱。这点钱对你有用吗?雨下大 了,不是吗?(说完就走了)

伊: (对先生付的钱表现出失望的样子,但是有总比没有好)先生, 谢谢了。 (看到有人在记什么,感到担心)嗨,我跟那位先生讲话, 又没做错什么事。我有权卖花吧,我有权嘛!我不是小偷,我是个老 实姑娘,老老实实的! (开始哭起来)

希: (友善地)好啦,好啦!谁伤害你了,傻姑娘?你把我当成什么 人了?(递给她一条手帕)

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伊:我还以为你是一个便衣警察呢。

希:我像警察吗?

伊: (仍在担心)那你为啥要把我说的话记下来呢?我怎么知道你是 不是写对了呢?那你把你写的关于我的东西给我看看。

希:你看吧! (把写满字的纸递给她)

伊:这是什么呀?不像规规矩矩的字,我看不懂。 (把纸退回给他)

希:我懂。 (模仿伊的声音读)长官,过这边来呀,买我这个苦命孩 子一束花吧! (改用自己的声音)好了吧,你呀,如果我没有弄错的 话,你出生在里森格罗佛:

伊: (困惑不解的)如果我是又怎样呢?跟你有什么关系呢?

皮: (本来是一直望着这个姑娘的,这时跟希金斯说话了)太棒了! 请问你是怎么知道的呢? 希:对人的发音进行研究、分类,如此而 已。这是我的专业,也是我的业余爱好。你可以根据几句话判定是哪 个地方的人。我可以根据任何谈话来判定他们是哪个地方的人,差距 不过六英里,有时候在伦敦甚至不超过两个街区呢。
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皮:恭喜你了!不过,你这样做有收入吗?

希:当然有哆,还挺高呢。这是个致富的年代 人们从伦敦的穷人区 开始工作,年收入才 80 英镑,最后到了富人区工作,年收入就是 10 万英镑了,但是他们一张嘴就会露出马脚(暴露自己的身份) 。如今 如果让我一教,她就会变成一个上层阶级的淑女??

皮:是吗?那太妙了!

希: (粗鲁地)你瞧这个姑娘,英语说得那样糟糕,使她注定要在贫 民窟里待上一辈子。不过,先生, (高傲地)要是一旦有人教她把英 语说好了, 她就可以在三个月以内冒充公爵夫人出席大使主办的花园 晚会了。说不定我还可 以给她找份工作,当一名贵夫人的侍女或商 店的店员。这些工作都要求英语说得好呢。

伊:你说啥来着?店员?这正是我想要做的,真的!

希: (不理睬她)你相信我说的话吗?

皮:当然相信。我自己就学了好多种印度方言,而且??

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希:真的吗?那你认不认得皮克林上校呢?

皮:当然认得,皮克林就是我。那么请问您是谁?

希:我是亨利·希金斯。我还打算要去印度见你呢:

皮:我也正是到英国来找你的!

伊:我呢?你们怎么帮助我呢?

希:啊,拿去吧! (漫不经心地朝她的篮子里扔去一把钱)好老兄, 我们该美美地庆祝一番了。 (一道离去)

伊: (惊奇地看着收集起来的钱)啊,我还从来没有见过!整整一个 英镑呢!一笔财富呀!这的确给我帮大忙了,真的。明天我一定去找 你,亨利·希金斯。等着瞧吧!你那口(模仿他的声音) “真正的英 语”??(用自己的声音)我倒要看看你能不能帮我找到??(离去)

Unit5 周口店洞穴参观记

一群英国学生(学)来到周口店洞穴参观。有一位考古学家(考)正 领着他们参观。
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考:欢迎到中国来参观周口店洞穴。很高兴见到你们这些从英国来的 对考古学感兴趣的学生。你们想必都很清楚,正是在这个地方,我们 找到了世界上居住在这个地方最早人类的证据。 我们在这儿进行的挖 掘工作已经很多年了,而且??

学 1:

对不起,打断一下你的讲话,请问他们是怎么住在这个地方的呢?这 儿只有石头和树木。考:问得好。你是个敏锐的观察者,在高山上的 那些洞穴里我们找到了人骨和兽骨,还有工具和其他物品因此,我们 有理由认为他们不顾严寒,就住在这些洞穴里。

学 2:那他们是怎样取暖的呢?他们不可能像我们现在这样有垫子、 毯子和被子。想必是很不舒服的了。

考: 我们发现在洞穴中央有生火用的地炉。 他们用地炉里的火来取暖、 做饭,还可以用火来吓跑野兽。我们一直在挖掘一层层的积灰,几乎 有六米厚, 这意味着他们可能整个冬天都在烧火。 我们还没有找到门, 但我们认为在天寒地冻的冬季他们可能是用兽皮挂在洞口来防寒的。

学 3:在那以前有些什么野兽吗?考:嗯,我们在洞里发现了老虎和
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熊的骨头。我们认为这些野兽对他们来讲是最危险的敌人了。现在, 你们看这个东西能告诉我们有关早期人类生活的什么情况呢? (指着 一张有针线的照片让大家看)

学 2:哎呀,那是一根针!天哪,难道他们还会修补东西吗?

考:除此之外,你认为还可能派别的什么用场吗?

学 4:让我看看。这个东西最多三厘米长,看起来像是用骨头做的。 我不知道他们是怎样做成针眼的??

学 2: (插话)你是不是说他们自己做衣服穿?他们又是从哪里得到 衣料的呢?

考:他们没有像我们今天穿的这种衣料。你能猜出他们用的是什么 吗?

学 1:哇,他们穿的衣服全都是用兽皮做的吗?他们那些衣服是怎样 做成的?我确信它们裁剪并缝起来又厚又重。

考:我们有证据表明,他们的确穿的是用兽皮制的衣服。我们不断发 现一些磨削其他工具用的工具。 看样子他们可能是用磨尖的石器来切
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割野兽并剥皮,再用小一些的刮子把皮上的脂肪和肉去掉。然后,他 们可能在兽皮上擦上大量的盐,使皮变柔软。最后进行剪裁,缝起来 就成了。确实是既难又脏的活!现在来看看这个吧。 (指着一串项链)

考: 你真聪明! 有块骨头实际上是野兽的牙齿, 贝壳是从海边捡来的。 你还认得别的骨头吗? 学 1:这根很像鱼骨头,对吗?

考:很对。植物学的分析结果明确地告诉我们,这儿四周曾经是一个 很.大的浅水湖。毫无疑问,当时湖里是有鱼的。

学 3:不过,湖并不是海呀,我们离海还远着呢¨眷客,更壳又是怎 么来的呢?

考:早期人类之间也许有贸易来往,或者他们也可能旅行到海边去。 我们知道,他们跟着兽群四处走。他们并不种植谷物,而是在野果熟 了的时候采摘它们并捕杀野兽来充饥。 这就是他们被称之为猎人和采 摘者的缘故。现在,咱们去参观洞穴好吗?

