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动词时态和语态讲义


高考英语专题四——动词的时态和语态
动词的时态和语态在历年的 高考中都占有相当的比例(2~3 道) ,考查趋向于少用“外显的”时间状语, 而是转向“隐藏的”时间状语,因此掌握各种时态,主动形式表示被动也是考查的热点。 现在体 一般现在时:构成: work works 一般现在时的被动 语态: is/am/are+done 过去体 一般过去时:构成: worked did

被 动语态: was/were done 将来体 一般将来时:构成: will/shall +V be going to do be to do be about to do 被 动 语 态 : will/should be done be going to be done be to be done be about to be done 过去将来体 过去将来时构成: Would+V. was/were+going to+V was/were to+V was/were about to+V。 was/were on the point of+doing 被动语态:would be done was/were going to be done was/were to be done was/were about to be done was /were on the point of being done 过去将来进行时 Would be doing 无被动语态

〖09 福建〗 According to the literary review, Shakespeare________his charities live through their language in his plays. A. will make B. had made C. was making D. makes 5..表示按照时间表或日程安排好的,将要发生的动作,come ,arrive, leave, go, begin start open close return take off 这些动词,用这些词的一般现在时,表将来 The meeting begins at 9:oo this morning. Flight UA 850 takes off at 8 am. We leave for Shanghai next Sunday. The train returns to Beijing tomorrow afternoon. I’m going back to Jinan tomorrow. My train ______ at 8:30 am. A, has left B. is leaving C. is to leave D. leaves 6..It will be +一段时间+before 从句用一般现在时 过了多长时间才….
It will be some time before we know the result

一般现在时的被动语态:is/am/are+done (2011 四川 9)All visitors to this village _________ with kindness. A. treat B. are treated C. are treating D. had been treated

现在进行时
现在进行时:表示说话者说话的同时正在发生的动作或状态。构成:is/am/are+doing ① . 现在进行时表示某种感情色彩 (厌恶, 表扬, 赞美) , 常与 always, forever , continually, constantly again 连用,并不表示动作正在进行 He is constantly thinking of how he could do more for others. ②表示短促动作的动词 jump, knock, beat, pick, skip 的现在进行时,表示动作的重复。并不表示动作正 在进行 The girls are jumping over there. 女孩子们在那边跳。 His heart is beating fast. 他的心脏跳得很快。 ③某些表示希望或想法的动词,如 hope, wonder, want 等的进行时,可以表示委婉客气。并不表示动作 正在进行 I’m wondering whether you can help us now. 我不知道你现在能否帮我们一下。 I’m hoping that you will succeed.希望你能成功。 ④.位移动词的 一般现在时和现在进行时,表示将来意义 come go arrive leave reach return ,run out My oil ______. I must go to the gas station before there is none left. A. has run out B. is running out C. has been run out D. is being run out of ⑤.特殊结构?be + under +名词”结构:这种结构表示某事“在进行中”。例如:? The building is under construction.?这座楼正在建设中。? 现在进行时的 被动语态:is/am/are being done The church tower which ——will be open to tourists soon。The work is almost finished A. has restored B. has been restored C. is restoring D. is being restored 现在完成时: ① 表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果。也可以表示持续到现在的动作或状态。 构成形式: have(has) +done 常与 just , already , yet , recently , before, ever since, since then, from then on , ever ,so far ,up to now, by now, till now, in the past few years/months/weeks/days ,these days, in recent years ,twice ,since+点时间 for+ 一段时间

现在进行时: 构成: is/am/are doing 现在进行时的被动 语 态 : ia /am/are being done 现在完成时: 构成:has/have done 现在完成时的被动 语态:has/have been done 现在完成进行时: 构成:has/have been doing 无被动语态

过去进行时 构成:was/were doing 被动语态: Was/were being done 过去完成时 构成:had done 被动语态: had been done
过去完成进行时

将来进行时: 构成:will be doing 无被动语态

将来完成时: 构成:will have done 被动语态: will have been done
将来完成进行时

过去将来完成时: 构成:would have done 被动:would have been done

过去将来完成进行时

无被动语态

无被动语态

无被动语态

一般现在时:
1.表示经常发生的动作或存在的状态,常与 usually, often, sometimes, always,every day (week, month, year..) , on Sundays 等时间状语连用。He usually goes to work at 7 o’clock every morning 2.,表示目前的状况 2011 全国一 23Planning so far ahead __ no sense—so many things will have changed by next year. A. made B. is making C. makes D. has made, 3.表示引用书籍,报刊,作者的话 Lenin says that without the working class the socialist revolution can’t be successful. 4.表示客观事实和普遍.真理 Shanghai lies in the east of China.

