单句语法填空 1．(2015· 全国卷Ⅰ语法填空)It was raining lightly when I
arrived (arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn. ________
2．(2015· 广东高考语法填空)He s
old or exchanged some of the milk in the towns nearby for other food and made cheese
was left (leave)． and butter for the family with what _________ caught (catch) 3．(2014· 全国卷Ⅱ语法填空)A boy on a bike _________
my attention. He was riding beside the bus and waving his arms.
is called (call) 4．(2014· 辽宁高考语法填空)Be patient! Tai Chi ________
“shadow boxing” in English. It asks you to act like water: to be flexible as well as strong.
were told (tell) that our 5 ． (2014· 广东高考语法填空 )We _________
rooms hadn't been reserved for that week, but for the week after.
has made 6．(2015· 北京高考改编)In the last few years, China _________
(make) great achievements in environmental protection. 7．(2015· 北京高考改编)—Dr. Jackson is not in his office at the moment.
will call (call) him later. —All right. I ________
8 ． (2015· 安徽高考改编 )It is reported that a space station
will be built (build) on the moon in years to come. ____________
一、时态 (一)一般现在时 1．一般现在时的构成 一般现在时主要由动词的原形表示，当主语是第三人称 单数时，谓语一般由动词原形后加s或es构成。其变化规则 如下： 情况
work—works learn—learns 直接加-s come—comes play—plays want—wants need—needs
pass—passes discuss— wash— discusses
结 尾 为 -s ， -x ， 在词尾加-es teach—teaches -sh，-ch或-o washes
fix—fixes go—goes 结尾为“辅音 变y为i再加 字母＋y” -es
carry—carries cry—cries study—studies worry—
2.一般现在时的用法 1)主要用来表示人、事物的现在状况和特点；表示经常 或习惯性的动作，句子中常有often, always, from time to time等时间状语。 Secondary school in the USA usually covers seven years, grades six to twelve. 美国的中学通常是七年制，即从六年级到十二年级。
2)表示主语目前的性格、特征、状态或能力等。 ①She knows French and German besides English. 除了英语，她还会法语和德语。 ②Planning so far ahead makes no sense — so many things will have changed by next year. 这么早作计划没有什么意义 ——到明年很多事情会发 生变化。
3)表示客观真理、科学事实及自然现象，或用在格言中。 ①It's known that the earth goes round the sun. 众所周知，地球绕着太阳转。 ②“Life is like walking in the snow，” Granny used to say, “because every step shows.” 奶奶过去经常说，“人生就像在雪中行走，因为每一步 都留有足迹。”
4)一般现在时代替一般将来时。 (1)在时间、条件、让步状语从句中表示将来的动作或状 态，可用一般现在时代替一般将来时，主句仍用一般将来时。 ①I'll tell him about it as soon as he comes. 他一来，我就告诉他这件事。 ②They'll stand by you even if you don't succeed. 即使你不成功，他们也会支持你。
(2)表示按规定、计划、安排、时间表等马上要发生的 事，常与具体的时间状语连用。该用法常用于火车时刻、飞 机时刻、电影开演、作息、安排等时刻表上，且仅限于少数 表示短暂意义的动词，这类词语主要有come, go, arrive, leave, begin, start, take off, finish, stop等。 ①The train leaves at 4：30 p．m. 火车在下午4：30出发。 ②The plane takes off at 5 o'clock. 飞机在5点钟起飞。
(二)一般过去时 1．一般过去时的构成 (1)一般过去时由动词的过去式表示，规则动词的过去式 一般由动词原形加ed构成，其变化规则如下：
变化规则 在动词后加 watched -ed 后加-d
一般情况 stay—stayed expected 以-e结尾的动词 hope—hoped
以“辅音字母 ＋y”结尾的动 词 以重读闭音节 或/r/音节结尾， 词尾只有一个 辅音字母时
变 y 为 i 再 study—studied try—tried 加-ed copy—copied carry—carried 双写词尾 的辅音字 母 再 加 -ed stop—stopped clap—clapped plan—planned prefer—preferred admit—admitted permit—permitted
不规则动词的变化详见“附录四：162 个 动词的不规则变化表”
