当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >>

Unit 4 Politics, Class and Race


Politics
Teaching content Teaching objectives Teaching difficulties Teaching time

1. General elections 2. Party politics

1. historical and cultural perspectives cur

rent political 2. The election affairs analysis procedure

5 periods

1

I General elections

II The political parties

III The recent timeline of the UK politics

2

I General elections
A. Introduction to general elections

B. Voting Rights in general elections
C. The importance of general elections D. Time for general elections

E. Qualifications for MP candidates
F. The procedure of general elections
3

A. Introduction to general elections
1. Elections

3. Referendum

2. General Elections

4

1. Elections
A political activity
? One of the most important political activities

A procedure
? members of an organization or community to choose representatives ? Representatives will hold positions of authority within it.

A basis of democracy
? Citizens have the right to choose the officials who will govern them.

5

2. General Elections
the decisive electoral contests ? to choose their constituency’s representatives to form the periodical government

Participation
? All voters may participate. ? Many different parties compete to win.

6

3. Referendum
a. Definition
? a process that allows citizens to vote directly on proposed laws or other governmental actions ? not an election, although it involves voting

b. Election Vs. referendum
? The election is an institution of representative government, for voters choose officials to act for them. ? The referendum is an institution of direct democracy where voters govern directly without intervention by government officials.
7

B. Voting Rights in general elections
1. Struggle in the history
2. Current situation 3. Exceptions
8

1. struggles in history
a. Middle class b. Workingmen c. All men
? The Great Reform Bill of 1832 gave the vote to the middle class for the first time. ? Acts in 1867 and 1884 gave workingmen rights to vote. ? In 1918 for the first time all men were permitted to vote. ? Until 1928 all women could vote. ? In 1969 the voting age for everyone was reduced to 18.
9

d. All women
e. everyone up to 18

2. Current situation
All the UK citizens
? over the age of 18

Irish Republic citizens
British citizens living abroad

? who are residents in UK.

? To vote in British elections for up to 20 years after they have left Britain
10

3. Exceptions
? a. Members of the House of Lords
? b. Some detained mental health patients ? c. Sentenced prisoners

? d. Resident foreign citizens
? e. Those convicted of corrupt or illegal election practices

in the previous five years

11

C. The importance of general elections
1. to decide the future government and policies
? To select the leaders of local, state, and national governments ? To make choices about the policies, programs, and future directions of government action

2. to promote government responsibility
? To exert pressure on those in power ? to conduct themselves in a responsible manner ? to take account of popular interests and wishes
12

D. Time for general elections
1. Regular calling for a general election
? after 5 years in power → the government resigns → a general election

2. Exceptional circumstances
? a. delayed elections due to wars ? b. early elections
13

a. delayed elections due to wars
? The election once was delayed until the end of the war. ? World War I (1914–18)
? ? ?

1908-15 H. H. Asquith Liberal 1915-16 H. H. Asquith coalition 1916-22 David Lloyd George coalition 1937-40 Neville Chamberlain 1940-45 Sir Winston Churchill national coalition coalition

? World War II (1939-45)
? ?

14

b. early elections
Background
? Prime Minister can call an election anytime over the period of 5 years.

Time to call early election
? (1) When PM loses “vote of no confidence” ? (2) when the government is currently popular
15

(1) “vote of no confidence”

16

17

(2) when the government is currently popular

18

E. Qualifications for Commons candidates

19

1. Constituency

20

2. Basic requirements

21

3. Classification of candidates

22

a. big parities candidates

23

b. small parties candidates

24

? Member Constituency 646 in 2005 (650 in 2010) ? Conservative (196) Democratic Unionist (9) ? Labour (352) Independent Labour (1) ? Liberal Democrat (63) ? Plaid Cymru /%plaId"kVmri/ (3) ? Scottish National (6) Sinn Fein (5) ? Social Democratic & Labour Party (3) ? Ulster Unionist (1) Speaker and Deputies (4) ? Respect (1) Independent (2)
25

F. The procedure of general elections

26

27

28

29

3. media involvement

30

4. voting, counting and celebrating

31

5. General election Principle

32

33

34

? Supplementary video ? The general election explained

35

II The political parties

36

A. Political party

37

1. definition of political party

38

2. functions of political party

39

3. organization of political party
? Party members ? Political parties are voluntary organizations and want as many members as possible. ? More members mean more money for their campaign and more support for their policies. ? Party regulations ? Some of these parties have rules and membership dues or fees, while others don’t. ? Party whips (政党内督促议员勿缺席的)议院督导员
?