2.It/This/That is the first( second…) time that +现在完成时 某人第几次做某事 3.It This/That is the +形容词最高级+名词+ 从句用现在完成时 4.It is/has been +一段时间+since 从句为一般过去时 .(2009 陕西 9) This is the first time we ________ a film in the cinema together as a family. A. see B. had seen C. saw D. have seen (2010 湖南 30.)It is the most instructive lecture that I ________ since I came to this school. A. attended B. had attended C. are attended D. have attended It is/has been five years since we met . 5.表示短暂意义的动词,完成时不能与一段时间状语连用,要用它们相应的表示延续状态的动词替代。 arrive /reach 到达—be in/at begin /start ---have/has been on buy -----have/has had close-------have/has been closed die---------have/has been dead leave-------have/has been away open---------have/has been open 现在完成时的被动语态:has/have been done 现在完成进行时: 表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在的动作,也可能继续下去 构成 have(has) been doing 常与 for +一段时间 all the morning /day/month ,the whole day/week..等时 间状语连用 1. (2010 辽宁 24) 2010 辽宁 24) Joseph ______ to evening classes since last month, but he still can’t say ―What’s your name?‖ in Russian. A. has been going B. went C. goes D. has gone 2.(2009 辽宁 24) Excuse me, Marcia, a reporter from Vanity Fair ________ all day. Could you speak to her now? A. phones B. has phoned C. has been phoning D. phoned 现在完成进行时无被动 语态 现在完成时与现在完成进行时的区别 I have read your book 我读过你的书(读完了) ; I have been reading your book 我一直在读你的书(未读完)

A. were hanging B. had hung C. hung D. would hang ②一般过去时的几种句型 It was +段时间 before 从句用一般过去时 表示“多长时间之后才。 。 。 ” It was ten years before he found his lost boy. It is /has been + 一段时间 since 一般过去时 表示“自从某人做某事,已经多久了。 It is five days since we came here. 一般过去时的被动语态: was/were+done (2010 四川 18)You’ve failed to do what you ________ to and I’m afraid the teacher will blame you. A. will expect B. will be expected C. expected D. were expected (2009 北京 27)The way the guests ________ in the hotel influenced their evaluation of the service. A. treated B. were treated C. would treat D. would be treated

过去进行时:表示过去某个时间点或某段时间正在发生进行的动作常与表示过去的时间状语连用,如:
last night, last Saturday 等;或者与 when, while, as 引导的过去时间状语连用。 过去进行时的被动语态:was/were being done The question was being discussed at the meeting yesterday afternoon. 1.(2007 全国二 15)–Is there anything wrong, Bob? You look sad. –Oh, nothing much. In fact, I ________ of my friends back home. A. have just thought B. was just thinking C. would just think D. will just be thinking 过去完成时: 两个动作都发生在过去,先发生的动作用过去完成时(had done),后发生的动作用一般过去时。 (did) , 过去完成时的时间状语常用 by, before after, by, up till 等引导 短语表示这种时态从来不孤立使用 ( b) 构成:had done ①.She had learned some English before she came to the institute. ②.By the time+一般过去时的句子 ,主句用过去完成时 (2011 辽宁 34)By the time Jack r eturned home from England, his son__________ from college. A. graduated B. has graduated C. had been D. had graduated ③.It was/had been +一段时间 since 从句用过去完成时 It was ten years since we had had such a wonderful time. ④.It/This/That was the first(second…) time that 从句用过去完成时 “这是某人第几次做某事 (如主句 was 改为 is ,从句为现在完成时) It was the third time that he had made the same mistake. ⑤.表示愿望,打算的动词,hope, expect, mean , intend, want, think, suppose, 这些动词的过去完成时表示 过去未曾实现的愿望或意图。 I had hoped that I could do the job. I had hoped to see more of Shanghai.(但未能如愿) 过去完成时的被动语态: had been done (2011 北京 21)Experiments of this kind _____in both the U.S. and Europe well before the Second World War. have conducted B. have been conducted C. had conducted D. had been conducted

一般过去时:
表示过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作。过去的时间状语 yesterday (morning,afternoon,evening),the day before yesterday,last+时间,一段时间+ago ,just now,the other day =a few days ago.,at the age of 10 (过去年龄段) ,in the old days,that day,once upon a time 从前 in 1994, before liberation(解放前…)等 ①by the time +一般过去时从句,主句用过去完成时 (2009 北京 30.)When I talked with my grandma on the phone, she sounded weak, but by the time we ________ up, her voice had been full of life.