选修八必备资料大全 [导读]选修八 Unit 1 A land of diversity 单元要点预览(旨在让同学 整体了解本单元要点) 词汇 部分 词语 辨析 1. means / way /
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method 2. percent / percentage 3. obvious / apparent/ evident / clear 4. hire / employ / rent 词形 变化 1. elect vt.选举,推举 选修八 Unit 1 A land of diversity 单元要点预览(旨在让同学整体了解本单元要点)词汇部分词语辨析 1. means / way / method 3. obvious / apparent/ evident / clear 化 1. elect vt.选举,推举;选择 vi. 进行选举,作出选择 election n.选举,推举,当选 elective adj.可任意选择的 n.选修科目 2. immigrate vi. 移入 immigration n. 移民入境 immigrant n.移民,侨民 3. race n.赛跑;竞争;人种 v. 参赛 racial adj. 人种的,种族的 racism n. 种族歧视,种族偏见;种族主义 4. apparent adj. 显然的,明白的,表面上的 apparently adv. 显然,表面上地 5. punishment n. 罚,刑罚 punish vt. 惩罚,处罚重点单词 1. majority n. 大多数;大半 2. applicant n. 申请人
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2. percent / percentage 4. hire / employ / rent 词形变

3. occur vi. 发生;出现;存在 4. indicate vt. 指出;标示;表明 5. slip vi. 滑动;滑行;滑跤 n. 滑倒;小过失;失误 6. insert vt.插入,嵌入重点词组 1. live on 继续生活或存在 2. make a life 习惯于新的生活方式、工作等 3. keep up 坚持;维持;沿袭古老的风俗﹑ 传统等;使某人不能去睡 觉 4. team up with(与某人)一起工作(尤指为一共同目标) ;合作 5. mark out 划线标出......界线 6. take in 包括;吸收;接纳;欺骗 7. a great/good many 相当多,很多 重点句子 1. California is the third largest state in the USA but has the largest population. 2. Exactly when the first people arrived in what we now know as California, no one really knows. 重点语法 名词性从句(见语法部分) 语言要点(模块) Ⅰ.词语辨析 (旨在提供完形填空所需材料) 1. means / way / method
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【解释】 means "方法、方式、工具",着重于具体的手段。 (单复数相同) way "一般的方法、方式或个人的特殊方法方式",与技巧或效果的好 坏无关。 method "有系统的、有效率的精心拟定的方法",也可以指抽象概念" 条理"。 短语搭配:做......的方法:a way to do sth./a way of doing sth. / a method of doing sth.;用这种/些方法:in this way / with the method / by this means;用......方法,借助......:by means of... 无论如何:by all means;一点也不,决不(用于句首句子需倒装) :by no means;by the way 顺便问一下;on one' s way to...在去......的路上;in the way 挡住 路 【练习】用 means,way,method 填空。 1). These vegetables can be cooked in different _______. 2). Only in this _______ can you find out the truth. 3). By this _______ I get in touch with him. 4). We express our thoughts by _______ of words. 5). ______ _______ _______ shall I lend him money! 6). The methods of _______ (teach) need _______ (improve). Keys: 1). ways means 6). teaching; improving / to be improved
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2). way

3). means

4). means

5). By no

2. percent / percentage 【解释】 percent 表示"百分之......",相当于"%",其前面往往是一个具体的数 字。 percentage 表示"百分比; 百分率", 前面不能是具体数字, 只能被 high, low 等修饰。 【练习】用 percent,percentage 填空。 1). I am a hundred ________ in agreement with you. 2). This company only supply 30 ________ of what we need. 3). The numbers are small, in _________ terms, but significant. 4). There used to be a high _________ of babies that diet scarlet fever every year. Keys: 1). percent what percentage 3. obvious / apparent/ evident / clear 【解释】 obvious 意为"某东西具有显著特点,不需费力就可觉察到,常用于一 目了然的事物"。 apparent 意为"表面看起来很明显,而实际情况未必如此"。 evident 意为"有证据作出合理判断,考虑到各种事实、条件后而显得 明显"。 clear 意为"不存在使人迷惑或使问题复杂化的因素"。
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2). percent

3). percentage

4). percentage

【练习】用 obvious,apparent,evident,clear 填空。 1). It was an ________ mistake for him to have gone alone. 2). The situation is ________ to everyone. 3). It was becoming increasingly _________ that he disliked me. 4). The applause made it _________ that the play was a hit. Keys: 1). obvious 4. hire / employ / rent 【解释】 hire 是日常用语,指按工作量或时间雇用人或租借东西,有"花钱使 用某物"和"把某物使用权出让给别人以收取费用"之意;多指临时租 用某物。如:hire a boat,a car,a camera,a bicycle,an evening dress, a hall for a meeting 等,指人时,有"雇用"、"受雇"两种含义。 employ 较正式,多指商店或公司长期雇用人手;受雇人员较广,甚 至包括社会地位较高 的职业人员,有"聘请"之义;也可以解释为"忙于,从事"常用于 be employed in sth. / doing sth. 短语中。 注:要弄清 employ 几个名词 的用法:employee (雇工,雇员),employer (户主,东家),employment (就业,雇用)。 rent 一般指租借房屋、地产(租借出去);也有"花钱使用某物"和"把某 物使用权出让给别人以收取费用"之意;多指用于长时间的场合。如: rent a house,a flat,a TV 等。rent 还可作名词,意为"租金;租费"。 【练习】用 hire,employ,rent 填空。
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2). clear

3). apparent

4). evident

1). Our house has been ________ by a newly-married couple. 2). It' s important to ________ proper words in writing poem. 3). They _________ ________ in writing when I came. 4). They ________ out boats by the hour. 5). We ________ a driver to take us on a tour of the city. Keys: 1). rented hired Ⅱ.词性变化 (旨在提供语法填空所需材料) 1. elect vt.选举,推举;选择 vi. 进行选举,作出选择 election n.选举,推举,当选 elective adj.可任意选择的 n.选修科目 2. immigrate vi. 移入 immigration n. 移民入境 immigrant n.移民,侨民 3. race n.赛跑;竞争;人种 v. 参赛 racial adj. 人种的,种族的 racism n. 种族歧视,种族偏见;种族主义 4. apparent adj. 显然的,明白的,表面上的 apparently adv. 显然,表面上地 5. punishment n. 罚,刑罚 punish vt. 惩罚,处罚 【练习】用括号内所提供词的适当形式填空。 1). In America, presidential ________ (elect) are held every four years.
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2). employ

3). were employed

4). hire

5).

2). They deserve to ________ (punish) for putting passengers at risk. 3). She had to tidy the classroom as ________ (punish) for being late. 4). She was the daughter of Chinese ________ (immigrate) to America. 5). There was a sudden increase ________ (immigrate) in from Eastern Europe. 6). He is a victim of ________ (race) discrimination. 7). She turned to face him, her anger ________ (apparent) gone. 8). Their motives, as will soon become completely selfish. Keys: 1). elections immigrants 5). immigration 6). racial 7). apparently 8). apparent 2). be punished 3). punishment 4). _______ (apparently), are

Ⅲ.重点词汇(旨在提供词汇综合运用所需材料) 1. majority n. 大多数;大半 major adj.&n. 较大的,主要的;主修, 专攻 (反义词 minority 少数;少数民族)[典例]1). A / The majority of doctors agree that smoking is extremely harmful to health. 大多数医生认为吸烟对健康极为有害。 2). The majority was/were in favour of the proposal. 多数人赞成这个建 议。 [重点用法] be in the/a majority 构成大部分/大多数
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a majority over sb 超过对

方的票数 [练习] 按要求填空或翻译。 1). English speakers form the ________ (大多数) of the population. 2). Among the members of the committee those who favour the proposed changes are _______ (介词) the majority. 3). They had a large majority _______ (介词) the other party at the last election. 4). The majority of people _________ (prefer) peace to war. 5). The majority of the damage _________ (be) easy to repair. Keys: 1). majority is 2. applicant n. 申请人 application n. 申请(书); 应用; 用途 apply v. 申 请;运用,适用[典例]1). We had 250 applicants for the job. 有 250 人 申请这份工作。 2). As the wages were low, there were few applicants for the job. 因为工 资低, 没有什麽人申请这份工作。 [重点用法] apply for... 申请...... apply to... 适用...... 2). in 3). over 4). prefer / prefers 5).

fill in the application form for sth. 填写......申请表 [练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。 1). Successful _________ (apply) will receive notification within the week.
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2). This rule can' t be applied ________ (介词) every case. 3). You should ________ ________(申请) the job immediately, in person or by letter. 4). The question in the second half of the form _________ ________ ( 适 用) married men only. Keys: 1). applicants 2). to 3). apply for 4). apply to

3. occur vi. 发生;出现;存在 [ 典例 ]1). The tragedy occurred only minutes after take-off. 这一悲剧在起飞后几分钟内就发生了。 2). Didn' t it occur to you that he might be late? 你当时没有想到他可能 会迟到吗? [重点用法] occur to... (主意) 浮现于脑海中;被想到;被想起; (某人)想到...... [练习] 根据句子的意思填空或翻译。 1). The possibility that she might be wrong never even ________ ________ her. 2). A good idea _______ _______ him. 3). ___________________________________ (他从没想到) he might be falling in love with her. Keys: 1). occurred to that 4. indicate vt. 指出; 标示; 表明 indication n. 指出; 表明 indicative adj. 指示的;暗示的 [典例]1). I asked him where my sister was and he
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2). occurred to

