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高考英语语法专题复习讲义-主谓一致和倒装


语法复习专题(14)主谓一致和倒装

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一、考点聚焦

1、语法形式上的一致 主语为单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式;主语为复数形式,谓语动词也用复数形式。 The number of students in our school is 1,700. Mary and Kelly look alike. 2、意义上一致

(1)主语形式虽为单数,但意义为复数,谓语动词用复数。 The crowd were runing for their lives. 单数形式代表复数内容的词有 people、police、cattle 等。 (2)主语形式为复数,而意义上却是单数,谓语动词用单数。The news is very exciting. 形复意单的单词有 new、 works (工厂) 、 means 和以 ics 结尾的学科名称 physics、 poli-tics、 economics 等。 3、就近原则。即谓语动词的单复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。如果连词 or、either … or、neither … nor、not only … but also 等连接的并列主语,如果一个是单数,一个是复数, 谓语动词与靠近它的主语一致。 Either you or I am mad. 4、应注意的若干问题 (1)名词作主语。 ①某些集体名词如 family、team 等作主语时,如果作为一个整体看待,谓语用单数, 反之用复数。 My family is going out for a trip. The whole family are watching TV. 这类词常有 audience、 class club、 committee、 company、 crew、 crowd、 enemy、 government、 group、party、public、team 等。 Population 和“a group(crowd)of + 复数名词”也适用于这种情况,强调整体用单数,强 调各个部分用复数。 ②某些集体名词如 people、police、cattle、oxen 只当复数看待,谓语动词必须用复数。 ③单、复数同形的名词作主语时,谓语动词应根据意义决定单、复数。 A sheep is over there. Some sheep are over there. ④名词所有格之后的名词被省略,这种情况一般只指商店、工场、住宅等;作主语时, 动词一般用单数。My uncle’s is not for from here. 常见的省略名词有 the baker’s 、the barbar’s、the Zhang’s 等。 表示店铺的名词一般作集体名词看待,但用作主语时,谓语动词往往用复数。如: Richardson’s have a lot of old goods to sell. ⑤当名词词组中心词为表示度量、距离、金额、时间、书名等复数名词时,往往可以根 据意义一致的原则,把这些复数名词看作一个整体,谓语用单数。 Thirty years has passed. Five minutes is enough to finish the task. ⑥不定代词 each、every、no 所修饰的名词即使以 and 或逗号连接成多主语时,谓语动
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词仍用单数形式。如: Each boy and each girl in my class has a dictionary. ⑦如果主语有 more than on e … 或 many a … 构成,尽管从意义上 看是复数内容,但它的谓语动词用单数形式。 More than one student has seen the play. Many a boy has bought that kind of toy. 但是, “more + 复数名词 + than one”结构之后,谓语用复数。 ⑧一些由两个部分构成的名词表示衣物或工具作主语时,谓语通常用复数形式。如 glasses、clothes、trousers、shoes、compasses、chopsticks、scissors 等。 但如果主语用 a kind of、a pair of、a series of 等加名词构成时,谓语动词一般用单数形 式。 A pair of shoes was on the desk. ⑨this kind of book = a book of this kind(这种书),其谓语动词;短语 this kind of men = men of this kind = these kind of men(口语(这一类人) ) , 但 this kind of men 的谓语用单数, men of this kind 和 these kind of men 的谓语用复数,all kinds of 后跟复数名词,谓语用复数形式。如: This kind of men is dangerous. Men of theis kind/sort are dangerous. ⑩复数形式的单、复数同形名词作主语时,按意义一致的原则,用作单数意义时,谓语 用单数,反之,谓语用复数。这类名词有 means、works、species(种类)、Chinese、Japanese 等。当它们的前面有 a、such a、this、that 修饰时,谓语用单数;有 all、such、these、those 修饰时,谓语用复数。 1 1如果名词词组中心词是 all、most、half、rest 等词语,所指是复数意义,谓语动词用 ○ 复数形式,反之用单数。 All of my students work hard. All of the oil is gone. 1 2在主谓倒装的句子中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。如: ○ Between the two windows hangs an oil painting. (2)由连接词连接的名词作主语。 ①用 and 或 both … and 连接并列主语,谓语动词通常用复数形式。但如果并列主语指 的是同一个人,同一事物或同一概念时,谓语动词用单数形式,这时 and 后面的名词没有冠 词。 Truth and honesty is the best policy. To love and to be loved is the great happiness. Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit. A knife and fork is on the table. ②当主语后面跟有 as well as、 as much as、 no less than、 along with、 with、 like、 rather than、 together with、but、except、besides、including、in addition to 等引导的词组时,采取“就远 原则” 。 ③以 or、 either … or、 neigher … nor、 not only … but also 等连接的词作主语时, 采取 “就 近原则” 。 (3)代词作主语。
