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高中英语语法复习之形容词和副词


高中英语语法复习之形容词和副词
一、 形容词: 表示人和事物的特征, 对名词起修饰和描绘作用。 e.g. long, empty, cheap, hungry, etc. 1、 成分: 在句中作定语、表语、宾语补足语等成分. He is a good student. ( ) I have something important to tell you. ( ) 当形容

词修饰由 some-,any-,no-,every-构成的不定代词时,形容词要放在这些不定代词的之后. e.g. Is there anything interesting in today’s newspaper ? The trees turn green in spring. ( ) We are alone on the island. ( ) 只能作表语,不能作定语的形容词:alone afraid awake asleep alive able 形容词和宾语一起构成复合宾语. We must keep the classroom clean. ( ) He made us happy. ( ) Colour it green. ( ) Attention :有些单词以-ly 结尾,但却是形容词而非副词: lively、lonely、lovely、deadly、 friendly、ugly、silly、likely、 timely 、 brotherly 、sisterly 、 motherly fatherly 等。 2、形容词的比较级和最高级 词 尾 变 化 原级 比较级 最高级 单音节词在词尾加-er( 比较级)或 -est(最高级 ) tall 、 large 以字母 e 接尾的词加-r 或-st 以重读闭音节结尾的词末尾只有一个辅音字 big 、 母应双写辅音字母再加 er 或 est hot 、 以辅音字母+y 结尾的词变为 i 再加-er,或-est happy 少数以-er,-ow 结尾的双音节词可加-er 或-est Narrow、

多音节词和多数双音节词在其前面加 more difficult 和 most 不规则变化 原级 Good/ well Bad/ ill 比较级 better worse 最高级 best worst most farthest furthest oldest/eldest
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巧记 特殊形式比较级 共有三对二合一 坏病两多并两好 little 意思不是小 一分为二有两个 一是老来二是远

Many/ much more far old farther further Older /elder

形容词的原级句型: 1)as+形容词原形+as Tom is as tall as Mike. Tom is three times as old as Mike. There are as many students in our school as yours. 2)否定 not as+形容词原形+as “和… 不一样”或 not so+形容词原形+as “不及/不 如… Tom is not as tall as Mike. Tom is not so tall as Mike. 3)so+ 形容词原级+that 丛句/such+名词+that 丛句 He is so big that he can’t enter the room by the door . 4)… too+原级+ to do sth. He is too young to join the army. 5)形容词原级+ enough to do sth. This truck is big enough to carry 5 tons. 形容词比较级的句型: 1)比较级+than… Our school is larger than theirs. This bridge is longer than that one. 表示两者之间的选择,可使用“Which is+ 比较级,…or…?” Which is longer, this one or that? 2)表示不及另一方时,使用“less+原级+than…” This park is less beautiful than that one. 3)“The+比较级…,the+比较级…” The smaller the house is, the less it will cost us the heat. 4)“…比较级+and+比较级…” In spring, the days are getting longer and longer. 可修饰比较级的词:a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even 等 典型例题: 1)--- Are you feeling ____? --- Yes,I'm fine now. A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better 2)The experiment was ____ easier than we had expected. A. more B. much more C. much D. more much 3)If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school. A. the happiest time B. a more happier time C. much happiest time D. a much happier time 注意 :no/ not + 比较 级 + than 的特殊含义 ? A is no more careful than B. ? A 和 B 两人都不仔细。 ? A is not more careful than B. ? A 不如 B 仔细。 ? more…. than…与其说…倒不如说 ? It is more like a wall than a spear. ? They are more like father and son than teacher and student. ? more than + n. / num. / adj.
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? There are more than fifty students in our class. ? He is more than a teacher; he is our friend. ? She is more than kind to us all. 形容词的最高级: 1)倍数的表达 A is twice / three times … as+big / tall / high / wide / long +as B A is twice / three times … bigger / taller / higher / wider/ longer … than A is twice / three times … the size / height / width / length …of B 二、副词 1、分类: 时间副词 地点副词 方式副词 程度副词 疑问副词 关系副词 连接副词