3). It had never occurred to him

indicated the shop opposite. 我问他握姐姐在哪,他指指对面的商店。 2). Research indicates that men find it easier to give up smoking than women. 研究表明男人感到比女人更容易戒烟。 [重点用法] indicate sth (to sb) 指示;指出;标示 that/wh-表示......;示意...... [练习] 根据句子的意思,在括号里填入适当的词。 1). The government has ________ (表明) that it intends to cut taxes. 2). A flashing red light ________ ( 标示) that a stretch of road was undergoing repairs. 3). There is every ________ (indicate) of a change in the weather. Keys: 1). indicated 2). indicated 3). indication indicate

5. slip vi. 滑动; 滑行; 滑跤 n. 滑倒; 小过失; 失误 slippery adj. 滑 溜的[典例]1). My foot slipped and I nearly fell. 我的脚一滑,差点跌 到。 2). She slipped into the room when no one was looking. 她趁无人注意 的时候溜进了房间。 [重点用法] let slip... 错过......;无意中说出 fingers 错过(机会),失去(机会) a slip of the tongue 口误 [练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。
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let sth. slip through your

1). She ________ ________ (无意中说出) that she was intending to leave the company. 2). As the years _________ by, I thought more and more about him. 3). Drive very carefully; the roads are wet and ________ (slip). Keys: 1). let slip 2). slipped 3). slippery 6. insert vt.插入,嵌入[典例]He inserted a key into a lock. 他把钥匙插 进锁中。 [重点用法] insert sth (in/into/between sth) 插入、放入、置入或嵌於某物或某两物 间 [练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的介词。 1). She inserted an additional paragraph ________ an essay. 2). Insert your fingers ________ the layers and press them apart. Keys: 1). in 2). between

Ⅳ.重点词组(旨在提供综合运用所需材料) 1. live on 继续生活或存在[典例]She lived on for many years after her husband died. 丈夫死後她继续活了多年。 [短语归纳] live 短语: live on sth 以某物为食;靠某种经济来源生活 sth 靠做某事物为生 live for sth 以某事物为生活目标 物而幸存
27

live by doing

live through sth 经历某事

live together 在一起生活;同居 行事;表现出符合某事物的标准 live with sth 接受或容忍某现象 of... 活到......岁 live a... life 过着......的生活

live up to sth 依照某事物

live to be... = live to the age

[练习] 根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的 live 短语。 1). The lonely old man _______ _______ charity. 2). Mozart is dead but his music _______ _______. 3). My grandfather _______ _______ both world wars. 4). We should work hard and try to _______ _______ _______ our parents' expectations. 5). The brave girl is learning to _______ _______ her disability. Keys: 1). live on 5). live with 2. make a life 习惯于新的生活方式、 工作等[典例]They settled down in Canada and made a life for themselves. 他们在加拿大定居下来,习惯 新的生活方式。 [短语归纳] life 短语: bring sb/sth (back) to life 给某人/事物的活力;使复活 one' s life (for sb/sth) 为......献身;牺牲生命 lead a dog' s life 过狗一般的生活(长期忧虑、痛苦或悲伤)make one' s way in life 在生活中有所成就
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2). lives on

3). lived through

4). live up to

lay down

take one' s (own) life: commit suicide 自杀 s life: kill oneself 自杀 take sb' s life: kill sb 取某人性命 的或某些人的)生活方式 a walk of life 行业;职业;阶层

put an end to one'

a/sb' s way of life(某人

to the life 逼真

end one' s days/life (in sth)(处於某状况下或在某处)度过余生 [练习] 根据句子的意思在括号里填入适当的介词或翻译。 1). He laid down his life _______ the cause of freedom. 2). They interview people from _______ _______ _______ _______ ( 各 行各业的人). 3). She adapted easily to the French _______ _______ _______ ( 生活方 式). Keys: 1). for 2). all walks of life 3). way of life 3. keep up 坚持;维持;沿袭古老的风俗、传统等;使某人不能去睡 觉[典例]1). You' re all doing a splendid job; keep up the good work! 你 们干得都很出色, 要坚持下去! 2). I do hope we' re not keeping you up. 我希望我们没有耽误你睡觉。 [短语归纳] keep 短语: keep up with sb/sth. 跟上(某人/某事物) ; (与某人/某事物)同步前进 或保持联系;跟上(形势) keep (on) doing sth. 继续做某事物;重复做某事物 away from(使某人/事物)不靠近某人/事物
29

keep

keep sb back from sb/sth(使某人)与某人/事物保持距离 back 阻止某事物

keep sth.

keep oneself/sb from sth/doing sth 使自己/某人不能做某事物 keep sth from sb 不将某事告诉某人 keep off (sb/sth) 不接近或不接触某人/事物 out (of sth) 不让某人/物进入(某处) keep in touch with 保持与某人的联系 健康 [练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词。 1). The high cost of raw materials is keeping prices _______ (副词). 2). She likes to keep up _______ (介词) the latest fashions. 3). The house is becoming too expensive for them to ________ ________ (维修). 4). We should try to ________ ________(沿袭) our old customs. 5). Police warned bystanders to ________ ________(不靠近) the blazing building. 6). I think we ought to ________ ________ ________ ________ ( 不把实 情告诉他) until he' s better. Keys: 1). up away from 2). with 3). keep up 4). keep up 5). keep keep fit 保持 keep sb/sth

6). keep the truth from him

4.team up with(与某人)一起工作(尤指为一共同目标) ;合作[典 例]The two companies have teamed up to develop a new racing car. 那两
30

个公司已合作研制新型赛车。 [练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词。 He _______ _______ _______ ( 与某人一起工作) his brother in the doubles. Keys: teamed up with 5. mark out 划线标出......界线[典例]Please mark out the sentences that you don' t understand with a red pen. 请用红笔标出你不懂的句子。 [重点用法] be marked with... 标记着...... [练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词。 1). I' ve lost a case _______ _______ (标记着) "IX" on its back. 2). She carefully _______ _______ (划线标出) the important phrases and sentence patterns. Keys: 1). marked with 2). marked out

6. take in 包括;吸收;接纳;欺骗[典例]1). The students find it easy to take in what you teach. 学生发现你的课很好懂。 2). He had nowhere to sleep so we offered to take him in. 他没地方可以 睡,我们于是就提出让他留宿。 [短语归纳] take 短语: take apart 拆开;剖析,抨击(论点等) 拿下,取下;拆卸;记下 take back 取回,带回;收回说过的话;使...回忆起昔日
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take down

take care

of 照料,保管 take up 开始从事;占用(时间或空间);着手处理 服药 take it easy 别紧张,慢慢来 承,接收,接管 take off 脱下(衣服等);起飞 从事;呈现 take one' s place 入座;代替某人的位置 s time 不急,慢慢干 [练习] 用与 take 相关的短语填空。 1). Don' t be _______ _______ by his promises. 2). Who do you think will ________ ________ now that the governor has been dismissed? 3). These boxes of yours are ________ ________ too much space. 4). 1 was really _______ _______ when seeing old photos. 5). Dear ladies and gentlemen , please now _______ _______ _______.The opera is soon to begin. 6). Tom carefully ________ ________what the teacher said Keys: 1). taken in taken back 5). take your place 6). took down 7. a great/good many 相当多,很多[典例]It all happened a good many
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take medicine

take over 继

take on 承担,

take one'

2). take over

3). taking up

4).

years ago. 这发生在很多年前。 [重点用法] a great/good many a large number ofscores ofdozens ofmany/few 修饰可数名词复数 many a 修饰可数名词单数 a good/great deal of a large/great amount of large amounts of much / little / a little 修饰不可数名词 a lot of = lots ofplenty ofa large/great quantity of = quantities of a supply of = supplies of 可数名词复数/不可数名词 [练习] 根据句子的要求翻译。 1). I' ve known her for _______ _______ _______ (很多) years. 2). I imagine if one day I had _______ _______ _______ _______ (很多) money, I would go traveling round the world. Keys: 1). a great/good many amount of Ⅴ.重点句子 (旨在提供句子结构等所需材料) 1. California is the third largest state in the USA but has the largest population. 加利福尼亚是美国第三大洲,但有着最多的人口。
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2). a good/great deal of 或 a large/great