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①名词型物主代词连接的动词,既可以用单数,也可以用复数,这取决于它所代替的是 单数还是复数。 Ours (Our Party) is a great Party. Your shoes are white, mine (= my shoes) are black. ②such、the same 起指示代词作用时,应根据其所指的内容来决定单、复数。 Such is our plan. Such are his last words. ③关系代词 who、that、which 等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先 行词的数一致。 ④疑问词 who、what、which 作主语时,谓语动词可根据说话人所要表达的意思决定单、 复数。 Who lives next door? It is Xiao Liu. Who lives next door? It is Wang and Li. ⑤不定代词 any、either、neither、none、all、some、more 等作主语时,要注意下列情 况: (A)单独作主语时,视其在文中的意义,动词可用单数或复数形式。Now all has been changed. All are present.(B)其后接 of 时,若 of 的宾语为不可数名词,动词用单数形式; 若 of 的宾语为复数名词或代词时,动词可以是单数,也可以是复数;在正式文体中,单数 形式的动词更常用。Do (es) any of you know about the accident? None of us has (have) seen the film. (4)分数、量词作主语。 ① “分数或百分数 + 名词” 构成的短语以及由 “a lot of, lots of, plenty of, a large quantity of, a heap of, heaps of, half of + 名词”构 成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词要与短语中 of 后面 的名词的数保持一致, 这是因为短语中后面的名词是中心词, 而短语中前面的量词是修饰语。 如: Lots of damage was caused by flood. A number of students have gone to the countryside. A large quantity of people is needed here. Quantities of food (nuts) were still on the table. ②a great deal of、a large amount of 修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词通常用 单数;large amounts of 修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数。 ③表示数量的 one and a half 后,名词要用复数形式,但是其短语作主语时,谓语动词 用单数形式。 One and a half apples is left on the table. ④half of、(a)part of 修饰可数名词单数及不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数,修饰可数名 词复数时,谓语动词用复数。 (5)名词化的形容词作主语。 如果主语由 “the + 形容词 (或分词) ” 结构担任时, 谓语通常用复数。 这类词有 the rich、 the poor、the brave、the injured、the living、the wounded 等。如表抽象的也可以用单数,如 the unknown、the beautiful 等。 (6)从句作主语。 ①由 what 引导的主语从句,谓语动词通常用单数,但所指的具体内容是复数意义时, 谓语动词一般用复数形式。 What we need is more money. What we need are more people/teachers.
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②在 “one of + 复数名词 + who/that/which” 引导的从句结构中, 关系代词 who/that/which 的先行词是靠近它的复数名词而不是 one, 因此从句中的谓语动词也应该是复数形式。 如 one 前有 the only 则用单数形式。 This is one of the most interesting stories that have been told by my father. She was the only one of the girls who was late for class today. (7)不定式、名动词(短语)作主语用单数形式;There be 句型中 be 的单 复数取决于 be 后的第一个词的数。 There is a book, two pens on the desk. There are two pens, a book on the desk. 5、倒装句的要点复习 (1)在以 there、here、now、then、such 引导的,引起人们注意的招呼句要倒装。 There goes the bell. Here comes the bus. (2)表示动态的状语,置于句首时,句子要倒装。 Off went the horse. In came the boss. From the speak er comes the doctor’s voice. (3)表示地点的词语置于句首或强调地点概念时。 South of the town lie two steel factories. Between the t wo buildings stands a tall tree. 注意:句子的主语为人称代词时,句子不倒装。 Here it is. Away they went. (4)否定词 never、seldom、hardly、scarcely、barely、rarely、little、not、nowhere、 by no means、at no time、neither、nor 等放在句首时,句子常倒装。如: By no means shall we give up. Never have I been to the USA. Seldom does she get up late in the morning. (5)在 not only … but also … no sooner … than …、hardly … when …、scarcely … when …、not until …、so … that …、such … that …句型中,主句倒装,从句不倒装,但要 注意:neither … nor … 连接的句子前后两个分句都要倒装。 Not only is she smart but also she is beautiful. Such great progress did he make that he was praised. So heavy is the box that I can’t carry it. Neither has he a pencil, nor has he a pen. (6)Only + 状语或状语从句 +其他(only 在句首时要倒装) 。 Only then did I realize the importance of learning English. (7)so 、neither、nor 放在句首时,表示前面的情况也适用于另一个人或物时,用部分 倒装。 (8)表语或状语或动词原形 + as/though + 主语 + 其他时,句子要倒装。 (在让步状 语从句中) (9)虚拟语气中用倒装代替 if。 Were I you, I would go there at once. Had you come yesterday, you could have helped us. (10)在一些表示祝愿的句子中。 Long live China!

