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高中英语语法讲解大全


高中英语语法讲解大全 1.1 名词复数的规则变化 ___________________________________________________ 情况 构成方法 读音 例词 __________________________________________________ 一般情况 1.清辅音后读/s/; map-maps 2.浊辅音和元音后 bag-bags 读 /z

/; car-cars ___________________________________________________ 加 -s

以 s,sh,ch, x 等结尾的词

bus-buses watch-watches ___________________________________________________ 以 ce,se,ze, (d)ge 等结尾 的词 加 -s 读 /iz/ license-licenses ___________________________________________________ 以辅音字母+y 变 y 为 i 结尾的词 再加 es 读 /z/ baby---babies _______________________________________________ 1.2 其它名词复数的规则变化 1) 以 y 结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时,直接加 s 变复数: 如: two Marys the Henrys monkey---monkeys holiday---holidays 比较:层楼:storey ---storeys story---stories

加 -es 读 /iz/

2) 以 o 结尾的名词,变复数时: a. 加 s,如: photo---photos piano---pianos radio---radios zoo---zoos; b. 加 es,如:potato--potatoes tomato--tomatoes c. 均可,如:zero---zeros / zeroes 3) 以 f 或 fe 结尾的名词变复数时: a. 加 s,如: belief---beliefs roof---roofs safe---safes gulf---gulfs; b. 去 f,fe 加 ves,如:half---halves knife---knives leaf---leaves wolf---wolves wife---wives life---lives thief---thieves; c. 均可,如: handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves

1.3 名词复数的不规则变化 1)child---children foot---feet tooth---teeth mouse---mice man---men woman---women 注意:与 man 和 woman 构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women。 如: an Englishman,two Englishmen. 但 German 不是合成词,故复数形式为 Germans; Bowman 是姓,其复数是 the Bowmans。 2)单复同形 如: deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese li,jin,yuan,two li,three mu,four jin 但除人民币元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如: a dollar, two dollars; a meter, two meters 3)集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。 如: people police cattle 等本身就是复数,不能说 a people,a police,a cattle, 但可以说 a person,a policeman,a head of cattle,the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用。 如: The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。 4)以 s 结尾,仍为单数的名词,如: a. maths,politics,physics 等学科名词,为不可数名词,是单数。 b. news 是不可数名词。 c. the United States,the United Nations 应视为单数。 The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是 1945 年组建起来的。 d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。 "The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book. <<一千零一夜>>是一本非常有趣的故事书。 5) 表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes 若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers 6)另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,如:goods 货物,waters 水 域,fishes(各种)鱼 1.4 不可数名词量的表示 1)物质名词 a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时。 比较: Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (不可数) These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (可数) b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,名词可数。 This factory produces steel. (不可数) We need various steels. (可数)

c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。 Our country is famous for tea. 我国因茶叶而闻名。 Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。 2)抽象名词有时也可数。 four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations 四个现代化 物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量。 如: a glass of water 一杯水 a piece of advice 一条建议 1.5 定语名词的复数 名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。 1) 用复数作定语。 如:sports meeting 运动会 students reading-room 学生阅览室 talks table 谈判桌 the foreign languages department 外语系 2) man, woman, gentleman 等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。 如:men workers women teachers gentlemen officials 3) 有些原有 s 结尾的名词,作定语时,s 保留。 如:goods train (货车) arms produce 武器生产 customs papers 海关文件 clothes brush 衣刷 4) 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。 如:two-dozen eggs 两打/(二十四个鸡蛋) a ten-mile walk 十里路 two-hundred trees 两百棵树 a five-year plan. 一个五年计划 个别的有用复数作定语的,如: a seven-years child 1.6 不同国家的人的单复数 名称 总称(谓语用复数) 一个人 中国人 the Chinese a Chinese 瑞士人 the Swiss a Swiss 澳大利亚人 the an

两个人 two Chinese two Swiss two

Australians 俄国人 意大利人 希腊人 法国人 日本人 美国人 印度人 加拿大人 德国人 英国人 瑞典人 the Russians the Italians the Greek the French the Japanese the Americans the Indians the Canadians the Germans the English the Swedish

Australian Australians a Russian two Russians an Italian two Italians a Greek two Greeks a Frenchman two Frenchmen a Japanese an American an Indian a Canadian a Germans an Englishman a Swede two Japanese two Americans two Indians two Canadians two Germans two Englishmen two Swedes

1.7 名词的格 在英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所 有格,如:a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下: 1)单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有 s,也要加"'s",如 the boy's bag 男孩的书包, men's room 男厕所。 2)若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加"'",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。 3)凡不能加"'s"的名词,都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系,如:the title of the song 歌的名字。 4)在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名 词,如:the barber's 理发店。 5)如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。 如:John's and Mary's room(两间) John and Mary's room(一间) 6)复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。 如:a month or two's absence 2.1 不定冠词的用法 冠词是虚词,本身不能单独使用,也没有词义,它用在名词的前面,帮助指明名词的含 义。英语中的冠词有三种,一种是定冠词(the Definite Article) ,另一种是不定冠词(the Indefinite Article) ,还有一种是零冠词(Zero Article) 。 不定冠词 a (an)与数词 one 同源,是"一个"的意思。a 用于辅音音素前,一般读作[e], 而 an 则用于元音音素前,一般读做[en]。 1) 表示"一个",意为 one;指某人或某物,意为 a certain。 A Mr. Ling is waiting for you. 2) 代表一类人或物。 A knife is a tool for cutting with. Mr. Smith is an engineer.