?

a member of the US Congress or the British Parliament who is responsible for making sure that the members of their party attend and vote a written order sent to members of the British Parliament telling them when and how to vote (政党发给本党议员的)出席命令
40

B. Ruling party Vs. opposition party
? 1. Ruling party/majority party ? political party in control of a government. ? Now in the UK the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats are the ruling party. ? 2. Practice of ruling party ? abuses by ruling parties ? ruling party evolving from opposition party ? unpopular ruling parties

41

? 3. the opposition/ the opposition party/ the minor party ? in some countries such as Britain, the main political party in the parliament that is not part of the government ? Today all parties in the Parliament except the Labour are the opposition parties.

42

C. the Conservative Party →Tories

43

1. Origin

44

2. Political doctrines

45

46

3. power in history
? a. In most of the years in history the conservative party

ruled the UK. ? b. In May 1945, it was overwhelmed by the Labour. ? c. In the 1950s the Conservatives regained government leadership. ? d. From 1979-1997 it seized the power and ruled UK after frequent power change in the post-1945 period. ? e. In 1997 it lost its power with a landslide by the Labour. ? f. In 2010 Tory came back.
47

D. the Labour Party → New Labour

48

1. Origin

49

2. Political doctrines – a socialist party

50

51

52

3. Power in history

53

54

E. the Liberal Democrats → Whigs

55

1. Origin

56

57

2. political doctrines

58

3. Power in history

59

III The recent timeline of the UK politics

60

61

C. 1979-1997 from the left to the right and from the public to the individual

62

1. the fall of the Labours in 1970s
? Background to the decades of problems in 1970s ? Economical decline: inefficiency in nationalized industries and bankruptcy in big private companies ? high inflation and low growth ? many trade unions strikes and growing influence ? The crisis ended in 1979 ? the Labour government lost a vote of no confidence and lost the power in the UK.

63

2. the rise of the conservatives

64

a. the first woman PM
? In 1979 Margaret Thatcher became the first woman PM

with the success of the conservatives in the parliament. ? the winner of three consecutive general elections and served as prime minister from 1979 to 1990. ? the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century ? a radical Conservative
? not to give in to the trade unions or change from the course

she had charted to revive the British economy ? opposed to the socialist programs of the Labour party
65

b. denationalization or privatization
? Practice ? She privatized some nationalized industries and social programs, including education, housing, and health care. ? Success ? These policies brought the success of the efficient and profitable private enterprises ? Problem ? The policies also caused huge unemployment with less welfare payments but more poverty. ? “Private affluence and public squalor” was the description of the 1980s.
66

c. less government intervention
? Less government intervention in industries was made.
? The role of the government in the economy was largely

decreased. The government was greatly simplified.

67

d. less taxation
? Thatcher cut the tax ? Contrast to the Labours' redistributive taxation role of the government ? An ironical attempt in taxation ? She attempted to change the local taxation system with the "poll tax". ? In 1990 controversy over Thatcher's tax policy and over her reluctance to commit the UK to full economic integration with Europe inspired a strong challenge to her leadership. ? She was followed by John Major with less forceful policies.
68

Quotations from Margaret Thatcher
? I love argument, I love debate. I don't

expect anyone just to sit there and agree with me, that's not their job. ? I'm not hard—I'm frightfully soft. But I will not be hounded. ? I fight on, I fight to win. ? Failure? Do you remember what Queen Victoria once said? "Failure?—the possibilities do not exist.
69

D. 1997-2010 the back of the Labour

70

1. policy change
? In 1995 to follow the current trend
? Lobour gave up its commitment to socialism and the

nationalization of industries.

71

2. reasons for the fall the conservatives again
? a. hope for new faces ? years of the conservative’s rule made people grow tired ? b. a divided Conservative ? The conservatives were divided over the dispute of the European Union and the single currency Euro. ? c. a series of scandals ? It hurt the popularity of the conservatives. ? d. the Royal crisis ? The divorce of Prince Charles and Princess Diana in 1996 also hurt the Conservatives, because they were strong supporters of the monarchy.
72

3. Labour’s Return to Power

73

4. Tony Blair’s rule

74

a. the first term (1997-2001)
? ★ He made the Bank of England independent of

government, to prevent monetary policy from being affected by political issues. ? ★ home rule to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland ? ★ wait-and-see attitude toward monetary integration with the Euro ? ★ The House of Lords Act stripped many of the hereditary peers in the House of Lords (from 750 to 92)

75

b. the second term (2001-2005)
? ★ Direct rule in Northern Ireland in 2002
? ★ “shoulder to shoulder” with US in the global war on

terror after 9/11 in 2001 ? ★ sending troops to Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2003
? The subsequent failure to find weapons of mass destruction

in Iraq opened Blair to criticism that he had led the UK to war on the basis of unreliable intelligence

76

c. the third term (2005-2007)
? ★ In 2005 the Labour Party won its first-ever third

consecutive victory, giving Blair a third term as prime minister.
? Analysts said Labour’s slimmer majority (412→356)

reflected voter discontent with Blair’s decision to support the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. (Bush’s lap dog) ? The Liberal Democrats, who opposed Britain’s involvement in the war, increased their representation in the House of Commons, winning 62 seats.