2．一般过去时的用法 (1)表示在过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态。 常与表示过去的时间状语连用，如yesterday, last year, last night, the other day, just now, then, two days ago, in 1999, at that time等。 —Is Peter coming? —No, he changed his mind after a phone call at the last minute.(2015· 重庆高考单选) ——彼得要来吗？ ——不来了。他在最后时刻接了一个电话后改变了主意。
(2)表示过去一段时间内完成的动作。 —Long time no see! Haven't you graduated from college? —Yes.I studied English for four years in Nanjing. ——好久不见！你大学毕业了吗？ ——毕业了，我在南京学了四年英语。 (3)表示过去经常、反复发生的动作。 I always got up late, and never had enough time for breakfast. 我总是起床很晚，从来没有足够的时间吃早饭。
(4)有些动作发生的时间没有具体表明，但实际上是 “刚才，刚刚”发生，应使用一般过去时。 ①I didn't know you were here. 我不知道你在这里。 ②Sorry, I forgot to bring your book. 很抱歉，我忘记带你的书来了。 (5)在时间、条件、让步状语从句中，若主句用了过去 将来时，从句常用一般过去时表示过去将来的意义。 He said he would tell her about the news as soon as he met her. 他说他一见到她就把这个消息告诉她。
(三)一般将来时 1．will/shall＋动词原形 (1)表示不含主观因素，单纯的将来，常与表示将来的时 间状语连用。shall一般用于第一人称，will可用于各种人称。 ①By the time you have finished this book, your meal will get cold. 等到你看完这本书，你的饭就凉了。 ②My birthday is coming. I shall be 18 years old. 我的生日就要到了。我将要18岁了。
(2)will还可表达说话时临时做出的决定。 —What time is it? —I have no idea. But just a minute, I will check it for you.(2014· 北京高考单选) ——几点了？ ——我不知道。稍等，我帮你看一下。
2．be going to＋动词原形 “be going to＋动词原形”表示按计划、打算要做某事 或根据某种迹象预示着要发生某事。 ①I feel I am going to make progress with her help. 我觉得在她的帮助下我会进步的。 ②Look at the clouds. It is going to rain. 看那些乌云。天要下雨了。 3．be to＋动词原形 “be to＋动词原形”表示按计划、约定或按职责、义务 必须做的事或即将发生的动作。 You are to hand in your papers by 10 o'clock. 10点前你们得交上论文。
(四)现在进行时 1．现在进行时的构成 现在进行时的构成形式为：am/is/are＋v.ing。v.ing形 式的变化规则如下：
在词尾 直接加 -ing
work—working look—looking study—studying
去e再加 have—having face—facing -ing take—taking write—writing
双写该辅 音字母再 加-ing 变ie为y再 加-ing
cut—cutting put—putting swim—swimming begin—beginning lie—lying tie—tying die—dying
只有一个辅音 字母 以-ie结尾的 动词
2.现在进行时的用法 (1)表示说话之时或现阶段正在发生或一直进行着的 动作。 The professor is typing his own letters while his secretary is ill. 秘书生病时，教授自己打他的信。 (2)现在进行时还可以表示按计划或安排将要进行的 动作，这类动词主要有：go, come, leave, stay, start, arrive, land, meet, move, return, stop, do等。 My aunt is leaving for Shanghai at eleven o'clock tomorrow morning. 明天早上十一点我婶婶将离开去上海。
(3)表示反复出现的或习惯性的动作，往往含有赞赏、 厌恶、遗憾等情绪，常与 always, continually, constantly, forever, all the time 等连用。 Tom is always coming late for meetings, which makes his boss very angry. 汤姆开会老是迟到，这使他的老板很生气。
(五)过去进行时 1．过去进行时的构成为was/were＋doing。表示过去某个 时间点或某段时间内正在发生的动作。 The boy was doing his homework when his father came back from work. 当那个男孩的父亲下班回来时，他正在做作业。 2．表示运动和位置移动的动词可以用过去进行时表示过 去将来时。这类动词主要有leave, start, arrive, go, come等。 I was coming to visit you later that day, but I had to phone and cancel. 我打算那天晚些时候去看你，但是不得已打电话取消了。
(六)将来进行时 表示将来某个时刻或某一时段正在发生或进行的动作。其构成 为：will/shall be doing。将来进行时常与一些标志性的时间状语连 用，如：at this time tomorrow (明天的这个时间)，from 1：30 to 4：30 the day after tomorrow (后天从1：30到4：30)等。 ①If you plant watermelon seeds in the spring, you will be eating fresh watermelon in the fall. 如果你春天播下西瓜种子，那么秋天就能吃上新鲜的西瓜了。 ②I'll be talking with the professor at this time tomorrow. 明天这个时间我将在和教授谈话。
