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4 Module Grammar 1: 一般现在时和现在进行时

1 My First Day at Senior High
1.The students often do their experiment in the laboratory. 2.We always care for each other and help each other.

3.I am used to listening to the weather report every morning. 4.He sometimes stays up till midnight to catch up with others. 5.Do you usually go to school on Sunday. 1、She is always ready to help others. 2、 China is a developing country which belongs to the third world. 3、---Do you sing? –A little.

表示现在习惯或反复发生的动作或存 在 的 状 态 , 常 与 usually 、 always 、 Seldom、sometimes、often、frequently、 every day 、 every week 、 (year morning)on Sunday 等时间状语连用。

一 般 现 在 时

表示主语现在的特征 、性格和状态

1、All the living things on the earth depend on the 表示客观规律、正确事实或科学真理、 sun. 格言以及其他不受时间限制的客观存 2、Knowledge comes only from practice. 在。 3、Unpleasant advice ,like bitter medicine ,has welcome effect. *Our teacher told us the earth goes round the sun. 在由连词 if、unless 、before、 as soon 1、I’ll call on you unless it rains the day after as when、 once、 however 等引起 tomorrow. 的时间(条件、让步)状语从句,需 2、Even if it rains tomorrow, the sports meet will take place. 用一般现在时,表示将来。 3、We will start as soon as you are ready. 4、 However much advice you give him, he will do exactly what he wants. 表示安排或计划要做的动作(有时间 1、The film starts at seven o’clock this evening. 状语) 限于 begin 、 come、 leave、 go、 2、The plane takes off at 5:00a.m. arrive、start、stop、open、close、return 3、We leave for Beijing next Friday. 等 用法 表示现在(说话的瞬间)正在进行或发生的动作 例示 1、Look, the boy is dozing off. 2、 Look! The monkey is climbing the banana tree. 3、I haven’t accepted his suggestion yet. I’m still considering it. 1 、 How are you getting along with your English these day. 2、We are going over the grammar learned before at present. 3、 W are preparing for the meeting to be

现 在 进

表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作(说话时 动作不一定正在进行)

行 时 表示说话人现在对主语的行为表赞叹,厌恶等,常与 always\constantly\continually 等副词连用

held next Friday now. 1 、 He is always thinking of others. (表 赞许) 2 、 He is constantly leaving his things about.(表不满) 3、The children are always making trouble.(表厌恶) 4 、 She is always asking the same question.(表厌恶) 5 、 You are always changing your mind. (表抱怨)

表示在最近计划或安排要进行的动作,常限于 go\come\leave\start\arrive\return\work\sleep\stay\do\have\wear 等 表移动,方向的动词

1、He is starting the work in a few minutes. 2、A foreign guest is giving a lecture in English this afternoon. 3、He is leaving for Beijing tomorrow afternoon. 4、He is coming to see you next month. 5、He is staying with us for a few weeks next year.

Grammar 2:分词形容词 英语中有些形容词是由动词的 ---ing 构成的(通常表示事物给人的感觉,意为“是令人 感到…..的”,有些形容词是由动词的------ed 构成的(通常表示人对事物的感觉,意为 ) “对……感到……的”。前者表示主动的意义,后者表示被动的意义。由于他们的形式 ) 与现在分词和过去分词完全一样,故又称它们为“ 分词形容词” ,在句中做表、定、状、 补等成分。常见的有: amazing ---- amazed amusing ---- amused astonishing---- astonished frighting-------frightened boring- ---bored confusing-- confused disappointing—disappointed moving ------moved disturbing - disturbed discouraging-- discouraged encouraging – encouraged tiring------tired

Module 2 My New Teachers
Grammar:后接 V-ing 的动词 (1)英语中有很多的动词后只跟动名词作宾语:如 advise, consider, admit, appreciate, mind , avoid, excuse, delay, imagine, deny, enjoy, keep(on), practice, resist, escape , risk , put off, explain, quit(停止), tolerate, pardon, allow, forbid, miss (错过), suggest, advise, recommend, finish, envy, can’t help