3) 词组或成语。 a little / a few / a lot / a type of / a pile / a great many / many a / as a rule / in a hurry / in a minute / in a word / in a short while / after a while / have a cold / have a try / keep an eye on / all of a sudden 2.2 定冠词的用法 定冠词 the 与指示代词 this,that 同源,有"那(这)个"的意思,但较弱,可以和一个 名词连用,来表示某个或某些特定的人或东西。 1)特指双方都明白的人或物: Take the medicine. 把药吃了。 2)上文提到过的人或事: He bought a house. I've been to the house. 他买了幢房子。我去过那幢房子。 3)指世上独一物二的事物: the sun, the sky, the moon, the earth 4)单数名词连用表示一类事物,如:the dollar 美元; the fox 狐狸;或与形容词或分词连用,表示一类人:the rich 富人; the living 生者。 5)用在序数词和形容词最高级,及形容词 only, very, same 等前面: Where do you live? I live on the second floor. 你住在哪?我住在二层。 That's the very thing I've been looking for. 那正是我要找的东西。 6)与复数名词连用,指整个群体: They are the teachers of this school.指全体教师) They are teachers of this school. (指部分教师) 7)表示所有,相当于物主代词,用在表示身体部位的名词前: She caught me by the arm.. 她抓住了我的手臂。 8)用在某些由普通名词构成的国家名称、机关团体、阶级、等专有名词前: the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国 the United States 美国 9)用在表示乐器的名词之前: She plays the piano. 她会弹钢琴。 10) 用在姓氏的复数名词之前,表示一家人: the Greens 格林一家人 (或格林夫妇) 11) 用在惯用语中: in the day, in the morning (afternoon,evening), the day after tomorrow the day before yesterday, the next morning, in the sky (water,field,country) in the dark, in the rain, in the distance, in the middle (of), in the end, on the whole, by the way, go to the theatre 2.3 零冠词的用法 1) 国名,人名前通常不用定冠词:England,Mary; 2)泛指的复数名词,表示一类人或事物时,可不用定冠词; They are teachers. 他们是教师。 3)抽象名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词;

Failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母。 4)物质名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词,当表示特定的意思时,需要加定冠词; Man cannot live without water. 人离开水就无法生存。 5)在季节、月份、节日、假日、日期、星期等表示时间的名词之前,不加冠词; We go to school from Monday to Friday. 我们从星期一到星期五都上课。 6)在称呼或表示官衔,职位的名词前不加冠词; The guards took the American to General Lee. 士兵们把这个美国人送到李将军那里。 7)在三餐、球类运动和娱乐运动的名称前,不加冠词如:have breakfast,play chess 8)当两个或两个以上名词并用时,常省去冠词; I can't write without pen or pencil. 没有钢笔和铅笔,我就写不了字。 9)当 by 与火车等交通工具连用,表示一种方式时,中间无冠词;by bus,by train; 10)有些个体名词不用冠词;如: school,college,prison,market,hospital,bed,table,class,town,church,court 等 个体名词,直接置于介词后,表示该名词的深层含义; go to hospital 去医院看病 go to the hospital 去医院 (并不是去看病,而是有其他目的) 11)不用冠词的序数词; a. 序数词前有物主代词 b. 序数词作副词 He came first in the race. c. 在固定词组中 at (the) first,first of all, from first to last 2.4 冠词与形容词+名词结构 1) 两个形容词都有冠词,表示两个不同东西。 He raises a black and a white cat. 他养了一只黑猫和一只白猫。 The black and the white cats are hers. 这只黑猫和白猫都是他的。 2) 如后一个形容词无冠词,则指一物。 He raises a black and white cat. 他养了一只花猫。

2.5 冠词位置 1) 不定冠词位置 不定冠词常位于名词或名词修饰语前。注意: a. 位于下列形容词之后: such,what,many,half, I have never seen such an animal. Many a man is fit for the job. b. 当名词前的形容词被副词 as, so, too, how, however, enough 修饰时,不定冠词应放在形 容词之后: It is as pleasant a day as I have ever spent. So short a time. Too long a distance.

c. quite,rather 与单数名词连用,冠词放在其后。 但当 rather,quite 前仍有形容词,不定冠词放其前后均可。如:quite a lot d. 在 as,though 引导的让步状语从句中,当标语为形容词修饰的名词时,不定冠词放形 容词后: Brave a man though he is,he trembles at the sight of snakes. 他尽管勇敢,可见到蛇 还是发抖。 当名词被比较级形容词修饰时,不定冠词通常置于比较级形容词之后。 2) 定冠词位置 定冠词通常位于名词或名词修饰语前, 但放在 all, both, double, half, twice, three times 等词之后,名词之前。 All the students in the class went out. 班里的所有学生都出去了。 2.6 数词 表示数目多少或顺序多少的词叫数词, 数词分为基数词和序数词。 表示数目多少的数词 叫基数词;表示顺序的数词叫序数词。 一、基数词 1)基数词写法和读法: 345 three hundred and forty-five; 2)基数词一般是单数形式,但下列情况,常用复数: a. 与 of 短语连用,表示概数,不能与具体数目连用,如 scores of people 指许多人; b. 在一些表示"一排"或"一组"的词组里; 如:They arrived in twos and threes. 他们三三两两的到达了。 c. 表示"几十岁"; d. 表示"年代",用 in +the +数词复数; e. 在乘法运算的一种表示法里,如:3 x 5 = 15 Three fives is (are) fifteen. 二、序数词 序数词的缩写形式: first---1st second---2nd thirty-first---31st 三、数词的用法 1)倍数表示法 a. 主语+谓语+倍数(或分数)+ as + adj. + as I have three times as many as you. 我有你三倍那么多。 b. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ the size (amount,length?) of? The earth is 49 times the size of the moon. 地球是月球的 49 倍。 c. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ 形容词(副词)比较级+ than? The grain output is 8 percent higher this year than that of last year. 今年比去年粮食产量增加 8%。 d. 还可以用 by+倍数,表示增加多少倍 The production of grain has been increased by four times this year.

今年粮食产量增加了 4 倍。 2)分数表示法 构成:基数词代表分子,序数词代表分母。分子大于 1 时,分子的序数词用单数,分母 序数词用复数: 1/3 one-third ; 3/37 three and three-sevenths. 3. 代词 代词是代替名词的一种词类。大多数代词具有名词和形容词的功能。英语中的代词,按其 意义、特征及在句中的作用分为:人称代词、物主代词、指示代词、自身代词、相互代词、 疑问代词、关系代词和不定代词八种。 一、人称代词是表示"我"、"你"、"他"、"她"、"它"、 "我们"、"你们"、"他们"的词。人称代词有人称、数和格的变化,见下表: 数 单数 复数 格 主格 宾格 主格 宾格 第一人称 I me we us 第二人称 you you you you he him they them 第三人称 she it her it they they them them

如:He is my friend. 他是我的朋友。 It's me. 是我。 二、物主代词表示所有关系的代词,也可叫做代词所有格。物主代词分形容性物主代词和 名词性物主代词二种,其人物和数的变化见下表。

数 人称

单数 第一 第二 第三 人称人称 人称 形容词性 my your his/her 物主代词

复数 第一 第二 第三 人称 人称 人称 its our your/their

名词性 mine yours his/hers its ours yours/theirs 物主代词 如: I like his car. 我喜欢他的小汽车。 Our school is here,and theirs is there. 我们的学校在这儿,他们的在那儿。 三、指示代词表示"那个"、"这个"、"这些"、"那些"等指示概念的代词。指示代词有 this,

that,these,those 等。 如: That is a good idea.