[解释] 形容词的最高级前面可以被序数词以及 by far, much, almost, nearly,not quite 等词修饰。 [练习] 翻译句子。 1). 黄河是中国第二长河。 ___________________________________________________________ _________________________ 2). 亚洲是世界上最大的洲。 ___________________________________________________________ _________________________ Keys: 1). The Yellow River is the second longest river in China. 2). Asia is by far the largest continent in the world. 2. Exactly when the first people arrived in what we now know as California, no one really knows. 没有人知道确切在什么时候第一批移 民者到达我们今天所称为加利福尼亚的地方。 [解释] what we now know as California 是一个由 what 引导的名词性从 句, 做 arrive in 的宾语, what 是复合关系代词, 相当于 the thing(s)that, 因此,在名词性从句中可以用 the thing(s)that 取代的,应该用 what。 注意 1:名词性从句中 what 与 that 的区别:that 在名词性从句中不起 句子成分的作用,what 必须起句子成分的作用。 注意 2: 名词性从句中 what 与 which 的区别: 指代前文已经提到过的 对象或范围时,用 which,否则用 what。 What he said sounds reasonable. (what 作 said 的宾语)
34

That our team has won the game has been proved. (That 在主语从句中不 起句子成分的作用) There are many books available. I don' t know which to read. (which 指的 是前文提到的 books 的其中一本) What book do you want to buy ? (前文没有提及买什么书或哪一类书) [练习] 根据句子的意思填词。 1). This is ________ he wanted. 2). This is the thing ________ he wanted. 3). She is no longer ________ she used to be. 4). She is no longer the person ________ she used to be. Keys: 1). what 2). that 3). what 4). that

课文要点(模块) Ⅰ.课文词汇等填空(旨在复习本课文中的单词拼写和主要词语等) 根据课文内容完成下面语法填空,注意单词拼写和词语用法: California is the _____1_____(three)largest state in the USA but has the largest population. It has _____2______ (attraction) people from all over the world. No one really knows when the first people arrived in ______3____ we now know as California. Now there are more Native Americans _____4_______ in California than in any other state. California _____5________(统治) by Spain and there is still a strong Spanish ______6_____ (影响) in the state. People began _____7______ ( settle ) in California when gold _____8_______( 发现 )there. But
35

people from Africa have been living there. It is believed that before long the mix of _____9______(国籍) will be so great that there will be no major racial of cultural groups, but simply a ____10______(mix) of many culture 答案: 1.third ruled nationalities 2.attracted 7.settling 3.what 4.living 5.was 9.

6.influence

8.was discovered

10. mixture

Ⅱ.课文大意概括 (旨在训练用 30 个单词概括大意的能力) 阅读课文,试着用 30 来个单词概括课文大意或翻译下面短文。 整篇文章分别介绍了美洲土著人,西班牙人,俄罗斯人,金矿工 人,后来移民与未来移民及解释为什么加州是一个多民族,多文化的 地方。 The whole passage introduced

__________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ______________________________ 答案:The whole passage introduced the native Americans, the Spanish, Russians, gold miners, later arrivals and future immigrants and explain why California is a multi-ethnic, and multi-cultural place. Ⅲ.课文佳句背诵与仿写 (旨在培养对难句的理解和写作能力) 1.【原句】Exactly when the first people arrived in what we now know as California, no one really knows. 最早一批人具体是在什么时候来到我
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们现在了解的加利福尼来地区的,谁也说不清楚。 [模仿要点] 句子结构:状语从句 + what 从句,+ 主句 【模仿 1】 当我们把它和我们称之为 "大哥大"相比,我们发现新的移 动电话携带轻便,小巧,价格便宜。 ___________________________________________________________ ____________________ 答案: When we compared it to what we called "Da Ge Da", we found new mobile phones are light and small to carry with a low price. 【模仿 2】当我们到达人们称之为小鸟天堂的地方时,我们兴奋地发 现数千种鸟类定居在那。 ___________________________________________________________ ____________________ 答案: When we arrived at what people call Bird Paradise, we were excited to find thousands of kinds of birds are settling there. 2. 【原句】Although Chinese immigrants began to arrive during the Gold Rush Period, it was the building of the rail network from the west to the east coast that brought even larger numbers to California in 1860s. 虽然 中国移民在淘金热时期就开始来到(美国) ,但是更大批量的中国移 民却是在 19 世纪 60 年代为了修建贯穿美国东西海岸的铁路而来的。 [模仿要点] 句子结构:让步状语从句+强调句 【模仿 1】虽然他妹妹和他没有血缘关系,但是洪战辉他自己坚持背 她上大学,这件事感动了整个中国。
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___________________________________________________________ ____________________ 答案:Although his young sister has no blood relationship with him, it is Hong Zhan Hui himself that insists on carrying her on his back to college, which moves the whole China. 【模仿 2】虽然我的日常生活十分单调,但是我的努力使我适应新的 校园生活。 ___________________________________________________________ ____________________ 答案:Although my daily life is extremely monotonous, it is my hard work that makes me adapt myself to the new life on campus. 3.【原句】 It is believed that before long the mix of nationalities will be so great that there will be no distinct major racial or cultural groups, but simply a mixture of many races and cultures. 人们认为,要不了多久, 多种国籍的混合将会非常之大, 以至于不可能存在一种主要的种族或 文化群体,而只是多种族,多文化的混合体。

[模仿要点] 句子结构:It is +V-ed +that 从句;so...that... 【模仿 1】据报道 2008 奥运福娃的英文名已经从 Friendlies 改为 Fuwa , 它易发音,易记忆, 很受人们的欢迎。 ___________________________________________________________ ____________________
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答案:It is reported that the English name of the five mascots of the 2008 Olympics has changed from "Friendlies" to "Fuwa", which is so easy to pronounce and remember that it is popular with all the people. 【模仿 2】人们普遍认为书的影响是如此之大以至我们的父母总是鼓 励我们养成良好的阅读习惯,阅读更多的书籍,但是我们必须非常注 意书的选择。 ___________________________________________________________ ____________________ 答案:It is commonly believed that the influence of books is so important that our parents always encourage us to form good habits of reading and to read more books, but we must pay great attention to the choice of books. 单元自测 (模块) 1 完形填空 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从 1-10 各题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 词数:186 完成时间:14 分钟 难度:*** The mobile phone has created a new way of life. It gives us the opportunity to 1 people when and where we like. But when mobile

phones become as commonplace as wristwatches, it seems they are
39

creating

2

situations.

People let their phones ring in restaurants, theatres or business meetings. People 3 discuss very personal issues over their phones while 4 of

strangers are around them. People spend all their time in the

friends paying more attention to those at the other end of their mobile phones. By now, everyone knows that mobile phone etiquette is a 5 problem. These are tips for being a good 6 citizen. Firstly, remember to 7 8 the people around you

your phone is off at activities. Secondly,

when you make or take calls in public. Thirdly, don't answer your cell phone while talking with another person unless that phone is more than the person you are with. Follow these rules and you'll be a mobile phones user by being considerate to others. 1. A. approach extend 2. A. embarrassing complex 3. A. further 4. A. presence appearance 5. A. basic behavioral
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9 10

B. reach

C. arrive

D.

B. strange

C. extraordinary

D.

B. loudly B. existence

C. openly C. absence

D. briefly D.

B. technical

C. real

D.

6. A. mobile average 7. A. check 8. A. appreciate watch 9. A. valuable worth 10. A. large

B. telephone

C. medium

D.

B. control B. respect

C. stop C. observe

D. test D.

B. excellent

C. important

D.