(2) 有一类动词后直接跟动名词形式作宾语;如果后面跟名词、代词加宾补, 则宾 补用不定式‘这类常见的可记忆为“阿福的帽子”:FU’S CAP : allow, forbid, understand, suppose, consider, advise, permitted eg: ① We don’t allow using mobile phone here. ② We don’t allow him to use mobile phone here. ③ He is not allowed to use mobile phone here. (3) “动词+ 介词”构成的短语,其后往往跟动名词作宾语。尤其是含有介词“to ―的 动名词短语;常见的有:be used to 习惯于, devote oneself to 致力于;lead to 导致; to 注意, see 处理 pay attention to;get down to ; stick to; get accustomed to ; look forward to (4)―what \ how about + v-ing‖ 常用来征询意见,意为“。。怎么样? 。 eg: What about going on a picnic? (5)有些动词后跟不定式与动名词的意义差别较大,高考出现频率较大: forget to do sth doing sth to do sth doing sth to do sth doing sth to do sth doing sth (with sth) remember to do sth doing sth to do sth doing sth to do sth (努力\ 试图做 sth) doing sth (尝试做某事)





go on

can’t help to do sth doing sth

【注】 :remember, forget, regret 后跟 doing 与跟 having done 的意思一样。 (6)动名词的复合结构:动名词的前面可以有自己的逻辑主语构成动名词的复合结构。 其结构由物主代词或人称代词 (宾语) 名词所有格或普通格加动名词构成, 在句子开头 、 必须用名词所有格或物主代词。 eg:① Tom’s doing sth 可作主、宾、表 His doing sth ② Tom doing sth 可作主、表 Him doing sth

Module 3 My First Ride on a Train
Grammar 1:动词的过去分词 ①及物动词的过去分词作定语表示被动或完成,或两者兼而有之 eg: a respected teacher a broken cup ②不及物动词的过去分词作定语只表示完成的含义 eg:He is a retired worker. ③V-ed 形式的分词形容词作定语说明所修饰的名词的状态,无被动的含 义,是一个形容词 (1)作定语 eg:a surprised look disapointed children ④过去分词可以和形容词或副词一起构成合成形容词一起做前置定语 eg: a highly-developed industry a widely-used language ⑤过去分词短语作后置定语放在所修饰词的后面,逻辑上相当于一个被 动的定语从句 eg:→It is a book (which is )recommended by the teacher. →Many people (who were)invited to the party were famous scientists. (2)作表语:表示主语的特点或所处的状态 eg:The door remained locked.

(3)作补语:过去分词(一般是及物动词的)表示被动或完成,有时兼而有之,作宾 补得过去分词与宾语之间有逻辑上的动宾关系,即宾语是过去分词动作的承受者或对 象。 eg:She found the door broken when she came in. (4) 作状语:修饰谓语动词分词动作与主语之间常构成逻辑上的动宾关系, 即被动关系。 过去分词作状语,意义上相当于状语从句,表示原因、时间、条件、伴随、让步、方式 等。 ①表条件:eg:Given more attention , the trees could have grown better. ②表时间:eg:Asked many times , I told him the secret. ③表伴随:eg:The teacher came in, followed by his students. ④表让步; eg:Shown many times , he couldn’t operate the machine on his own. ⑤表方式:eg:She was in tears as if deeply moved by the film. Grammar 2:一般过去时 1、The great wall came into being in 221B.C 表示过去发生的动作或存在的状 2、She suddenly fell ill in the classroom the 态 , 常 与 yesterday\in 1996\two other day. years ago\last month\the day before 3、Mr. Jackson came to china a score of years yesterday\the other day 等表示过去 ago. 的时间状语连用 4、A thief broke into his house and stole his treasure last night. 一 1、When I was in the factory, I often worked in 般 表示过去一段时间内经常或反复 the workshop. 过 发 生 的 行 为 , 常 与 every 2、He usually came to school by bike last year. 去 day\often\sometimes 等时间状语连 3、We used to get up at five every morning 时 用, used to+动词原形” “would+ when we were at school. “ 或 动词原形” 常用来表示过去经常或 4、We would ask him for advice when we had trouble with our English. 反复发生的行为。 The professor put one finger in his mouth, 表示过去发生的一连串动作。 tasted it, and smiled with satisfaction. 1、He said he would let us know if he got any 在时间、条件、方式让步状语从句 news. 中用一般过去时表示过去将来的 2、He promised that he would buy some copies for us when he went there. 动作。 3、She said she would write to us soon as she arrived at Beijing.