(七)现在完成时 现在完成时由“have/has＋过去分词”构成，其基本用法 如下： 1．表示动作或过程发生在说话之前某个没有明确说出的 过去时间，但现在已经完成，且结果仍对现在有影响。 —I'm sorry, but I don't quite follow you. Did you say you wanted to return on September 20? —Sorry, I haven't made myself clear. We want to return on October 20. ——对不起，我没完全明白你的话。你是说你们打算9月 20号回来吗？ ——对不起，我没有表达清楚，我们打算10月20号回来。
2．表示一个动作从过去开始，一直延续到现在，可 能还要继续下去。 His first novel has received good reviews since it came out last month. 他的第一部小说自上个月出版以来获得了许多好评。 3．在时间、条件状语从句中，用现在完成时代替将 来完成时。 Will you come to my office when you have finished your work? 你完成工作后到我办公室来一下，好吗？
4．在“It (This) is the best (worst, most interesting等) ＋名词＋从句”中，从句中的谓语用现在完成时。 It is the most instructive lecture that I have attended since I came to this school. 这是自从我到这个学校以来所参加过的最有教育意义的 讲座。 5．在“It (This) is (will be) the first/second/third ... time ＋that从句”中，that从句中的谓语动词用现在完成时。 It is the third time that you have been late for work this week, isn't it? 这已经是这周你第三次工作迟到了，不是吗？
(八)过去完成时 过去完成时的构成为：had＋done，其基本用法如下： 1．表示过去某个时间之前已经完成的动作或存在的状 态，即过去完成时的动作发生在“过去的过去”，句中有 明显的参照动作或时间状语(before, after, by, up till)，这种 时态从来不孤立使用。 I found the lecture hard to follow because it had started when I arrived. 我发现这个报告很难懂，因为当我到的时候，它已经 开始了。
2．动词hope, expect, think, intend, mean, want, suppose, plan用过去完成时，表示未实现的愿望、打算和意图。 I had hoped to come to help you. Something happened to me. That's why I didn't come. 我本希望能来帮助你，但我出了点事，所以没有来。 3．在“hardly (scarcely)．..when ..., no sooner ...than ...” 句型结构中，主句用过去完成时，从句用一般过去时，意思为 “一??就??”。 Hardly had the speaker finished his speech when the audience kept asking him questions. 演讲者一结束他的讲话，观众就不停地向他提问。
4．by, by the end, by the time, until, before, since后接表 示过去某一时间的短语或从句，主句用过去完成时。 By the time the messenger reached him, the damage had been done. 送信人赶到他那儿时，损失已经造成了。 5．表示“第几次做某事”，主句用过去时，从句用过 去完成时。 That was the second time that she had seen her grandfather. 这是她第二次看见她的祖父了。
(九)将来完成时 表示在将来某个时刻前已经完成或一直持续的动 作，并对将来产生一定的影响。常与“by＋将来的某个 时间”或when/before引导的时间状语从句连用。其结构 为：will/shall have done。 By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom. 你到家时我将已把房子彻底打扫一遍了。
(十)现在完成进行时 现在完成进行时由“have/has 其基本用法如下： 1．表示从过去某一时间开始，一直持续到现在的动作， 并仍在进行。 —Tony, why are your eyes red? —I have been cutting up peppers for the last five minutes. (2014· 江西高考单选) ——托尼，为什么你的眼睛那么红啊？ ——在过去的5分钟里，我一直都在切辣椒。 been＋现在分词”构成，
2．表示从过去某时开始一直持续到现在的动作，在说 话时刚刚结束。 Where have you been? We have been looking for you everywhere. 你刚才去哪里了？我们一直在到处找你。 3．现在完成进行时有时所表示的动作并不是一直在不 停地进行，而是在断断续续地重复。 I have been ringing you several times in two days. 这两天内我给你打过几次电话。
(十一)过去完成进行时 表示一个动作从过去某个时间开始，一直持续到另一 个过去时刻，到那个时刻，这一动作可能刚结束，也可能 仍在进行。 He had been living here before he went to New York. 他去纽约之前一直住在这里。
(十二)过去将来时 1．过去将来时的基本构成和用法 过去将来时由“would＋动词原形”构成，主要表示从 过去某一时间来看将要发生的动作(尤其用于宾语从句中)， 还可以表示过去的动作习惯或倾向。 She said that she wouldn't do that again. 她说她再不会这样做了。