那是个好主意。

四、 表示"我自己"、 "你自己"、 "他自己"、 "我们自己"、 "你们自己"和"他们自己"等的代词, 叫做自身代词,也称为"反身代词"。 如: She was talking to herself. 她自言自语。 五、表示相互关系的代词叫相互代词,有 each other 和 one another 两组,但在运用中, 这两组词没什么区别。 如: They love each other. 他们彼此相爱。 六、 不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词。 常见的不定代词有 a11, both, each, every 等,以及含有 some-,any-,no-等的合成代词,如 anybody, something,no one。这 些不定代词大都可以代替名词和形容词,在句中作主语、宾语、表语和定语, 但 none 和 由 some,any,no 等构成的复合不定代词只能作主语、宾语或表语;every 和 no 只能作定 语。如: --- Do you have a car? --你有一辆小汽车吗? --- Yes,I have one. --是的,我有一辆。 --- I don't know any of them. 他们,我一个也不认识。 七、疑问代词有 who,whom,whose,what 和 which 等。在句子中用来构成特殊疑问句。 疑问代词都可用作连接代词,引导名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句) 如:Tell me who he is. 告诉我他是谁。 八、关系代词有 who,whom,whose,that,which,as 等,可用作引导从句的关联词。 它们在定语从句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语等;另一方面它们又代表主句中为定语从句 所修饰的那个名词或代词(通称为先行词) 。 如: He is the man whom you have been looking for. 他就是你要找的那个人。 3.1 人称代词的用法 1)人称代词的主格在句子中作主语或主语补语,例如: John waited a while but eventually he went home. 约翰等了一会儿,最后他回家了。 John hoped the passenger would be Mary and indeed it was she. 约翰希望那位乘客是玛丽,还真是她。 说明:在复合句中,如果主句和从句主语相同,代词主语要用在从句中,名词主语用在主句 中,例如: When he arrived, John went straight to the bank. 约翰一到就直接去银行了。 2)人称代词的宾格在句子中作宾语或介词宾语,但在口语中也能作主语补语,第一人称在 省略句中,还可以作主语,例如:

I saw her with them, at least, I thought it was her. 我看到她和他们在一起,至少我认为是她。 (her 做宾语,them 做介词宾语,her 做主语 补语) a. -- Who broke the vase? --谁打碎了花瓶? b. -- Me. --我。 (me 做主语补语= It's me.) 说明:在上面两例句中,her 和 me 分别作主语补语。现代英语中多用宾格,在正式文体中 这里应为 she 和 I。 3.2 人称代词之主、宾格的替换 1) 宾格代替主格 a.在简短对话中,当人称代词单独使用或在 not 后,多用宾语。 ---- I like English. --我喜欢英语。 ---- Me too. --我也喜欢。 ---- Have more wine? --再来点酒喝吗? ---- Not me. --我可不要了。 b.在表示比较的非正式的文体中,常用宾格代替主格。但如果比较状语的谓语保留,则 主语只能用主格。 He is taller than I/me. He is taller than I am. 2) 主格代替宾格 a. 在介词 but,except 后,有时可用主格代替宾格。 b. 在电话用语中常用主格。 ---- I wish to speak to Mary. --我想和玛丽通话。 ---- This is she. --我就是玛丽。 注意:在动词 be 或 to be 后的人称代词视其前面的名词或代词而定。 I thought it was she. 我以为是她。 (主格----主格) I thought it to be her. (宾格----宾格) I was taken to be she. 我被当成了她。 (主格----主格) They took me to be her. 他们把我当成了她。 (宾格----宾格) 3.3 代词的指代问题 1)不定代词 anybody,everybody,nobody,anyone, someone, everyone,no one, 及 whoever 和 person 在正式场合使用时,可用 he, his, him 代替。 Nobody came, did he? 谁也没来,是吗? 2)动物名词的指代一般用 it 或 they 代替,有时也用 he, she,带有亲切的感情色彩。 Give the cat some food. She is hungry. 给这猫一些吃的。她饿了。 3)指代车或国家,船舶的名词,含感情色彩时常用 she。

3.4 并列人称代词的排列顺序 1) 单数人称代词并列作主语时,其顺序为: 第二人称->第三人称->第一人称 you -> he/she; it -> I You, he and I should return on time. 2) 复数人称代词作主语时,其顺序为: 第一人称->第二人称->第三人称 we -> you -> They 注意:在下列情况中,第一人称放在前面。 a. 在承认错误,承担责任时, It was I and John that made her angry. 是我和约翰惹她生气了。 b. 在长辈对晚辈,长官对下属说话时,如长官为第一人称,如:I and you try to finish it. c. 并列主语只有第一人称和第三人称时, d. 当其他人称代词或名词被定语从句修饰时。 3.5 物主代词 1)物主代词既有表示所属的作用又有指代作用,例如: John had cut his finger; apparently there was a broken glass on his desk. 约翰割破了手指,显而易见,他桌子上有个破玻璃杯。 物主代词有形容词性(my, your 等)和名词性(mine, yours 等)两种,形容词性的物主代 词属于限定词。 名词性的物主代词在用法上相当于省略了中心名词的 --'s 属格结构,例如: Jack's cap 意为 The cap is Jack's. His cap 意为 The cap is his. 2) 名词性物主代词的句法功能 a. 作主语,例如: May I use your pen? Yours works better. 我可以用一用你的钢笔吗?你的比我的好用。 b. 作宾语,例如: I love my motherland as much as you love yours. 我爱我的祖国就像你爱你的祖国一样深。 c. 作介词宾语,例如:

Your should interpret what I said in my sense of the word, not in yours. 你应当按我所用的词义去解释我说的话,而不能按你自己的意义去解释。 d. 作主语补语,例如: The life I have is yours. It's yours. It's yours. 我的生命属于你,属于你,属于你。 3.6 双重所有格 物主代词不可与 a, an, this, that, these, those, some, any, several, no, each, every, such, another, which 等词一起前置,修饰一个名词,而必须用双重所有格。 公式为: a, an, this, that +名词+of +名词性物主代词。如: a friend of mine. each brother of his.