B. responsible

C. regular

D.

current 答案:1.B.手机让我们在任何时候,任何地点,只要愿意 郎能找到你要找的人。 2.A. 然而手机也会让人处境尴尬。 3.B.很大声地用手机谈论个人问题。 4.A. 当着朋友们的面。 5.C. 手机礼节真是一个问题了。 6.A. 作为一个讲礼貌的手机使用者。 7.A. 检查你的手机是否已经关机。 8.B.公共场所打电话、接电话时尊重你周围的人。 9.C. 除非你要接的电话比你身旁的人更 10.B.是一个负责的手机使用者。 2 语法填空 阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在 空格处填入一个适当的词或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空, 并将答
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案填写在答题卡标号为 1-10 的相应位置上。 词数:168 完成时间:8 分钟 难度:*** The Whites live in a big city. They have a son 1 (name) Tom. His

hobby is reading. When he comes home from school, he always goes to his room and just reads books. He 2 plays outdoors. 3 is not good for Tom's

One day, Mrs. White said to her husband,"

health to live in the city all the time." They found a small house in the country. They took him there got there at 11 in the morning. said," 7 4 6 a vacation. They left home at 8 5

they reached the house, his mother

clean the air isl "she said to Tom, " We are going to stay 8 , he ran

here for a week." Tom ran into the house. A few minutes back to his mother and said, "I can't find answered, "We came here 10 9

desk." His mother

(spend) our vacation in the country.

You must play outdoors and not read books here. Enjoy your vacation! "Tom cried, "Oh, how terrible!"答案: 1. named 过去分词短语作定语, a son named Tom 意为"一位名叫汤姆的儿子"。 2.never/hardly 完全否定,意为"从来不"。 3.It 考查 It is 十 adj.十 to do sth.的句型结构,It 作形式主语。 4.for 此处表目的,for a vacation 表度假。 5.and 表并列关系,连接 left home 和 got there 两个动词短语。
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6.When 考查由 When 引导的时间状语从句: 7.How How 引导的感叹句。 8.later a few minutes later 意为"一会儿后"。 9.a 不定冠词,泛指一张桌子。 0.to spend 动词不定式短语作目的状语。 3 阅读理解 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选 项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 词数:254 完成时间:6 分钟 难度:** Science Daily (Apr. 27, 2008)-- Dutch ecologist Roxina Soler and her colleagues have discovered that subterranean (地下的) and aboveground herbivorous (食草的) insects can communicate with each other by using plants as telephones. Subterranean insects issue chemical warning

signals through the leaves of the plant. This way, aboveground insects are warned that the plant is already "occupied". Aboveground, leaf-eating insects prefer plants that have not yet been occupied by subterranean root-eating insects. Subterranean insects send out chemical signals through the leaves of the plant, which warn the aboveground insects about their presence. This messaging makes it possible for spatially-separated insects to avoid each other, so that they do
43

not compete for, the same plant. In recent years it has been discovered that different types of aboveground insects develop slowly if they feed on plants that also have subterranean insects and 'vice versa (反之亦然). It seems that a mechanism (机制) has developed through natural selection, which helps the subterranean and aboveground insects to communicate with each other. This avoids unnecessary competition. Through the "green telephone lines", subterranean insects can also communicate with a third party, namely the natural enemy of caterpillars ( 毛虫 ). Parasitic wasps ( 寄生蜂 ) lay their eggs inside aboveground insects. The wasps also benefit from the signals sent by the leaves, as these help them find more insects for their eggs. The communication between subterranean and above- ground insects has only been studied in a few systems. It is still not clear how widespread this phenomenon is, say the researchers. 1. How do subterranean and aboveground insects communicate with each other? A. By sending signals through the leaves. B. By giving off particular smells. C. By making soft and beautiful sounds. D. By the signals sent by parasitic wasps. 2. After finding a plant occupied by root-eating insects, aboveground
44

insects will usually ________. A. send out warning signals B. compete for the same plant C. choose to leave the plant D. fight with the root-eating insects 3. Aboveground insects will develop more quickly if their food plants ________. A. are often visited by parasitic wasps B. are not occupied by mot-eating insects C. have more green leaves D. have more subterranean insects 4. What does the underlined part "a third party' in Paragraph 4 include? A. Aboveground insects. C. Caterpillars. B. Root-eating insects. D. Parasitic wasps.

5. What would be the best title for the passage? A. Communication between different insects B. How do animals avoid competition? C. Insects use plants as telephones D. When plants have subterranean residents 答案: 荷兰科学家研究发现: 地下昆虫可以通过植物的叶子释放化学物质, 作为信号对地上昆虫进 行警告,从而避免对同一植物的竞争。 1. A 细节理解题。根据第一段第二句 Subterranean insects issue
45

chemical warning signals through the leaves of the plant 可知,地下昆虫 能通过植物的叶子发出一种化学物质,作为信号对地上昆虫进行警 告。故选 A。 2. C 细 节 推 理 题 。 第 二 段 第 一 句 Aboveground, leaf-eating

insects . . . root-eating insects 提到,地上的昆虫更喜欢没有被地下 昆虫占领的植物。联系本段最后一句 This messaging makes . . . for the same plant 可知,当地上昆虫发现植物已经被地下昆虫占领时,它 们通常会选择离开。 3. B 细节推断题。 根据第三段第一句 In recent years it . . . and vice

versa 可推知,如果植物没有被地下的食草昆虫占领,地上昆虫就会 繁殖得快些。本句的意思是:近些年来的研究发现:如果地上昆虫赖 以生存的植物被地下的食草昆虫占领,地上昆虫的繁殖速度就会减 慢,反之亦然。 4. D 词义推断题。第四段第一句的 namely the natural enemy of

caterpillars 意为:也就是毛虫的天敌。a third party 这里包含寄生蜂。 5. C 标题归纳题。C 项标题形象地表现出了昆虫间交流的独特方

式, 其根据在第一段第一句 ... insects can communicate with each other by using plants as telephones。 4 写作训练 请根据以下资料说明,使用 5 个规范句子描述所给信息内容。 世界上不同的地方社会习俗不同。比如,在美国两人第一次见面就彼 此直呼其名。年轻人对老年人也都是这样。这在中国被认为是很不礼
46

貌的。 另外一个不同是交谈时可以谈些什么。询问别人大衣的价格,中国人 觉得没什么,而美国人则认为很不礼貌。 (写作要求) 1.标题;Social Customs between Americans and Chinese 2.必须使用 5 个句子介绍全部所给内容。 3.将 5 个句子组织成连贯的短文。 ___________________________________________________________ _____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ _____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ _____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ _____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ _____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ _____________________________________ 答 案 :Social between Americans and Chinese Social customs differ in different parts of the world. For example, the Americans call each other by their names when two people first met, and
47

Customs

so does the young to the old. In china, it will be regarded as quite impolite to do so. Another difference is about what can be talked about in conversation. A Chinese thinks nothing of being asked how much his coat costs while Americans think it impolite to ask such a question. Unit 2 Cloning 单元要点预览(旨在让同学整体了解本单元要点)词汇部分词语辨析 1. aloud / loud / loudly 变化 1. object vi. 不赞成;反对 objection n. 不赞成;反对 2. popular adj. 流行的,通俗的,广受欢迎的 popularity n.普及;流行;名望 popularize vt. 使普及,使流行 3. resist v. 抵(反)抗,抵制 resistance n. 抵抗力, 反抗 resistant n. 抵抗者 adj.反抗的,耐......的 4. decorate vt. 装饰,装璜 decoration n. 装饰(品)装璜 5. reason n. 原因;理性 v.分析,推论(理);劝告 reasonable adj. 通情达理的;合理的
48

2. obtain / acquire / gain / earn / achieve 词形

unreasonable adj. 不合理的;荒唐的重点单词 1. differ vi. 不同;相异 2. undertake vt. (undertook; undertaken) 着手;从事;承担;同意,答 应 3. forbid vt. (forbade or forbad; forbidden) 禁止;不准;阻止妨碍 4. accumulate vt.&vi. 积累;聚积 5. owe vt. 欠;应该把......归功于;感激,感恩 6. retire vi.退休(役);退出,撤退;就寝 7. bother vt. 打扰 vi. 操心 n. 烦扰 8. obtain vt. (正式;尤指通过努力或计划) 获得;得到重点词组 1. pay off 得到好结果,取得成功(常用主动态);偿清债款;付清工资 解雇 2. in favor of 赞成;支持;对......有利 3. be bound to do 一定;注定(做) 4. be in good/poor/excellent condition 处於好的﹑坏的﹑极佳的状况 重点句型 1. The fact that she seemed to develop normally was very encouraging. 重点语法 同位语从句(见语法部分) 语言要点(模块) Ⅰ.词语辨析 (旨在提供完形填空所需材料) 1. aloud / loud / loudly
49