Module 4 A social Survey—My neighbourhood
Grammar:现在完成时 表示过去发生或已 经完成的某一动作 对现在造成的影响 或结果。 表示过去已经开始, 持续到现在的动作 或状态,可以和表示 从过去某一时刻延 续到现在(包括“现 1、--Have you had your lunch yet? ---Yes, I have. I have just had it.(现在不饿了) 2、I have already posted the parcel.(包裹已不在我这里) 1、I haven’t seen her these days(for a long time). 2、Have you returned the book today? 3、I’ve known Li Lei for over 3 years. since he came here. since 10 years ago.

现 在 完 成 时

在”在内)的一段时 间内的状语连用: now\just\today\thism orning\thismonth\this year\for\since\all the time 与 Already\never\ever\ju st\before\lately\recent ly\yet\so far\up to the present\up till now\in the past\last few years 等状语连用。 与 for\during\in\within\o ver 引导的时间状语 连用,表示从过去的 某一行为一直延续 到现在。 表示反复或习惯性 的 动 作 , 与 several times\once\twice\thre e times\frequently 等 频度副词连用. 在“最高级+名词” 或在“这是第几次” 之后跟定于从句,从 句用现在完成时。

4、He has lived here

since 1980\since yesterday. since last year. ever since(then).

1、I have never seen such an inspiring film before. 2、Tom has done his homework already. 3、I haven’t seen him so far. 4、 ---Have you ever been to Beijng?---NO ,I have never been there 5、Up till now we haven’t seen the film. 6、He has recently come from New York. 1、We have discussed the topic (for) the last 3 week. 2、They have made rapid progress during the past few years. 3、--Have you seen any Austrians pass by here? ----Not within the last days. 4、I haven’t seen him in the recent years. 1、I haven’t watched him several times. 2、He has been to London twice. 3、I have seen the film three times.

1、This is the most interesting book that I have ever read. 2、It is the second time that you have been here. 3、This is the first time that I have visited you country.

现 表示从过去到现在 在 没有发生的动作。 用在时间、条件状语 完 从句中,表示从句动 作先于主句动作之 成 前已完成。 时 在现在完成时中,终 止动词若于 for\since 等延续状语连用,需 把终止动词变为 be 动词等的适当形式。 如: die—be dead\ join-be in\ fall ill---be ill\finish—be over \leave/ go—be away \begin—be on \make friends—be friends\ become-be\ get ready-be ready\buy—get/ have \marry—be 1、He hasn’t cleaned the room for 10 days. 2、They haven’t heard from him for a score of years. 1、I will give my opinion after I have read through the book. 2、We’ll set out at once if the rain has stopped. 3、I’ll tell him after you have left. 1、He arrived in China in 1990\5 years ago. 2、He has arrived in China. 3、he has been in china since 1990\for five years. 4、It is 5 years since he (has) arrived in china. 5、 she has left school for 15 years. ⅹ She has been away from school for 15 years. ∨ 6、 She has married Jack since 1965 。ⅹ She has been married to Jack since 1965. ∨ 7、 borrowed the novel for several days. ⅹ I have Kept the novel for several days. 8、 he has been in the army for 5 years. ∨ He has joined the army for 5 years。 ⅹ

married(to) \ borrow—keep\ arrive /get to/reach/come—be in /be at/ stay \ dress—be(dressed)in\ put on—have on/wear \meet—stay together 现 表示过去某一时刻 开始的动作一直延 在 续到现在,甚至将来 (强调进行的过程) 完 成 一直到现在为止的 一段时间内一再反 进 复进行的动作。 行 时 1、He is ill .He has been lying in bed for three weeks.(动作会 继续下去) 2、She is very tired .She has been typing letters all day. 3、Where have you been? He has been waiting for you all this morning.(动作刚刚结束) 1、All these years they have been contributing articles to our magazine. 2、Jim has been phoning Jenny every might for several weeks.