3.7 反身代词 1)列表 I you myself yourself we they ourselves themselves

you she he yourselves herself himself it itself one oneself

2)做宾语 a. 有些动词需有反身代词 absent, bathe, amuse, blame, dry, cut, enjoy, hurt, introduce, behave We enjoyed ourselves very much last night. 我们昨晚玩得很开心。 Please help yourself to some fish. 请你随便吃点鱼。 b. 用于及物动词+宾语+介词 take pride in, be annoyed with, help oneself to sth. I could not dress (myself) up at that time. 那个时候我不能打扮我自己。 注:有些动词后不跟反身代词, get up, sit-down, stand up, wake up 等。 Please sit down. 请坐。 3)作表语;同位语 be oneself: I am not myself today. The thing itself is not important.

我今天不舒服。 事情本身并不重要。

4)在不强调的情况下,but, except, for 等介词后宾语用反身代词或人称代词宾格均可。 如:

No one but myself (me) is hurt. 注意: a. 反身代词本身不能单独作主语。 (错) Myself drove the car. (对) I myself drove the car. 我自己开车。 b. 但在 and, or, nor 连接的并列主语中,第二个主语可用反身代词,特别是 myself 作主 语。 Charles and myself saw it. 5)第二人称作宾语,要用反身代词。 You should be proud of yourself. 你应为自己感到骄傲。 3.8 相互代词 1)相互代词只有 each other 和 one another 两个词组。他们表示句中动词所叙述的动作或 感觉在涉及的各个对象之间是相互存在的,例如: It is easy to see that the people of different cultures have always copied each other. 显而易见,不同文化的人总是相互借鉴的。 2)相互代词的句法功能: a. 作动词宾语; People should love one another. 人们应当彼此相爱。 b. 可作介词宾语; Does bark, cocks crow, frogs croak to each other. 吠、鸡鸣、蛙儿对唱。 说明:传统语法认为,相互关系存在于两个人或物之间用 each other,存在于两个以上人 和物之间用 one another。现代英语中,两组词交替使用的实例也很多,例如: He put all the books beside each other. 他把所有书并列摆放起来。 He put all the books beside one another. 他把所有书并列摆放起来。 Usually these small groups were independent of each other. 这些小团体通常是相互独立的。 c. 相互代词可加-'s 构成所有格,例如: The students borrowed each other's notes. 学生们互借笔记。 3.9 指示代词 1)指示代词分单数(this / that)和复数(these / those)两种形式,既可作限定词又可做 代词,例如: 单数 复数 限定词:This girl is Mary. Those men are my

teachers. 代词: This is Mary. Those are my teachers.

2) 指示代词的句法功能; a. 作主语 This is the way to do it. 这事儿就该这样做。 b. 作宾语 I like this better than that. 我喜欢这个甚至那个。 c. 作主语补语 My point is this. 我的观点就是如此。 d. 作介词宾语 I don't say no to that. 我并未拒绝那个。 There is no fear of that. 那并不可怕。 说明 1: 指示代词在作主语时可指物也可指人, 但作其他句子成分时只能指物, 不能指人, 例如: (对)That is my teacher. 那是我的老师。 that 作主语,指人) ( (对)He is going to marry this girl. 他要和这个姑娘结婚。 (this 作限定词) (错)He is going to marry this. (this 作宾语时不能指人) (对)I bought this. 我买这个。(this 指物,可作宾语) 说明 2: That 和 those 可作定语从句的先行词,但 this 和 these 不能,同时,在作先行词时,只 有 those 可指人,试比较: (对) He admired that which looked beautiful. 他赞赏外表漂亮的东西。 (对) He admired those who looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的人。 (those 指人) (错) He admired that who danced well. (that 作宾语时不能指人) (对) He admired those who danced well. 他赞赏跳舞好的人。 (those 指人) (对) He admired those which looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的东西。 (those 指物) 3.10 疑问代词 1)疑问代词在句中起名词词组的作用,用来构成疑问句。疑问代词有下列几个: 指 人: who, whom, whose 指 物: what 既可指人又可指物: which

2)疑问代词在句中应位于谓语动词之前,没有性和数的变化,除 who 之外也没有格的变 化。what, which, whose 还可作限定词。试比较: 疑问代词:Whose are these books on the desk? 桌上的书是谁的? What was the directional flow of U. S. territorial expansion? 美国的领土扩张是朝哪个方向的? 限定词: Whose books are these on the desk? 桌上的书是谁的? What events led to most of the east of the Mississippi River becoming part of the United States? 哪些事件使密西西比河以东的大部分土地归属于美国?

说明 1: 无论是做疑问代词还是限定词,which 和 what 所指的范围不同。what 所指的范围是 无限的,而 which 则指在一定的范围内,例如: Which girls do you like best? 你喜欢哪几个姑娘? What girls do you like best? 你喜欢什么样的姑娘? 说明 2: Whom 是 who 的宾格, 在书面语中, 它作动词宾语或介词宾语, 在口语中作宾语时, 可用 who 代替,但在介词后只能用 whom, 例如: Who(m) did you meet on the street? 你在街上遇到了谁?(作动词宾语) Who(m) are you taking the book to? 你要把这书带给谁?(作介词宾语,置句首) To whom did you speak on the campus? 你在校园里和谁讲话了?(作介词宾语,置介词后,不能用 who 取代。 ) 说明 3: 疑问代词用于对介词宾语提问时,过去的文体中介词和疑问代词通常一起放在句首, 现代英语中,疑问代词在句首,介词在句未,例如: For what do most people live and work? 大部分人生活和工作的目的是什么?(旧文体) What are you looking for? 你在找什么?(现代英语) 说明 4: 疑问代词还可引导名词性从句,例如: I can't make out what he is driving at. 我不知道他用意何在。 Can you tell me whose is the blue shirt on the bed? 你能告诉我床上的蓝衬衣是谁的吗?