一般将来时:
表示将要发生的动作或状态。常与表示将来的时间状语连用。如 tomorrow tonight, next week ,in +一段时

间,in the future 构成 ① will/shall+动词原形, 将要做某事 Tom will come next week. 表示事物的必然趋势。 Fish will die without water. 表示一方听到另一方的话,做出的临时决定。用 Will ②be going to do 表示计划或打算将来做的事情,He is going to speak on TV tonight. 还可以表示根据现在的迹象,对未来进行判断 be going to Look at the dark clouds . It is going to rain . 还可以用于条件句中, 。If you ____ attend the party ,you’d better leave now. A. should B. will C. were to D. are going to ③.be about to do 表示马上就要发生的事情,不与表示将来的时间状语连用。 The train is about to start. ④.be to do 表示按职责,义务和要求就要发生的事情 The Queen is to visit Japan in a week’s time. ⑤.“祈使句 + and/or + 句子”,这种结构中 and 后面的句子谓语用一般将来时。 Use your head and you will find a way Hurry up or you will be late for school.

Will/shall be done be going to be done be about to be done be to be done The children will do their homework the moment they have arrived back from school. (10 全国 I 32)The discovery of gold in Australia led thousands to believe that a fortune ______. A. is made B. would make C. was to be made D. had made 将来进行时:表示将来某一时间点或时间段正在进行的动作。 构成:will be doing (2012 辽宁卷) 31. I feel so excited! At this time tomorrow morning I _________ to Shanghai. A.will be flying B.will fly C.have been flying D.have flown (完成进行时和将来进行时无被动语态) 将来完成时:表示动作持续到将来某一时间才能完成 ,常用常用的时间状语一般用 构成:will have done 被动:will have been don by+将来的时间 by 8 o’clock this evening, by March next year, by the time / the end of + 表示将来时间的短语和句子; by the time…, before 或 when after 等加上表示将来 动作的句子等 .表示 在 。 。 。之前 By the end of next month, he will have traveled 1000 miles on foot. By the time you reach the station, the train will have left. 被动语态一共 10 种,完成进行时和 将来进行时 无被动语态 一般现在时的被动 1,Xiao Wang, you _____________(want)in the office. 一般过去时的被动 2. I ___________(invite)in the concert. last night. 一般将来时的被动 3. The new building ____________build) next year. 过去将来时的被动 4. he said that the bridge ______________(build) next year. 现在完成时的被动 5.My car ________________________.(repair) now. 过去完成时的被动 6. The door_______________( repair)before he came here. 现在进行时的被动 7. This question_______________ (discuss) at the meeting now. 过去进行时的被动 8. This question _______________ (discuss) at the meeting.yesterday afternoon. 将来完成时的被动 9。 The bridge _________________________(build) by the end of 2014. 过去将来完成时的被动 10。The bridge___________________________(build) the next year. 一.下列单词不能用于进行时: enjoy,see,seem be, like, love, hate, fear, own, hear, know, want, notice , belong to(也不用于被动语态) 二.下列单词,不能用于被动语态: 用主动表示被动 .belong to , consist of , run out , break out ,occur , happen , take place , remain, come true, become, rise , appear, arrive, die, fall, last, exist, fail, succeed 三.下面单词主动表被动。 用主动语态表示被动

〖09 陕西〗Dr. Smith, together with his wife and daughters, _____visit Beijing this summer. A. is going to B. are going to C. was going to D. were going to
.〖10 福建〗–Guess what, we’ve got our visas for a short-term visit to the UK this summer. --How nice! You________a different culture then. A. will be experiencing B. have experienced C. have been experiencingD. will have experienced 2011 天津卷,4】On her next birthday, Ann_____ married for twenty years. A.is B.has been C.will be D.will have bee 一般将来时的被动语态:

lock ( 锁 ) ; wash ( 洗 ); sell ( 卖 ); read ( 读 ); wear ( 穿 ); blame (责备); ride (乘坐); write ( 写 ); , break , 常与 well, quite, easily, badly 等副词连用 Glass breaks easily. 玻璃容易破碎。 The car rides smoothly. 这车走起来很稳。 The case locks easily. 这箱子很好锁 The book sells well. 这本书很畅销。 系动词,主动表示被动 look, sound, become, taste, feel, get, keep, prove, appear Your reason sounds reasonable. Good medicine tastes bitter to the mouth ?? 表示被动含义的主动结构? be worth(值得) doing, be worthy of +名词”结构:在这一结构中,名词和句子的主语有被动含义,如: want /need/require doing = want /need/require to be done .在时间状语从句. 条件状语从句,让步状语从句中,主句和从句的时态 1,.在时间状语从句. 条件状语从句,让步状语从句中,主,句用一般将来时 will+动词原形,从句用一般现 在时(表将来) I’ll tell him about it as soon as he comes. I will carry it out whatever you say. If it is fine tomorrow, we’ll go shopping. The sports meeting will take place unless it rains tomorrow. So long as he works hard, I don’t mind when he finishes the experiment. 但是在名词性从句中,则要根据需要选用时态,该用一般将来时态的,就不要再用一般现在时态来代替 了。 典型题例:I don't know if it _______(rain) tomorrow ,but if it _______(rain),we'll stay at home, 2,在时间状语从句. 条件状语从句,让步状语从句中,主,句用一般将来时 will+动词原形活祈使句,从句 用现在进行时(表将来进行时) Look out when you are crossing the street. Don't wake him up if he is still sleeping at 7 tomorrow morning. 3.在时间,条件,让步状语从句中,用现在完成时表示将来完成时。 I will not believe you unless I have seen it with my eyes. He will come to the party the moment he________ his work. A.finishing B.finished C.has finished D.had finished 4 主句过去将来—从句一般过去表示过去将来 I would tell you when he came back.:

2004=2013 辽宁高考真题
【2013 辽宁卷,22】. He was unhappy when he sold his guitar. After all, he _________if for a very long time. A. has had. B. had had C. has D. had 【2013 辽宁卷 30. 】. We are confident that the environment ______by our further efforts to reduce pollution. A. had been improved B. will be improved C. is improved D. was improved 【2012 辽宁卷 31. 】. I feel so excited! At this time tomorrow morning I _______Shanghai A. will be flying B. will fly C. have been flying D. have flown 【2012 辽宁卷,35】. Mum, I was wondering if you could lend me a few dollars until I _______on Friday A. get paid B. got paid C. have paid D. had been paid

【2011 辽宁卷,28】I'll go to the library as soon as I finish what I _____ . A. was doing B. am doing C. have done D. had been doing 【2011 辽宁卷,34】By the time Jack returned home from England, his son ____ from college. A. graduated B. has graduated C. had been graduating D. had graduated 〖10 辽宁〗Joseph ______to evening classes since last month, but he still can’t say ―What’s your name?‖ in Russian. A. has been going B. went C. goes D. has gone 〖10 辽宁〗I _______ all the cooking for my family, but recently I’ve been too busy to do it. A. will do B. do C. am doing D. had done 〖09 辽宁〗Excuse me, Marcia, a reporter from Vanity Fair ________ all day. Could you speak to her now? A. phones B. has phoned C. has been phoning D. phoned 〖09 辽宁〗My parents have promised to come to see me before I _______ for Africa. A. have left B. leave C. left D. will leave 〖08 辽宁〗We first met on a train in 2000.We both felt immediately that we__each other for years.?. A.knew B.have known? C.had known D.know 〖08 辽宁〗—Have you got any job offers??—No.I________.? A.waited B.had been waiting? C.have waited D.am waiting 〖07 辽宁〗—Have you handed in your schoolwork yet?? —Yes, I have.I guess it________now.? A.has graded B.is graded? C.is being graded D.is grading 〖07 辽宁〗—Has your father returned from Africa yet?? —Yes, but he________here for only three days before his company sent him to Australia.? A.was B.has been C.will be D.would be 〖06 辽宁〗The father as well as his three children________skating on the frozen river every Sunday afternoon in winter.? A.is going B.go C.goes D.are going 〖06 辽宁〗I think it is necessary for my 19-year-old son to have his own mobile phone, for I sometimes want to make sure if he________home for dinner.? A.come B.comes C.has come D.will come 〖05 辽宁〗 Susan decided not to work on the program at home because she didn’t want her parents to know what she __________. A. has done B. had done C. was doing D. is doing 〖05 辽宁〗Months ago we sailed ten thousand miles across this open sea, which _______ the Pacific, and we met no storms. A. was called B. is called C. had been called D. has been called 〖04 辽宁〗It is said in the book that Thomas Edison (1847—1931) ________ the world-leading inventor for sixty years. A. would be B. has been C. had been D. was


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