【解释】 aloud adv. 重点在于"出声"(能被人听见, 但声音不一定很大), 通常与 read 等词连用:read aloud 朗读,读出声 shout/call/laugh aloud 大声叫 喊/笑 loud 作形容词时意为"大声的",作副词时特指(谈笑等)"大声地",常 用比较级形式; loudly"大声地,吵闹地",强调声音喧闹、不悦耳,与 quietly 相对 【练习】用 aloud,loud,loudly 的适当形式填空。 1). The teacher asked me to read the poem _______. 2). The radio isn' t _______ enough. Could you turn it up a little? 3). I could hear people over there talking _______ with each other about the news. 4). Could you speak _______ ? Keys: 1). aloud 2). loud 3). loudly 4). louder

2. obtain / acquire / gain / earn / achieve 【解释】 obtain 意为"获得,买到"。指通过努力或请求而得到,含有满足要求 或得达到目的的意味,用于正式语体中。 acquire 意为"经过努力逐步获得才能、知识、习惯等,也可用于对财 物等的获得",强调"一经获得就会长期持有"的含义。 gain 意为"通过较大努力获得某种利益或好处;亦可指军事上的武力 夺取等"。
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earn 意为"挣得,赢得"。指因工作等而得到报酬或待遇。 achieve 意为"得到;获得",多指成就、目标、幸福的取得。 【练习】用 obtain,acquire,gain,earn,achieve 的适当形式填空。 1). How much do you _______a week? 2). The movie star _______ success and wealth. 3). He _______ experience through practice. 4). It is through learning that the individul ______ many habitual ways of reacting to situations. 5). An investor _______ by buying stocks that go up in value. Keys: 1). earn 5). gains Ⅱ.词性变化 (旨在提供语法填空所需材料) 1. object vi. 不赞成;反对 objection n. 不赞成;反对 2. popular adj. 流行的,通俗的,广受欢迎的 popularity n.普及;流行;名望 popularize vt. 使普及,使流行 3. resist v. 抵(反)抗,抵制 resistance n. 抵抗力, 反抗 resistant n. 抵抗者 adj.反抗的,耐......的 4. decorate vt. 装饰,装璜
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2). achieved

3). obtained

4). acquires

decoration n. 装饰(品)装璜 5. reason n. 原因;理性 v.分析,推论(理);劝告 reasonable adj. 通情达理的;合理的 unreasonable adj. 不合理的;荒唐的 【练习】用括号内所提供词的适当形式填空。 1). I strongly object to ________ (treat) like a child. 2). If no one has any ________ (object), I will declare the meeting closed us with hope. 3). The no-smoking policy was introduced with little _______ (resist) from staff. 4). When will they finish the ________ (decorate) of the bathroom? 5). The building ________ (decorate) with flags., the event was a great success. 6). Don't let your boss make ________ (reason) demands on you. 7). The president' s _______ (popular) has declined considerably. 8). The President is very _______ (popularize) with Jewish voters. Keys: 1). being treated 2). objection decoration 5). was decorated 6). unreasonable 7). popularity 8). popular 3). resistance 4).

Ⅲ.重点词汇(旨在提供词汇综合运用所需材料) 1. differ vi. 不同; 相异 difference n. 不同之处 different adj. 不同的

[典例]1). Their house differs from mine in having no garage. 他们的房
52

子与我的不同,区别在于他们的没有起车库。 2). The two sides still differ with each other over the question of pay. 双 方在报酬的问题上仍各持己见。 [重点用法] A differs from B in... A 与 B 在......方面不同 about/on/over... A 与 B 就......意见相左 [练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。 1). The two squares differ _______ (介词) color but not _______ (介词) size. 2). The husband differs _______ (介词) the wife _______ (介词) who is to take charge of the money. 3). It doesn' t make a ________ (differ) to me whether you are going to stay. 4). This is a different car ________ (介词) the one I drove yesterday. Keys: 1). in; in from 2. undertake vt. (undertook; undertaken) 着手;从事;承担;同意,答 应,保证(后接 to do)[典例]1). She undertook the responsibility for these changes. 她承担了做出这些改变的责任。 2). He undertook to pay the money back in one month. 他答应在一个月 之内还钱。 [练习] 翻译句子。
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A differs with B

2). with; on/about/over

3). difference

4).

1).

他 答 应 在 周 五 之 前 完 成 那 份 工 作 。

________________________________________ 2). 她 负 责 整 个 项 目 的 组 织 工 作 。

___________________________________________ Keys: 1). He undertook to finish the work before Friday. 2). She undertook the organization work of the whole project. 3. forbid vt. (forbade or forbad; forbidden) 禁止;不准;阻止妨碍[典 例]1). The law forbids the use of chemical fertilizers. 法律禁止使用化 学肥料。 2). I forbid you to tell anyone. 我不准你告诉任何人。 [重点用法] forbid sth. / doing sth. 禁止,不许(做某事) sb. to do sth. 禁止某人做某事 [练习] 翻译句子。 1). 飞机上禁止吸烟。 ___________________________________________________________ ______________________ 2). 他爸爸不准他和她交谈。 ___________________________________________________________ ______________________ 3). 要禁止小孩子不玩电脑游戏很难。 ___________________________________________________________
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forbid

______________________ Keys: 1). Smoking is forbidden on the plane. 2). His father forbade him to talk to her. 3). It is hard to forbid children (to play) computer games. 4. accumulate vt.&vi. 积累; 聚积 accumulation n [u,c] 积累[典例]1).

By investing wisely she accumulated a fortune. 她由於投资精明而积蓄 了一笔财产。 2). Dust and dirt soon accumulate if a house is not cleaned regularly. 房 屋不经常打扫, 尘土很快就越积越多。 [练习] 根据句子的意思在括号里填入所给词的适当形式。 1). A thick layer of dust _______ (accumulate) in the room, so he had to give it a thorough cleaning. 2). Despite this _______ (accumulate) of evidence, the Government persisted in doing nothing. Keys: 1). had accumulated 2). accumulation 5. owe vt. 欠;应该把......归功于;感激,感恩[典例]1). He owes his father £50. = He owes £50 to his father. 他欠他父亲 50 英镑。 2). We owe this discovery to Newton. 我们的这一发现归功於牛顿。 [重点用法] owe sb sth = owe sth to sb 欠(某人)债 归因或归功於某人/事 [练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的介词。
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owe sth to sb/sth 将某事物

1). How much do I owe you _______ the groceries? 2). He owes his success more _______ luck than _______ ability. 3). I owe a lot _______ my wife and children. Keys: 1). for 2). to; to 3). to

6. retire vi.退休(役);退出,撤退;就寝[典例]1). He will retire from the army next year. 他明年从部队退役。 2). Our forces retired to prepared positions. 我们的部队撤退到既设阵 地上。 [重点用法] retire from... 从......退休(役)/退出 退出,离开(尤指到僻静处) [练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入所给词适当的形式或翻译。 1). He _______ (retire) next year after 30 years with the company. 2). She was forced to _______ _______ _______ (提前退出)teaching because of ill health. 3). He is a _______ (retire) airline pilot. Keys: 1). is retiring 2). retire early from 3). retired retire (from...) (to...) 退下,

7. bother vt. 打扰 vi. 操心 n. 烦扰[典例]1). I am busy; don' t bother me now. 我很忙,现在别打扰我。 2). I am sorry to bother you, but can you tell me the time. 对不起,打扰 了,请问现在几点? [重点用法]
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bother with/about 一为......而烦恼;因......操心 doing 费神做......