Much of what you say I agree with, but I cannot go all the way with you. 你说的我大部分同意,但并不完全赞同。 3.11 关系代词 1) 关系代词用来引导定语从句。 它代表先行词, 同时在从句中作一定的句子成分, 例如: The girl to whom I spoke is my cousin. 跟我讲话的姑娘是我表妹。 (该句中 whom 既代表先行 词 the girl,又在从句中作介词 to 的宾语。 ) 2)关系代词有主格,宾格和属格之分,并有指人与指物之分。在限定性定语从句中,that 可指人也可指物,见表: 限定性 非限定性 限定性 指 人 指 物 指人或指物 主格 who which that 宾格 whom that that 属格 whose of which/whose of which/whose 例如: This is the pencil whose point is broken. 这就是那个折了尖的铅笔。 (whose 指物,在限定性定语从句中作定语) He came back for the book which he had forgotten. 他回来取他丢下的书。 (which 指物,在限定性定语从句中作宾语,可以省略) 3)关系代词 which 的先行词可以是一个句子,例如: He said he saw me there, which was a lie. 他说在那儿看到了我,纯属谎言。 说明:关系代词 that 在从句中作宾语或表语时可省略,例如: I've forgotten much of the Latin I once knew. 我过去懂拉丁语,现在大都忘了。 He's changed. He's not the man he was. 他变化很大,已不是过去的他了。 3.12 every , no, all, both, neither, nor 1)不定代词有 all , both, every, each, either, neither, more, little, few, much, many, another, other, some, any , one, no 以及 some, something, anything, everything, somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, nothing , nobody, no one, none, everybody, everyone.等。 2)不定代词的功能与用法 a. 除 every 和 no 外不定代词既可用作名词,也可用作形容词。every 和 no 在句中只能 作定语。

I have no idea about it. b. all 都,指三者以上。 all 的主谓一致:all 的单复数由它所修饰或指代的名词的单复数决定。 All goes well. 一切进展得很好。 all 通常不与可数名词单数连用,如:不说 all the book,而说 the whole book。 但 all 可与表时间的可数名词单数连用,如 all day,all night,all the year;但习惯上 不说 all hour,all century。 all 还可以与一些特殊的单数名词连用,如 all China, all the city, all my life, all the way 3) both 都,指两者。 a. both 与复数动词连用,但 both? and?可与单数名词连用。 b. both, all 都可作同位语,其位置在行为动词前, be 动词之后。如果助动词或情态 动词后面的实义动词省去,则位于助动词或情态动词之前。 Who can speak Japanese? We both (all) can. 4) neither 两者都不 a. neither 作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 b. 作定语与单数名词连用,但 neither? nor 用作并列连词,可与复数名词连用。其谓 语采用就近原则。 c. 可用于下列句型,避免重复。 She can't sing,neither (can) he. neither 与 nor d. 如前句是否定式从句,则主句用 neither,而不用 nor。 If you don't do it,neither should I. 如果你不干,我也不干。 e. 如后连续有几个否定句式,则用 nor,不用 neither。 He can't sing,nor dance,nor skate. 3.13 none, few, some, any, one, ones 一、 none 无 1) none 作主语,多与 of 构成短语 none of。在答语中,none 可单独使用。 Are there any pictures on the wall? None. 2) none 作主语,谓语动词单复数均可。但如做表语,则其单复数与表语一致。 It is none of your business. 二、few 一些,少数 few 作主语时,谓语动词用复数,多用于肯定句。 三、some 一些 1) 可与复数名词及不可数名词连用。 2) 当做"某一"解时,也可与单数名词连用。 a certain) (=

You will be sorry for this some day. 总有一天,你会后悔这件事的。 A certain (some) person has seen you break the rule. 某些人不同意你的看法。 注意: (1)在肯定疑问句中用 some 代替 any。 (2)some 用于其他句式中: a. 肯定疑问句中:说话人认为对方的答案会是肯定的,或期望得到肯定回答时。 Would you like 句式中,表委婉请求或建议,如: Would you like some coffee? b. 在条件状语从句中表示确定的意义时,如: If you need some help,let me know. c. some 位于主语部分, Some students haven't been there before. d. 当否定的是整体中的部分时,some 可用于否定句。如: I haven't heard from some of my old friends these years. 这些年我没有收到一些老朋友的信。 四、any 一些 1) any 多用于否定句和疑问句和条件状语从句中。 当句中含有任何的意思时,any 可用于肯定句。 Here are three novels. You may read any. 这有三本小说,你可任读一本。 五、one, ones 为复数形式 ones 必须和形容词连用。如果替代的名词时无形容词在前,则用 some, any,而不 用 ones。 Have you bought any rulers? Yes,I 've bought some. 3.14 代词比较辩异 one,that 和 it one 表示泛指,that 和 it 表示特指。that 与所指名词为同类,但不是同一个,而 it 与所 指名词为同一个。 I can't find my hat. I think I must buy one. (不定) 我找不到我的帽子了。我想我该去买一顶。 The hat you bought is bigger than that I bought. 你买的那顶帽子比我买的大。 (同类但不同个)

I can't find my hat. I don' t know where I put it. ( 同一物) 我找不到我的帽子。我不知道我把它放在哪了。

3.15 one/another/the other

one? the other 只有两个 some? the others 有三个以上 one? another,another? some? others,others? others = other people/things the others = the rest 剩余的全部 1) 泛指另一个用 another。 2) 一定范围内两人(物),一个用 one,另一个用 the other。 3) 一定范围内三者, 一个用 one, 另一个用 one (another), 第三个可用 the other, third。 a 4) 一定范围内,除去一部分人/物,剩余的全部用 the others。 5) 泛指别的人或物时,用 others 当在一定范围内,除去一部分后,剩余部分但不是全部 时,也用 others。 3.16 “the”的妙用 He is one of the students who help me. He is the one of the students who helps me. 他是帮我的学生之一。 第一句定语从句与 the students 一致。 第二句定语从句与 the one 一致。

3.17 anyone/any one;no one/none;every/each 1.anyone 和 any one anyone 仅指人,any one 既可指人,也可指物。 2.no one 和 none a) none 后跟 of 短语,既可指人又可指物,而 no one 只单独使用,只指人。 b) none 作主语,谓语动词用单,复数均可,而 no one 作主语谓语动词只能是单数。