Module 5 A Lesson in a Lab
Grammar:形容词和副词的比较级 英语中的形容词和副词常有三种形式来表达事物的等级差别,分别是原级、比较级和最 高级。大部分的形容词和副词的比较级和最高级是通过变化词尾来实现的,属于规则变 化,但也有少数是不规则变化。 规则变化 单音节词在词尾加--er 构成比较级,加--est 构成最高级。以---e 结尾的单音节词直接加 --r 和--st ;以辅音字母结尾 且前边只有一个元音字母的,双写最后一个辅音字母,再 加-- er 和 ---est hard --- harder ----hardest late --- later --- latest hot ---- hotter ---- hottest 2.双音节词和多音节词的比较级和最高级 (1)以辅音字母+ y 结尾的双音节形容词,把 y 变为 i ;再加--er 和---est happy ---- happier ---- happiest 其他的双音节词和多音节词大都在前边加 more 和 most 构成比较级和最高级 exact --- more exact --- most exact warmly ---more warmly -----most warmly 【注】 :以--ly 结尾的副词,除了 early 外,其他均使用 more / most 构成比较级和最高 级 有少数几个双音节词以及以--er 及--le 结尾的词,可以有两种比较级和最高级形式 common --- commoner / more common ---- commonest / most common often ---oftener / more often ---- oftenest / more often 原级 比较级 最高级 good well better best many much more most little old less older(年龄、新旧、血缘) elder (仅指血缘) ill worse least oldest eldest worst


far late

farther (仅指距离) further(指距离或程度) later (较迟的,后来)

farthest furthest latest ( 最 新 的,最晚的)

clever- ---cleverer / more clever ---- cleverest / most clever simple ---- simpler / more simple ---- simplest / most simple 【注】 :像 unhappy 这样的以--y 结尾的双音节形容词的反义词,其比较级和最高级形式 有两种:unhappier /more unhappy --- unhappiest / most unhappy 不规则变化 【注】 :older, oldest 指年龄的大小关系,而 elder , eldest 指兄妹之间的长幼关系。older, oldest 既可以作定语还 以作表语, elder , eldest 只可用来作定语。 farther , 而 farthest 多指具体的距离; 而 further,furthest 多指程度上“进一步”等抽象意义。 形容词和副词等级的用法 1. 原级比较的用法 (1)在肯定句中用“as + 原级 +as”的结构 eg: My handwriting is as good as yours . She could do as well as a man . 在否定句中,用“not so / as +原级+ as ”的结构 eg: I didn't do my homework so /as carefully as you . I am not so / as busy as i used to be . 【注】 :如果第一个 as 后的形容词作定语修饰名词,应该将形容词和名词一起放在第一 个 as 的后面 eg: We have produced as many computers as we did last year . I don't make as much money as you do. 比较级的用法 当甲大于乙时,用“比较级+than”表示;当甲小于乙时,用“not + 比较级 + than”或 “less + 原级+than ” 表示 eg: Robert jumps higher than any of the others . She doesn't work harder than you( do ). I look less young than you (do) 。 【注】 :? 在此类表示比较的结构中应该注意避免和包括自身的对象进行比较 any other + 单数名词 all the other + 复数名词 比较级 + than + anyone else any of the other +复数名词 ? 注意在使用比较等级时被比较内容的对等性 Her voice is as sweet as a bird .(错误) Her voice is as sweet as that (=the voice )of a bird .(正确) 比较级的一些特殊用法 ①“比较级 + and + 比较级”表示事物本身程度的逐渐增长,意为“越来越。。” 。。。 The city is becoming more and more beautiful . ②“ the + 比较级。。。 , the +比较级。。” 。。 。。。表示一方的程度随着另一方程度的平 行增长,意为 “越。。。就越。。” 。。 。。。 The more you learn , the more you know . ③ the + 比较级 + of the two + n.(复数) The taller of the two boys is my brother .