bother to do /

[练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。 1). The problem has been ________ (bother) me for weeks. 2). 一 Shall I help you with the cases? -Don' t ________. I can manage. 3). Don't bother _______ (介词) us; we will soon join you. Keys: 1). bothering 2). bother 3). about 8. obtain vt. (正式;尤指通过努力或计划) 获得;得到 obtainable adj 能得到的; 可获得的[典例]1). I haven' t been able to obtain that record anywhere. 我到处都没买到那张唱片。 2). He said that the police had obtained this information by illegal means. 他说警方是靠非法手段获得这一资料的。 [重点用法] obtain sth from sb/sth 从......获得某物 [练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词。 1). Are his records still ______ (obtain)? 2). Further information can be obtained _______ (介词) head office. Keys: 1). obtainable 2). from Ⅳ.重点词组(旨在提供综合运用所需材料) 1. pay off 得到好结果,取得成功(常用主动态);偿清债款;付清工资 解雇[典例]1). At last, his hard work paid off. 最后,他的努力得到了回
57

报。 2). Did your plan pay off? 你的计划成功了吗? [短语归纳] pay 短语: pay for 付......的钱; 为......而付出代价 sth.) 偿还 pay sb. (...) for sth. 因某事而付某人...... 某人(......)去做某事 [练习] 用与 pay 相关的词组或所给词适当的形式填空。 1). After ten years of hard working she finally _______ _______ her debt. 2). Our efforts are sure to ________ ________. 3). Her parents ________ ________ America. 4). Have you ________ the milkman this week? 5). Have you ________ the money _______ the bank yet? 6). I will _______ you _______ next week. 7). I paid the boy ten yuan _______ (clean) the window. Keys: 1). paid off paid; to 2). pay off 3). paid for 4). paid 5). pay sb. (...) to do sth. 付 pay back sth. (pay sb. back

6). pay; back

7). to clean

2. in favor of 赞成;支持;对......有利[典例]1). I am in favor of your suggestion. 我赞成你的提议。 2). I talked to Susan about it, and she' s all in favor of going. 我与苏珊谈 了这件事,她完全赞同走。 [重点用法]
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ask a favor 请求帮忙 do a favor for sb. 帮某人的忙

do sb. a favor =

[练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的词或翻译。 1). Senior ministers spoke ______ ______ ______ the proposal. 2). Would you ______ ______ ______ ______ ( 请你帮忙) and turn off the radio? Keys: 1). in favour of 2). do me a favor

3. be bound to do 一定;注定(做)[典例]1). The weather is bound to get better tomorrow. 明天天气一定会变好。 2). You' ve done so much work that you're bound to pass the exam. 你下 了这麽大工夫, 一定能考及格。 [短语归纳] [练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入所给词适当的形式或短语。 1). These problems were almost bound _______ (arise). 2). When you are dealing with so many patients, mistakes _______ _______ _______ happen. Keys: 1). to arise 2). are bound to

4. be in good/poor/excellent condition 处於好的﹑坏的﹑极佳的状况 [典例]1). The ship is not in a condition/is in no condition to make a long voyage. 此船的现状不适宜远航。 2). The car is still in excellent condition. 这小车状况极佳。 [短语归纳] condition 短语:
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out

of

condition













working/living/syudying conditions 工作、生活、学习环境 on condition (that)... 在......条件下; 倘若...... 不; 决不 [练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的介词。 1). The car has been well maintained and is _______ excellent condition. 2). He' s _______ excellent condition _______ a man of his age. 3). I had no exercise for ages; I' m really _______ condition. 4). You can go out _______ condition that you wear an overcoat. Keys: 1). in 2). in; for 3). out of 4). on on no condition 一点也

Ⅴ.重点句子 (旨在提供句子结构等所需材料) 1. The fact that she seemed to develop normally was very encouraging. 她(多莉羊)似乎生长正常的事实很鼓舞人心。 [解释] "that she seemed to develop normally"是一个同位语从句,作 the fact 的同位语。 同位语从句一般由 that 引导, 常放在 fact, truth, news, information,idea,thought,hope,suggestion,advice,reply,remark, report 等名词后面,说明该名词的具体内容。当先行词是 problem, question 或当主句是表示疑问或否定意思时,连接词要用 whether 或 其他的疑问代词或副词。如: 1). The news that he has been elected president of the United States is true. 他当选美国总统的消息是真的。 2). The question whether we should continue to do the experiment has not
60

been answered yet. 我们是否该继续实验的问题还没有被解决。 3). I have no idea where the new library will be built. 我不知道新图书 馆将要建在哪。 [练习] 根据句子的要求在括号里填入适当的介词。 1). The truth _______ heavy objects and light objects fall at the same speed is known to us all. 2). The question _______ we ndde to spend more time on the project has not been discussed. 3). The explanation _______ he had met with an accident on his way was acceptable. Keys: 1). that 2). whether 3). that

课文要点(模块) Ⅰ.课文词汇等填空(旨在复习本课文中的单词拼写和主要词语等) 根据课文内容完成下面语法填空,注意单词拼写和词语用法: Cloning is a way of _____1_____(make) an exact copy of another animal or plant. Cloning has two ___2____( 主 要 的 ) uses. Firstly, gardeners use it to produce plants. Secondly, it is ____3_____(value) for medical research on animals. Cloning plants is straightforward but the cloning of animals is more____4______( 复杂的 ). The procedure is difficult to ____5_____( 开 展 ). In 1996, scientists succeeded in ___6_____(clone)Dolly the sheep. Then came the disturbing news that
61

Dolly was ill. _____7______ Dolly lived for six years, Dolly's appearance raised a storm of _____8_____(object). Government became nervous and many ______9______(禁止) research into human cloning. Scientists still ____10______ whether cloning will help or harm us and where it is leading us. (答案: 1.making, 2.major, 3.valuable; 4.complicated; 9.forbade;

5.undertake; 6.cloning; 10.wonder.)

7.Altogether;

8.objections;

Ⅱ.课文大意概括 (旨在训练用 30 个单词概括大意的能力) 阅读课文,试着用 30 来个单词概括课文大意或翻译下面短文。 文章具体介绍了植物与动物克隆的区别, 多莉羊的诞生与死亡以及由 此引发的争论。 The article specifically introduces

_________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ _______________________________ 答案:The article specifically introduces the distinction between the plant and the animal cloning, the birth and death of Dolly the sheep, as well as the controversy which it caused. Ⅲ.课文佳句背诵与仿写 (旨在培养对难句的理解和写作能力) 1. 【原句】 The fact that she seemed to develop normally was very encouraging.
62

多莉看来是在正常地成长着,这很令人鼓舞。 [模仿要点] 句子结构:同位语从句 【模仿 1】学校取消体育运动的想法非常令人丧气,依我的观点,这 并不能防止学生受伤。 ___________________________________________________________ ____________________ 答案:The idea that schools cancel sport activities is very discouraging, which, in my opinion, is not a good way to prevent students from getting hurt. 【模仿 2】谚语"诚为上策"是众所周知的,它说明了诚实的重要性。 ___________________________________________________________ ____________________ 答案:The old saying that honesty is the best policy is well known to everyone, which signifies the importance of honesty. 2. 【原句】The advantage is that if there is a new illness some of these animals my die, but others will survive and pass on the ability to resist that disease to the next generation. 其优点是,如果发生了某种新的疾 病,这类动物可能会死去,而另外一些却能存活下来,并且把这种抗 疫力传给下一代。 [模仿要点] 句子结构:表语从句+条件句, 【模仿 1】网上购物的弊端是,如果你在网上买了质量差的商品,你 不可能会换的了;但你可以在真正的商店里精挑细选。
63