2．表示过去将来时的其他表达法 (1) was/were going to ＋ 动词原形：该结构有两个主要用 法，一是表示过去的打算，二是表示在过去看来有迹象表明将 要发生某事。 I thought it was going to rain. 我认为要下雨了。 (2)was/were to ＋ 动词原形：主要表示过去按计划或安排 要做的事情。 She said she was to get married next month. 她说她计划在下个月结婚。
(3)was/were about to ＋ 动词原形：表示在过去看来即将要 发生的动作，由于本身已含有“即将”的意味，所以不再与表示 具体的将来时间状语连用。 I was about to go to bed when the phone rang. 电话铃响时我正好要上床睡觉。 (4)was/were ＋现在分词：表示在过去看来即将发生的动 作，通常可用于该结构中的动词是come, go, leave, arrive, begin, start, stop, close, open, die, join, borrow, buy等瞬间动词。 Jack said he was leaving tomorrow. 杰克说他打算明天动身。
二、被动语态 (一)被动语态的构成 被动语态由“助动词be＋及物动词的过去分词”构成， be动词有人称、数和时态的变化。被动语态常见的时态变化 (以动词clean为例)列表如下：
形态 时间 现在
being cleaned cleaned
进行 was/were being cleaned had
shall/will be cleaned should/would be cleaned
shall/will have been cleaned
①Enough has been done for you, but you've made little progress. 为你做了很多，然而你进步却很小。 ②The number of deaths from heart disease will be reduced greatly if people are persuaded to eat more fruits and vegetables. 如果人们被说服了吃更多的水果和蔬菜，那么死于心脏 病的人数将大大减少。
(二)被动语态的基本用法 1．强调或突出动作的承受者。 New Zealand wine is of high quality and is sold all over the world. 新西兰葡萄酒质量很好，行销全世界。 2．不知道或无需说出动作的执行者。 —Have you heard about that fire in the market? —Yes, fortunately no one was hurt. ——你听说市场里发生的火灾了吗？ ——听说了，幸运的是，没有人受伤。 3．用在科技文献或新闻报道中。 Cars of this kind were made in the 1980s. 这种小汽车是二十世纪80年代制造的。
①(2015· 浙江高考)In the mornings, it was full of students exercising. The view from the back of the classroom is also splendid. ②(2016· 石家庄市一模)When English is an only language in class, students will have more opportunity to practise listening and speaking. However, there were problems with this method.
(1)上下文中时态不一致 若上下文叙述的是同一件事 情，则时态应具有一致性。 ①若上下文是一般过去时， 则同样用一般过去时； ②若上下文是一般现在时， 则同样用一般现在时。
① (2014·陕 西 高 考 )Suddenly the
(2)语态错用 常见错误类型有： ①系动词和不及物动词 (短 语 )没有被动语态，误把系 动词和不及物动词 ( 短语 ) 当作及物动词而使用被动 语态； ②被动语态构成错误， 其构 成形式应为“be ＋过去分 词”。
arrows were flying 或其 __________ down at us from the looked sky — they were __________ 前的were looked like rain! ② (2013·全 国 卷 was traditionally drank from cups without handles.
drunk Ⅱ )Tea in China ?_______
turns (turn) cold again, they'll 1．(2016· 江西上饶三模)If it _______
dive back down. But they come out again if it is warm.
was looking (look) for a 2．(2016· 大庆市二轮复习检测)He ___________
house when he saw an advertisement in a newspaper one day. 3．(2016· 江西九江三模)To the customers' satisfaction, teas of are served (serve) in each shop every the same high quality ___________ day.
was done (do) and 4．(2016· 长春质量检测二)After everything __________
just after he left the barber's, he saw a man in the street with long dirty hair. 5．(2016· 山师大附中模拟)May I have your attention, please? Now I'd like to make a speech here. As we know, waste
has become (become) a common scene on campus recently. ____________
6．(2016· 三门峡市二模)When the time came for me to say goodbye to my friends in the village, I wanted to reward the had caused (cause) her. But old woman for the trouble I ____________ she refused.