None of you could lift it. 你们中没有人可举起它。 ---- Did any one call me up just now? --刚才有人打电话给我吗? ---- No one. --没有。 3.every 和 each 1) every 强调全体的概念, each 强调个体概念。 Every student in our school works hard. 我们学校的学生都很用功。 Each student may have one book.. 每个学生都可有一本书。 2) every 指三个以上的人或物(含三个),each 指两个以上的人或物 (含两个)。

3) every 只作形容词,不可单独使用。each 可作代词或形容词。 Every student has to take one. Each boy has to take one. Each of the boys has to take one. 4) every 不可以作状语,each 可作状语。 5) every 有反复重复的意思,如 every two weeks 等; each 没有。 6) every 与 not 连用,表示部分否定; each 和 not 连用表示全部否定。 Every man is not honest. 并非每个人都诚实。 Each man is not honest. 这儿每个人都不诚实。 3.19 many, much Many,much 都意为"许多", many + 可数名词,much + 不可数名词。 How many people are there at the meeting? How much time has we left? Many of the workers were at the meeting. Much of the time was spent on learning.

3.20 few, little, a few, a little (a) few + 可数名词, (a) little + 不可数名词 a few / a little 为肯定含义,还有一点 few / little 为否定含义,没有多少了。 He has a few friends. 他有几个朋友。 He has few friends. 他几乎没有朋友。 We still have a little time. 我们还有点时间。 There is little time left.几乎没剩下什么时间了。 典型例题: Although he 's wealthy,he spends___ on clothes. A. little B. few C. a little D. a few 答案: A. spend 所指的是钱,不可数,只能用 little 或 a little. 本句为 although 引导的让 步状语从句,由句意知后句为否定含义,因此应用 little 表示几乎不。 固定搭配: only a few (=few) not a few (=many) many a (=many) Many books were sold. Many a book was sold. 卖出了许多书。

quite a few (=many)

4.1 形容词及其用法 形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。通常,可将形容词分成性质形容词和叙述 形容词两类,其位置不一定都放在名词前面。 1) 直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修 饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot 热的。 2) 叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用 程度副词修饰。大多数以 a 开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如:afraid 害怕的。 (错) He is an ill man. (对) The man is ill. (错) She is an afraid girl. (对) The girl is afraid. 这类词还有: well,unwell,ill,faint,afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake 等。 3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing 为字尾的 词语时,要放在这些词之后,例如: something nice 4.2 以-ly 结尾的形容词 1) 大部分形容词加-ly 可构成副词。 friendly, 但 deadly, lovely, lonely, likely, lively, brotherly,仍为形容词。 改错:(错) She sang lovely. (错) He spoke to me very friendly. (对) Her singing was lovely. (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way. 2)有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词。 daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early The Times is a daily paper. The Times is published daily.

ugly,

4.3 用形容词表示类别和整体 1) 某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人, 与谓语动词的复数连接。 the dead, living, 如: the the rich,the poor,the blind,the hungry The poor are losing hope. 2)有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用。 the British,the English,the French,the Chinese. The English have wonderful sense of humor.

4.4 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序 多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为: 限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --出处--材料性质,类别--名词 a small round table a tall gray building a dirty old brown shirt a famous German medical school an expensive Japanese sports car 典型例题: 1) Tony is going camping with ___ boys. A. little two other B. two little other

C. two other little

D. little other two

答案:C。由"限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --性质--名词"的公 式可知数词,描绘词,性质依次顺序,只有 C 符合答案。 2) One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace. A. old Chinese stone B. Chinese old stone C. old stone Chinese old

D. Chinese stone

答案 A. 几个形容词修饰一个名词,他们的排列顺序是:年龄,形状,大小+颜色+来源+ 质地+用途+国家+名词。 3) ---- How was your recent visit to Qingdao? ---- It was great. We visited some friends,and spent the ___days at the seaside. A. few last sunny B. last few sunny C. last sunny few D. few sunny last 答案: 本题考查多个形容词的排序问题。 B。 一般与被修饰形容词关系密切的形容词*近名词; 如果几个形容词的重要性差不多,音节少的形容词在前,音节多的方在后,在不能确定时, 可参照下表: 限定词+数量词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+性状形容词+大小、长短、高低等形体+ those + three + beautiful + large + square 新旧+颜色+国籍+材料+名词 old + brown + wood + table 4.5 副词及其基本用法 副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或其他结构。 一、副词的位置: 1)在动词之前。 2)在 be 动词、助动词之后。 3)多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。 注意: a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。

We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us. b. 方式副词 well,badly 糟、坏,hard 等只放在句尾。 He speaks English well. 二、副词的排列顺序: 1)时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。 2)方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用 and 或 but 等连词连接。 Please write slowly and carefully. 3)多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。 注意:副词 very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。 改错:(错) I very like English. (对) I like English very much. 注意:副词 enough 要放在形容词的后面,形容词 enough 放在名词前后都可。 I don't know him well enough. There is enough food for everyone to eat. There is food enough for everyone to eat. 4.6 兼有两种形式的副词 1) close 与 closely close 意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地" He is sitting close to me. Watch him closely. 2) late 与 lately late 意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近" You have come too late. What have you been doing lately? 3) deep 与 deeply deep 意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply 时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地" He pushed the stick deep into the mud. Even father was deeply moved by the film. 4) high 与 highly high 表示空间高度;highly 表示程度,相当于 much The plane was flying high. I think highly of your opinion. 5) wide 与 widely wide 表示空间宽度;widely 意思是"广泛地","在许多地方" He opened the door wide. English is widely used in the world. 6) free 与 freely free 的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地" You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like. You may speak freely; say what you like.