___________________________________________________________ ____________________ 答案: The disadvantage of shopping on line is that if you bought a poorly made goods on the Internet, it is impossible for you to change it, but you can have a careful look at the goods in a real shop and choose the best one. 【模仿 2】早起的优势是,如果我们早起,我们将有机会享受清新的 空气和早晨的宁静,但并不是每个人都认为这是令人遗憾的事情。 ___________________________________________________________ ____________________ 答案:The advantage of getting up early is that if we get up early, we will have the opportunity of enjoying the fresh air and calmness of the morning, but not everybody think it a regrettable thing. 3. 【原句】Based on what we know now, you cannot clone animals that have been extinct longer than 10,000 years. 就我们现在所知, 你不可能 克隆那些绝种了一万年以上的动物。 [模仿要点] 句子结构:V-ed + what 引导的宾语从句,+主句+定语从 句 【模仿 1】根据调查所示,我们可以更好地理解我们对大自然所做的 一切。 ___________________________________________________________ ____________________
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答案:Based on what was shown on the survey, we can make a better understanding about the thing that we have done to nature. 【模仿 2】根据我们所读到的,我们可以得出结论是人类该对环境污 染负责。 ___________________________________________________________ ____________________ 答案: Based on what we've read , we can make a conclusion that it is human beings that are to blame for the pollution of the environment. 单元自测 (模块) 1 完形填空 阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从 1-10 各题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 词数:194 完成时间:14 分钟 难度:*** All living organisms ( 生物体) must feed so that they can have energy. Plants, which are the biggest organisms on Earth, are no They need to feed, but they do not feed in the 2 1 to this.

way that animals

do. They do not have a mouth or a digestive system and they do not move much to find and capture their Water is the most 5 3 . Plants are made of 4 things.

part. Often, more than 90% of a plant is made 6 ,

of water. Water, however, is a liquid, but plants are very
65

especially when they are made of wood, like trees. If we dry a plant out by removing all of its 7 content, we can find

out what is left over. Two things are found in the solid parts of plants: minerals and organic matter (物质). We can bum the dried plant until only the ashes are 8 these two parts if we

9 . If we analyze these

ashes we find that they are made of the minerals that the plant needs to grow. The part that bums 1. A. explanation D. inclusion 2. A. opposite same 3. A. food D. nutrient 4. A. two D. five 5. A. useful D. advanced 6. A. small D. loose 7. A. water protein 8. A. predict B. discover
66

10

is called the organic matter. C. connection

B. exception

B. accurate

C. proper

D.

B. water

C.

enemy

B. three

C. four

B. important

C.

precious

B. living

C.

solid

B. mineral

C. fiber

D.

C. expose

D.

separate 9. A. combined covered 10. A. over B. out C. down D. B. left C. shared D.

away 答案: 1.B 从上文"All living organisms must feed so that they can have energy."可知此处意为植物作为一种生物也不例外。 2.D 从下文"They do not have a mouth or a digestive system..." 可知此 处意为它们与动物的取食方式不同。而选项 accurate 强调的是"精确 性",也就是说,accurate 暗含有它们两者之前的取食方式有可能比较 类似,根据文章,它们的取食方式是截然不同的,所以 D 项更准确 些。 21. A。本段主要内容讲植物的取食方式,那么可知这里是指"捕食", 而不是获取营养、水或者敌人。 22. B。从本段可知,植物含有水分,从下一段的第一、二两句描述 可知除了水分之外, 植物还由矿物质和有机物构成, 所以总共是 three things。 23. B。从下文的"Often, more than 90% of a plant is made of water. " 可 知水是最重要的。 24. C。从本句前部分强调水是一种液体,那么,逻辑推理,这里主 要强调植物是"固体"的。后一部分的解释说明"...especially when they are made of wood, like trees."可进一步佐证。 25. A。 从本句的关键词 dry a plant out 以及下面的细节 in the solid parts
67

of plants 可知是先把水全部去除。 26. D。从下文的实验细节尤其是最后两句可知是通过火烧的方法把 两种物质分离开。 29. B。根据下文内容可知,火烧到最后,就只剩下灰烬了,有机物 被烧掉了,灰烬主要是由矿物质构成的。 30. D。根据上文可知,灰烬主要是由矿物质构成的,那么被烧掉的 部分就是有机物。burn away"烧掉"。 2 语法填空 阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在 空格处填入一个适当的词或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空, 并将答 案填写在答题卡标号为 31-40 的相应位置上。 词数:139 完成时间:8 分钟 难度:** Many people believe that they of water 31 (suppose) to drink eight glasses 33

32 day, or about two liters. Why? Because that is 34

they have been told all their lives.

a new report offers some

different advice. The experts say people should obey their bodies; they should drink as 35 water as they feel like drinking. 36 (suggest).The experts say that 37 (day). Men should'

The report contains some general

women should get about 2.7 liters of water

get about 3.7 liters. But wait - in each case, that is more than eight glasses.
68

There is an important difference. The report does not tell people how many glasses of water to drink. 38 fact, the experts say that 39

may be impossible to know how many glasses are needed to meet these guidelines. This is because the daily requirement can include the water 40 (contain) in foods.

答案与评析 31.are supposed 32.a/one/every 33.what 34.But 35.much 36.suggestions 37.daily 38.In 39.it 40.contained

许多人相信一天应该喝八杯水才能满足身体需要: 但专家们在一份新 的报告中却给出了不同的说法。 31.are supposed.be supposed to do 是固定用法,表达"应该/被期望 做......": 32.a/one/every 表数量"一": 33.what.连词用来引导表语从句,在表语从句中作宾语: 34.But.表"转折"关系。 35.much.形容词表数量 36.suggestion.用名词作宾语: 37.daily.本文讨论的中心是人一天应该喝多少杯水才能满足身体需 要的问题,因此用副词 daily "每日/每天地"来修饰 set, 38.In.因为 in fact 为固定短语 39.it.形式主语,代替后面的动词不定式。
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40.contained.过去分词短语作定语,修饰名词 water,表示被动关 系: 3 阅读理解 阅读下列短文,从每题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选 项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 词数:313 完成时间:6 分钟 难度:*** Burning the midnight oil before an exam or interview has an opposite effect according to a research which found that sleep is necessary for memories to be "downloaded" into thebrain."A good night's sleep within 30 hours of trying to remember a new task is a necessary condition of having good recall in the weeks ahead," scientists have found. "We think that getting that first night's sleep starts the process of memory consolidation ( 加 强 ),' said Robert Stickgold, a sleep researcher at Harvard Medical School who conducted the latest study. "It seems that memories are normally washed out of the brain unless some process nails them down. I feel uncertain that sleep is one of those things that do the nailing down," Professor Stickgold said. Professor Stickgold's team trained the 24 people to tell the direction of three diagonal bars (斜线) shown for a sixtieth of a second on a computer
70

screen full of horizontal stripes (水平线). Half the subjects were kept awake that night, while the others slept. Both groups were allowed to sleep for the second and third nights to make up for any differences in tiredness between the volunteers. Those who slept the first night were much better at remembering the task while the second group showed no improvement in spite of enjoying two nights of catch up sleep. A further study by scientists at the Medical University at Lubeck in Germany showed that memories are laid down in two stages during the night. The fri-st is during the deep, so-called "slow wave" sleep, which usually takes place in the fnrst half of the night. The second, and less important stage happens during the periods of dreaming or "rapid eye movement (REM)". When people don't sleep well in the fu-st half of the night, their memory consolidation is almost the same as having no sleep at all. 41. Which of the following statements is correct according to Paragraph 1? A. It is necessary to burn the midnight oil before an exam or interview. B. Sleep speeds up the loss of memory. C. Man should have a good sleep if he wants to keep a good memory. D. Staying up late will make you better prepared for an exam or
71

interview. 42. It can be inferred from Paragraph 4 that ____________. A. some process helps memories to be washed out of the brain B. professor Stickgold is doubtful about whether sleep can make memories better C. some memories normally influence the function of the brain D. sleep improves the condition of memories 43. How was the research conducted by Professor Stickgold? A. The subjects were divided into two groups. B. All the subjects were kept awake for 3 nights. C. One group slept at the first night but was kept awake the next two nights. D. One group was kept awake for 3 nights but the other slept for the second and third nights. 44. What was the study result of the scientists at the Medical University at Lubeck? A. REM sleep is not important at all for the consolidation for memory. B. Intellectual performance mainly depends on the slow wave sleep period. C. When people sleep poorly in the first half of the night, it is almost the same as having no sleep at all. D. REM sleep is as important as slow wave sleep in terms of me
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