77

? ★ On July 7, 2005, four bomb

explosions struck London during the morning rush hour.
? ★ May 8, 2007 Power

sharing government restored in Northern Ireland ? ★ June 27, 2007 power transferred to Gordon Brown
78

Quotations from Tony Blair
? The art of leadership is

saying no, not yes. It is very easy to say yes. ? We are the party of the individual because we are the party of the community. ? Blair’s speeches ? Blair’s resignation ? Blair’s legacy
79

5. Gordon Brown’s rule

80

? Introduction to Gordon Brown ? born in Glasgow, Scotland ? He studied history at the University of Edinburgh. ? chancellor of the exchequer (1997-2007)
?

?
?

the frugal head of the treasury the “iron chancellor” a decade of economic growth

? Labour Party leader and prime

minister of the UK (20072010)
81

? Gordon Brown on media ? on the financial stability programme ? on the origins of the financial crisis ? UK's Brown resigns as Prime Minister

82

E. 2010-now

83

84

Class

85

Features of social class

86

Structure of social class in the UK

87

Difference of social classes
? Economy: not simply economic
? Newspaper: tabloid or broadsheet ? Accents: regional accent or RP

? Education: free public or expensive private schools ? Oxbridge and network of connections ? Politics; arts; media; industry

88

Race
? Diversity of the race
? Consequences of racial diversity ? Life of the ethnic minority

89

Diversity of the race
? Non-European ethnic minority ? Immigrants from South Asia ? Immigrants from Caribbean countries ? People in four parts of the country

90

Consequences of racial diversity
? Positive: ? Multiculturalism in food and music ? Negative: ? Attitude of their white neighbours ? Trouble in assimilation ? Disproportion of immigrants in different areas ? Whites feeling threatened in economy and security

91

Life of the ethnic minority
? Worse-off in economy
? Under-represented in politics ? Unfairness in justice system

? Clashes with the racists

92

? Books recommended ? Watching the English: The Hidden Rules of English Behaviour - Kate Fox ? Paperback: 432 pages ? Publisher: Nicholas Brealey Publishing (May 25, 2008) ? Language: English ? ISBN-10: 1857885082 ? ISBN-13: 978-1857885088

93


相关文章:
Unit 4.Politics,Class and Race
Unit 4.Politics,Class and Race_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。Unit 4: politics, class and race I. Teaching Aims: Students should master social class, ...
Unit 4 Politics_ Class and Race (英国的政治_阶级和种族)
Unit 4 Politics, Class and Race (英国的政治 阶级和种族 英国的政治,阶级和种族 英国的政治 阶级和种族) 一,本单元重点内容 1. Importance of general ...
Unit 4 Politics, Class and Race
Unit 4 Politics, Class and Race Period Five Teaching aim: Enable students to have a good knowledge of politics, class and race of the UK. Teaching im...
unit 4
unit 4_英语_小学教育_教育专区。Unit 4 Politics, Class and Race (英国的政治 ,阶级和种族 ) 一、本单元重点内容 1. Importance of general elections (大选...
英语国家社会与文化学习重点
Status 3. Institutions Unit 4 Politics, Class and Race I. General elections 1. Why are they important? 2. When do elections occur? 3. Who can ...
unit 4
unit 4_英语_小学教育_教育专区。? UNIT FOUR ? POLITICS,CLASS AND RACE Ⅰ...(4)Election day 1 Voting ○ Citizens will vote on their local election ...
英美概况教学周历
4 Students’ lecture 2 3 Unit 3 History of the UK II Teaching 4 Discussion 2 4 Unit 4 Politics, Class and Race, Economy Teaching 4 Thesis 2 5 ...
英语国家社会与文化入门
英语国家社会与文化入门(上) Unit 1 A Brief Introduction to the United ...Unit 4 Politics, Class and Race In 1928 it reached the current level of...
英语国家社会与文化
T 上 Unit 4 Politics, Class and Race 1. In the UK, a government cannot stand for longer than five years except in exceptional circumst ances. T 3...
英美概况
House of Commons 651 constituencies Unit 4 POLITICS, CLASS AND RACE UNIT 4 ?Why important: Election right 1928 99% ?When: 651 seats/ five year ...
更多相关标签:
power and politics | emotion and politics | politics and economy | unittest setupclass | unit6 my first class | race and ethnicity | egg and spoon race | www.andclass.cn |