④ “more + 原级 + than ”表示“与其说。。 。。倒不如说。。” 。。。 She is more shy than cold . ⑤ no more than 与 not more than 的用法 She spent no more than (=only:不过,仅仅 ,表示少的意思)50 dollars on the coat. She spent not more than (不超过,表示客观的数量)50 dollars on the coat . ⑥ “can / could not + 比较级”表示最高级的意义 I couldn't agree more . The idea sounds great to me . ⑦ “can / could not (never , hardly ....)+ .....+ too / enough ”表示“再。。。也不过分; 。。 越。。越好” 。 。 You can't be too careful .(你越仔细越好。 ) I can't thank you enough .(我感激不尽。 ) ⑧ 倍数的表达法 Your school is four times the size of ours . Your school is four times as big as ours . Your school is three times bigger than ours . Your school is four times what our school is . (你们学校是我们学校的 4 倍大。 ) 【注】 :? 比较的范围:如果比较的范围不一样,表达方式也不一样 China is larger than any other country in Asia。 (比较的范围一致) China is larger than any country in African .(比较的范围不一致) ? 注意比较结构中的省略现象: 由于日常交际的需要, 在彼此都明了的场合中, 比较对象往往省略。 I had never spent a more worrying day . (后面省略了 than that ) The piano in the other shop will be cheaper , but not as good .(省略了 as the one in this shop) 【注】:这种省略现象的比较级结构是历年高考常考的内容,应加以注意。 最高级的用法:最高级表示在三者或三者以上中程度最高的比较方式 the + 最高级 + (名词) + 比较范围的短语或从句 China is the largest country in Asia .(在一定的地域空间内用“in” ) China is the largest one of all the Asian countries .(在同一类事物范围内进行比较用 “of” ) 【注】 :the most ....为最高级,意为“最。。” 。。,而(a)most .....不是最高级,其中的 most 意为“十分,非常” , 表示程度,相当于 very,修饰其后的名词。 Last week we had a most heated discussion on this topic . They are most handsome boys . 运用比较级表达最高级 ? She is taller than any other girl in her class . She is taller than the other girls in her class. She is taller than the rest of the girls in her class. =She is the tallest girl in her class. ?I have never heard a better voice than yours . =Your voice is the best voice that i have ever heard . 比较等级的修饰语:在比较结构中,为了强调形容词、副词的程度,在比较级前可以用 以下副词修饰: 表示“比。。。 。。。多 / 强/ 好得多”的词有:a lot , a great deal , much , far, by far, far and away 等。 She is much cleverer than me . The boy bought far more books than i . I feel much / a great deal better today . This is (by)far the best article i have ever read . =This is the best article by far that i have ever read . (2)表示“比。。。多/ 少/ 好/ 强一点儿”的词有:a bit , a little ,slightly 等。 。。 The task is a bit harder than that one .

表示加强语气的词有:even , still , yet , rather 等。 表示具体的 “多/ 长/ 高/ 强/ 多少” 的词有: twice , five times, many times, two fifths, 20% 等。 She is a head taller than i . The Yellow River is the second longest river in China. 在疑问句中多用 any 修饰比较级 Are you feeling any better today ? ---Yes , i feel much / a great deal better today . 无比较等级的形容词和副词 1.本身就有比较级含义的词:senior(年长的,较高的); junior(年少的,较低的) ;prior (在先的); anterior(前 面的) ; inferior (次于,下等的); superior(优于,上等的); major(主要的); minor (次要的,较小的); posterior(以后的) 在使用这些词时无须加 more,也不能和 than 连用,而要用介词 to 引出比较对象 He is senior to me by several years.(他比我大好几岁。 ) 表示“绝对”意义的形容词和副词 absolutely entirely excellently perfectly totally thoroughly utterly wholly faultlessly completely 表示状态的形容词 afraid asleep alive ashamed awake alone aware alike 表示时间、方位、处所的形容词和副词 now present today ahead east there 表示独一无二的形容词 only mere unique single 表示国籍的形容词及有人名派生而成的形容词 Japanese American Indian Leninist (列宁主义的) 表示强调的词 right very just 表示大小、极限、先后顺序、是非的词 maximum minimum extremely first true false right wrong

Module 6 The Internet and Telecommunications
Grammar 1: 合成词 合成名词 ①名词+名词: football; classroom ②形容词+名词: blackboard ; shorthand (速记法) ③动词+名词: pickpocket ④副词+名词 : outbreak ; downfalls(垮台) ⑤V-ing+名词 : sleeping pills ; waiting room ⑥动词+副词 : get-together ; breakthrough 合成形容词 ①形容词+名词-ed: good-tempered ②形容词+过去分词 :ready-made(现成的) ③形容词+V-ing :good-looking ; easy-going ④副词+过去分词 : well-known ; newly-built ⑤副词+V-ing : hard-working ⑥名词+过去分词: man-made ⑦名词+V-ing :peace-loving ; english-speaking ⑧名词+形容词: duty-free ⑨数词+名词 :first-class (3) 合成动词 ①名词+动词:brainwash ②副词+动词: overcome ③形容词+动词:safeguard Grammar 2:冠词

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