B

now, then, today, tomorrow, ago, lately, soon, immediately, often, usually, early outside, upstairs, anywhere, up, forward, here, there, away, in, back, off simply, quickly, happily, loudly, suddenly, luckily, again, once, easily, together very, quite, rather, extremely, completely, widely, partly, perfectly, badly, too when, where, why, how(引导特殊疑问句) when, where, why (引导定语从句) when, where, why, how (引导名词性从句和副词性从句)

其他 surely, certainly, really, however, therefore, perhaps, moreover, yes, no 2、副词的比较级和最高级 副词的比较级和最高级的构成和形容词的比较级和最高级的构成基本相同.e.g. fast-faster-fastest slowly- more slowly –most slowly 形容记的最高级前要用定冠词 the,副词的最高级前可用可不用定冠词 the. Mount Qomolangma is the highest in the world. Jim jumped (the) highest of the all. 频度副词放在动词前,情态动词和助动词之后。 He always goes to school on foot. She was often late for school. I have never been to Beijing· 易混词语辨析与练习 late, later, latest, lately 1. The ________ edition of the dictionary is far better than the previous ones. 2. If the cab arrives _____, you will miss the flight. 3. This photo reminds me of my ___ grandfather. 4. He’s not been feeling well just ______. 5. In _______ autumn, you will find the ground covered with fallen leaves. 6. At first he denied all guilt, but he ______made a partial confession. rather, fairly, quite It is ______ that his English is _____ perfect. A. sure; very B. right; rather C. exact; fairly D. certain; quite rather 常修饰贬义的词,意为“太过,过于” , 用 rather 意为反感;fairly 常修饰褒义的词, 意为赞许。
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e.g.This room is fairly big/ rather big. quite 与表示完全概念的词 (right, wrong, perfect, certain, empty, full… ) 连用时, 表示“完全”= completely still, yet, already 1.The guests are _____ here. But the meat is not ready _____. It ____ has to be cooked for another five minutes. 2.Have you finished the work __________? You are very speedy. 值得熟记下列有关形容词、副词的固定搭配。 ? ①He is dead/blind drunk. ? ②He is wide awake. ? ③He’s sound/fast asleep. ? ④ It’s raining/snowing heavily. ? ⑤He is moving / breathing / drinking smoking heavily. ? ⑥The traffic/His moustache is heavy. 值得熟记下列有关形容词、副词的固定搭配。 ? ⑦The population of China is larger than that of Japan. ? ⑧The price of the book is high/low. ? ⑨The book is expensive/cheap. ? ⑩Johnson's speech was broadcast live across the world. With views beyond his age and even a sense of humor, Johnson soon became an international sign of the fight against AIDS and HIV. ? Johnson 的演讲是全球现场直播的。 凭着他这个年龄段的观点以及这样的幽默感, Johnson 很快变成了一个抵抗艾滋病毒的国际代言人。 1. The bread is ____ than these cakes A. very delicious B. much delicious C. more delicious D. as delicious 2. Lin Tao jumped ____ in the long jump in the school sports meeting A. far B. farther C. farthest D. quite far 3. When they met in the hotel . They talked and laughed ______ A. happily B. happy C. happier D. happiest 4. In our city it’s ____ in July ,but it is even ____ in August A. hotter /hottest B. hot /hot C. hotter /hot D. hot/ hotter 5. Hainan is a very large Island .It is the second ______ island in china. A. large B. larger C. largest D. most largest 6. An elephant is ____ than a tiger . A. heavy B. very heavy C. the heaviest D. heavier 7. A horse is ______ than a dog . A. much heavy B. more heavier C. much heavier D. more heavy 8. Emma always makes a lot of mistakes . She is _____. A. care B. careful C. carefully D. careless 9. Which subject is _____ , physics or chemistry ? A. interesting B. most interesting C. more interesting D. the most interesting 10. He is ___ enough to carry the heavy box . A. strong B. stronger C. much stronger D. the strongest 11. Li lei often talks ___ but does ___ so everyone says he is a good boy . A. less /more B. few/ much C. more/ little D. little/ many 12. When the famous singer started to sing , everyone began to shout very ___ .
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A. loudly

B. loud

C. heavily

D. high

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