4.7 形容词与副词的比较级 大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高 级,用来表示事物的等级差别。原级即形容词的原形,比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则 变化两种。 1) 规则变化 单音节词和少数双音节词,加词尾-er,-est 来构成比较级和最高级。 构成法 原级 比较级 最高级 一般单音节词 tall(高的) taller tallest 未尾加-er,-est great(巨大的) greater greatest 以不发音的 e 结尾 nice(好的) nicer nicest 的单音词和少数 large(大的) larger largest 以- le 结尾的双 able(有能力的) abler ablest 音节词只加-r,-st 以一个辅音字母 big(大的) bigger biggest 结尾的闭音节单 hot 热的) hotter hottest 音节词,双写结 尾的辅音字母, 再加-er,-est "以辅音字母+y" easy(容易的) easier easiest 结尾的双音节词,busy(忙的) busier busiest 改 y 为 i,再加 -er,-est 少数以-er,-ow clever(聪明的) cleverer cleverest 结尾的双音节词 narrow(窄的) narrower narrowest 未尾加-er,-est 其他双音节词和 important(重要的) 多音节词,在前 more important 面加 more,most most important 来构成比较级和 easily(容易地) 最高级。 more easily most easily

2) 不规则变化 原级 good(好的)/ well(健康的) bad (坏的)/ 比较级 better worse 最高级 best worst

ill(有病的) old (老的) older/elder oldest/eldest much/many(多的) more most little(少的) less least far (远的) farther/further farthest/furthest 4.8 as + 形容词或副词原级 + as 1)在否定句或疑问句中可用 so? as。 He cannot run so/as fast as you. 2)当 as? as 中间有名词时采用以下格式。 as +形容词+ a +单数名词 as + many/much +名词 This is as good an example as the other is. I can carry as much paper as you can.. 3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在 as 的前面。 This room is twice as big as that one. Your room is the same size as mine. 4) 倍数+ as + adj. + as <=>倍数+ then + of This bridge is three times as long as that one. This bridge is three times the length of that one. Your room is twice as large as mine. Your room is twice the size of mine. 4.9 比较级形容词或副词 + than You are taller than I. They lights in your room are as bright as those in mine. 注意: 1)要避免重复使用比较级。 (错) He is more cleverer than his brother. (对) He is more clever than his brother. (对) He is clever than his brother. 2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。 (错) China is larger that any country in Asia. (对) China is larger than any other countries in Asia. 3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。 The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing. It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.

4)要注意冠词的使用,后有名词的时候,前面才有可能有名词。 比较:Which is large, Canada or Australia? Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia? She is taller than her two sisters. She is the taller of the two sisters. 4.10 可修饰比较级的词 1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even 等 2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。 3)以上词(除 by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。 典型例题: 1) ---- Are you feeling ____? ---- Yes,I'm fine now. A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better 答案:B. any 可修饰比较级,quite 修饰原级,well 的比较级为 better. 2)The experiment was____ easier than we had expected. A. more B. much more C. much D. more much 答案: much 可修饰比较级, C. 因此 B, 都说得通, easier 本身已是比较级, C 但 不需 more, 因此 C 为正确答案。 3)If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school. A. the happiest time B. a more happier time C. much happiest time D. a much happier time 答案:D。 4.11 many,old 和 far 1) 如果后接名词时, much more +不可数名词 many more +可数名词复数 2) old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和 elder/eldest。 elder,eldest 只用于兄弟 姐妹的长幼关系。 My elder brother is an engineer. Mary is the eldest of the three sisters. 3) far 有两种比较级,farther,further. 在英语中两者都可指距离。 在美语中,father 表示距离,further 表示进一步。 I have nothing further to say.

4.12 the + 最高级 + 比较范围 1) The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world. 形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。 形容词 most 前面没有 the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。 It is a most important problem. =It is a very important problem. 注意:使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。 (错) Tom is the tallest of his three brothers. (对) Tom is the tallest of the three brothers. 2) 下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost This hat is nearly / almost the biggest. 注意: a. very 可修饰最高级,但位置与 much 不同。 This is the very best. This is much the best. b. 序数词通常只修饰最高级。 Africa is the second largest continent. 3) 句型转换: Mike is the most intelligent in his class. Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class. 4) "否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so? as"结构表示最高级含义。 Nothing is so easy as this. =Nothing is easier than this. =This is the easiest thing. 4.13 和 more 有关的词组 1) the more? the more? 越??就越?? The harder you work,the greater progress you'll make. 2) more B than A 与其说 A 不如说 B less A than B He is more lazy than slow at his work. = He is less slow than lazy at his work. 3) no more? than?与??一样??,不比??多 The officials could see no more than the Emperor. no less? than? 与??一样?? He is no less diligent than you. 4) more than 不只是,非常 She is more than kind to us all.

典型例题 1)The weather in China is different from____. A. in America B. one in America C. America D. that in America 答案:D. 本题意为"中国的天气比美国热。"比较的是天气而不是国家,C 不能选。A 没有名 词,后句成分不全,排除。B 和 D 中,B 中的 one 常用来代替可数名词,而 that 可车以代替 不可数或抽象名词,所以选 D。 2) After the new technique was introduced, factory produced ___ tractors in 1988 as the year the before. A. as twice many B. as many twice C. twice as many D. twice many as 答案 C. 此句意为"这个厂 1988 能生产的拖拉机是往年的两倍"。 表示倍数用"倍数+ as + 形 容词原形+ as +比较对象"的句型。所以此句答案为 C。 This ruler is three times as long as that one. 5. 动词 1)表示动作中状态的词叫做动词。 2) 根据其在句中的功能, 动词可分为四类, 分别是: 实义动词 (Notional Verb) 系动词 、 (Link Verb) 、助动词(Auxiliary Verb) 、情态动词(Modal Verb) 。 说明:有些情况下,有些动词是兼类词,例如: We are having a meeting. 我们正在开会。 (having 是实义动词。 ) He has gone to New York. 他已去纽约。 (has 是助动词。 ) 3)动词根据其后是否带有宾语,可分为两类,分别是:及物动词(Transitive Verb) 、不及物 动词(Intransitive Verb) ,缩写形式分别为 vt. 和 vi.。 说明:同一动词有时可用作及物动词,有时可用作不及物动词。例如: She can dance and sing. 她能唱歌又能跳舞。 (sing 在此用作不及物动词。 ) She can sing many English songs. 她能唱好多首英文歌曲。 (sing 用作及物动词。 ) 4)根据是否受主语的人称和数的限制,可分两类,分别是:限定动词(Finite Verb) 、非限 定动词(Non-finite Verb)例如: She sings very well. 她唱得很好。 (sing 受主语 she 的限制,故用第三人称单数形式 sings。 ) She wants to learn English well. 她想学好英语。 (to learn 不受主语 she 的限制,没有词形变化,是非限定动词。 说明:英语中共有三种非限定动词,分别是:动词不定式(Infinitive) 、动名词(Gerund) 、 分词(Participle) 。