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二、精典名题导解

选择填空 1.—Each of the students, working hard at his or her lessons, _________to go to university. —So do I .(上海 1998) A.hope B.hopes C.hoping D.hoped 解析: 答案为 B。 本题考查主谓一致中的意义一致原则, 不定代词 either、 neither、 each、 one、the other、another 以及所有的复合不定代词作主语时,谓语动词应根据意义一致的原 则采用单数形式,排除 A。选项 C 是非谓语动词的一种,不能单独作谓语,亦应排除。根 据答语中的时态又可排除选项 D。 2.The number of people invited _________ fifty, but a number of them __________ absent for different reasons.(NMET 1996) A.were; was B.was; was C.was; were D.were; were 解析:答案为 C。本题考查 the number of 和 a number of 的区别。 “the number of + 复 数名词/代词”结构中的中心词是 number,“a number of + 复数名词/代词”结构中的中心词 是 of 后的复数名词或代词,故谓语动词分别用单、复数。解题关键在于仔细区分哪个是真 正的主语。 3.—David has made great progress recently. —_______, and __________.(上海 1997) A.So he has; so you have B.So he has; so have you C.So has he; so have you D.So has he; so you have 解析:答案为 B。 本题考查倒装知识。 “So + 主语 + 助动词”表“确实如此” , “So + 助动词 + 主语”表“也一样。 ” 4.—I wou ld never ever come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible! — . A. Nor am I B. Neither would I C. Same with me D. So do I 解析:答案为 B。本题主要考倒装,以 so/nor/neither 开头的倒装句子,在时态、语态、 助动词、情态动词等谓语形式上,要尽可 能与上文一致,故选 B,排除 A、D。如说“It’s the same with me”也可,但不能省略“the” 。 5.The teacher, with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class, visiting a museum when the earthquake struck. A. was B. were C. had been D. would be 解析: 答案为 A。 本题考查主谓一致及时态知识, 句子的主语是 the teacher, 后面跟 with 结构表补充说明,谓语应该与最前面的主语,即 the teacher 一致,应用单数,又因事情发生 在地震的时候,因此应该 用过去进行时。 6. snacks and drinks, but they also brought cards for entertainment when they had a picnic in forest. A. Not only they brought B. Not only did they bring C. Not only brought they D. Not only they did bring 解析:答案为 B。此题考查倒装句的用法 not only…but 等有否定意义的连词及副词位 于句首,句子使用部分倒装,故选 B。

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