7．(2016· 临沂二模)Ice bucket challenge is a great success until
has been received (receive)． now, a big donation ___________________ will have completed 8．(2016· 聊城模拟)By next Thursday, they __________________
(complete) the construction of the new school. 9．(2016· 河南省考前质量检测二)Man changes his living habits
changes (change) in order to adjust to climate, but climate ________
as well, though more slowly.
be found 10．(2016· 青岛自主诊断)No physical cause could ________
(find). Finally the doctor said to the man, “Unless you tell me what's on your conscience, I can't help you.” 11．(2016· 河南顶级名校5月模拟)Mrs. Woo Mei Fong said that
felt (feel) her husband had just left for work when she _____
that her house was moving. 12．(2016· 聊城三模)Hurry up! We need to get to the top of the
sinks (sink) in the west. mountain before the sun _______
Ⅱ.单句改错 1．(2016· 临沂二模)One day I saw an advertisement in a local newspaper.I ring up the company, and I was given the job immediately.
2．(2016· 青岛自主诊断)Mother promised she will buy me a bike.
3．(2016· 东北三校高三第一次联考)The answer sheet must cut from the newspaper and sent to China Daily before the deadline.
4．(2016· 江西鹰潭二模)Last summer I went to London for a holiday.I spend just a week there.
5．(2016· 山师大附中模拟)The new secretary will supposed to report to the manager as soon as she arrives.
6．(2016· 东北三校联考)In the past two and a half years, our school had organized many activities.
[高考题型综合练] Ⅰ.语法填空 (2016· 江西三校4月联考)Red envelopes __1__ (relate) to the Chinese Lunar New Year for long. I myself have had plenty of __2__ (experience) both receiving and giving out red envelopes in the past, and generally speaking, it's been fun. I mean, who doesn't love free money? I'm truly surprised by the extent of people's obsession with virtual red envelopes this year. In fact, everyone I know spent at least a day or two __3__ (crazy) shaking their smart phones, mostly trying to get as much lucky money as possible.
Thanks to messaging app giant WeChat's new feature that allows users __4__ (send) money electronically, grabbing virtual red envelopes has never seemed so easy. Just in case you are one of the very few people still not on the bandwagon, here's __5__ it works. Givers link their WeChat to their bank accounts, and then they can send specified amounts of money to their WeChat contacts through a personal message. They can also put the cash up __6__ grabs in chat groups full of friends, and anyone who acts fast enough will get __7__ share. Later, receivers can transfer the funds from their WeChat back into their own bank accounts.
In theory, this sounds like a fun game. I'm always for some harmless fun in life, so my __8__ (nature) response would be: Why not? Moreover, I've always believed that it's human nature to want free stuff, regardless of whether you actually need it or not. This may not be a good quality, but it's not against the law, so I won't get all judgmental here. __9__ (consider) these reasons, I really can't fault anyone for their enthusiasm in grabbing virtual red envelopes. I would have done it too, __10__ I not thought linking WeChat to my bank accounts was too much trouble.
1．have been related
be related to为固定短语，意为
“与??有关联”。根据时间状语for long可知，应用 现在完成时。 2．experiences experience作“经历”讲，为可数名词。
此处表示复数概念，故用复数形式。 3．crazily crazily。 设空处需用副词作shaking 的状语，故答案为
allow sb. to do sth.“允许某人做某事”，故此处用
不定式to send。 5．how 根据下文有关微信抢红包程序的介绍可推知本空答案
为how。 6．for 句意：他们也可以将现金放在微信朋友圈中，让网友 去抢。根据句意可知设空处表示目的，故答案为for(为了)。
意为“一份”，在本句中表示泛指，故与不定冠词连用。 8．natural natural。 9．Considering 到 ??”。 10．had 根据本句中主句谓语动词would have done可知，从句 为与过去事实相反的虚拟语气，其谓语动词形式为“had＋ 过去分词”。had I not thought linking ... ＝ if I had not thought linking ... Considering ... 为独立成分，意为“考虑 空处作定语，修饰名词response，故应用形容词
Ⅱ.短文改错 (2016· 衡水中学三调考试) Dear Mr. Green， I'm very exciting to learn that you will start a magazine together. That sounds great and I definitely agree you on that. Some of the columns that you mention in the letter are really my cup of tea. “Cultural Express” give us a better understanding of the world. Since people from different part of the world have different values, it's necessary to learn from each another.
Apart from that, “Blurt Out” is pretty good for Chinese students to learn English idioms and improving oral English. “Entertainment” is also cool! The popular singers, actors or celebrities are so attractively that you absolutely can't miss this part. Teenagers are to fond of popular things, too. Well, I can't list more. I really can't wait to read this magazine. Yours， Li Ming
答案：第一句：exciting→excited 第二句：agree后加with 第三句：mention→mentioned 第四句：give→gives 第五句：part→parts; another→other 第六句：improving→improve 第八句：or→and; attractively→attractive 第九句：去掉to