5) 根据动词的组成形式, 可分为三类, 分别是: 单字词 (One-Word Verb) 短语动词 、 (Phrasal Verb) 、动词短语(Verbal Phrase)例如: The English language contains many phrasal verbs and verbal phrases. 英语里有许多短语动词和动词短语。 (contains 是单字动词。 ) Students should learn to look up new words in dictionaries. 学生们学会查字典。 (look up 是短语动词。 ) The young ought to take care of the old. 年轻人应照料老人。 (take care of 是动词短语。 ) 6) 动词有五种形态, 分别是: (Original Form) 第三人称单数形式 原形 、 (Singular From in Third Personal) 、过去式(Past Form) 、过去分词(Past Participle) 、现在分词(Present Participle) 。 5.1 系动词 系动词亦称联系动词(Link Verb) ,作为系动词,它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语, 后边必须跟表语(亦称补语) ,构成系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。 说明: 有些系动词又是实义动词,该动词表达实义时,有词义,可单独作谓语,例如: He fell ill yesterday. 他昨天病了。 (fell 是系动词,后跟补足语,说明主语情况。 ) He fell off the ladder. 他从梯子上摔下来。fell 是实义动词,单独作谓语。 1)状态系动词 用来表示主语状态,只有 be 一词,例如: He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。 与补足语一起说明主语的身份。 (is ) 2)持续系动词 用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有 keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand, 例如: He always kept silent at meeting. 他开会时总保持沉默。 This matter rests a mystery. 此事仍是一个谜。 3)表像系动词 用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有 seem, appear, look, 例如: He looks tired. 他看起来很累。 He seems (to be) very sad. 他看起来很伤心。 4)感官系动词 感官系动词主要有 feel, smell, sound, taste, 例如: This kind of cloth feels very soft. 这种布手感很软。

This flower smells very sweet. 这朵花闻起来很香。 5)变化系动词 这些系动词表示主语变成什么样, 变化系动词主要有 become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run. 例如: He became mad after that. 自那之后,他疯了。 She grew rich within a short time. 她没多长时间就富了。 6)终止系动词 表示主语已终止动作,主要有 prove, trun out, 表达"证实","变成"之意,例如: The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。 The search proved difficult. 搜查证实很难。 His plan turned out a success. 他的计划终于成功了。 (turn out 表终止性结果) 5.2 什么是助动词 1)协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动词(Auxiliary Verb) 。被协助的动词称作主要 动词(Main Verb) 。 助动词自身没有词义,不可单独使用,例如: He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。 (doesn't 是助动词,无词义;like 是主要动词,有词义) 2)助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来: a. 表示时态,例如: He is singing. 他在唱歌。 He has got married. 他已结婚。 b. 表示语态,例如: He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。 c. 构成疑问句,例如: Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗? Did you study English before you came here? 你来这儿之前学过英语吗? d. 与否定副词 not 合用,构成否定句,例如: I don't like him. 我不喜欢他。 e. 加强语气,例如: Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。 He did know that. 他的确知道那件事。 3)最常用的助动词有:be, have, do, shall, will, should, would 5.3 助动词 be 的用法 1) be +现在分词,构成进行时态,例如: They are having a meeting. 他们正在开会。 English is becoming more and more important. 英语现在越来越重要。

2) be + 过去分词,构成被动语态,例如: The window was broken by Tom.. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。 English is taught throughout the world. 世界各地都教英语。 3) be + 动词不定式,可表示下列内容: a. 表示最近、未来的计划或安排,例如: He is to go to New York next week.. 他下周要去纽约。 We are to teach the freshpersons. 我们要教新生。 说明:这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。 b. 表示命令,例如: You are to explain this. 对此你要做出解释。 He is to come to the office this afternoon. 要他今天下午来办公室。 c. 征求意见,例如: How am I to answer him? 我该怎样答复他? Who is to go there? 谁该去那儿呢? d. 表示相约、商定,例如: We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning. 我们明天早晨 7 点在校门 口集合。 5.4 助动词 have 的用法 1)have +过去分词,构成完成时态,例如: He has left for London. 他已去了伦敦。 By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work. 上月未为止,他们已经完成工作的一半。 2)have + been +现在分词,构成完成进行时,例如: I have been studying English for ten years. 我一直在学英语,已达十年之久。 3)have+been +过去分词,构成完成式被动语态,例如: English has been taught in China for many years. 中国教英语已经多年。 5.5 助动词 do 的用法 1)构成一般疑问句,例如: Do you want to pass the CET? 你想通过大学英语测试吗? Did you study German? 你们学过德语吗? 2) do + not 构成否定句,例如: I do not want to be criticized. 我不想挨批评。 He doesn't like to study. 他不想学习。 In the past, many students did not know the importance of English. 过去,好多学生不知道 英语的重要性。

3) 构成否定祈使句,例如: Don't go there. 不要去那里。 Don't be so absent-minded. 不要这么心不在焉。 说明:构成否定祈使句只用 do,不用 did 和 does。 4)放在动词原形前,加强该动词的语气,例如: Do come to my birthday party. 一定来参加我的生日宴会。 I did go there. 我确实去那儿了。 I do miss you. 我确实想你。 5)用于倒装句,例如: Never did I hear of such a thing. 我从未听说过这样的事情。 Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English. 只有在开始大学生活时我们才认识到英语的重要性。 说明:引导此类倒装句的副词有 never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well 等。 6)用作代动词,例如: ---- Do you like Beijing? --你喜欢北京吗? ---- Yes, I do. --是的,喜欢。 (do 用作代动词,代替 like Beijing.) He knows how to drive a car, doesn't he? 他知道如何开车,对吧? 5.6 助动词 shall 和 will 的用法 shall 和 will 作为助动词可以与动词原形一起构成一般将来时,例如: I shall study harder at English. 我将更加努力地学习英语。 He will go to Shanghai. 他要去上海。 说明: 在过去的语法中,语法学家说 shall 用于第一人称,will 只用于第二、第三人称。现在, 尤其是在口语中,will 常用于第一人称,但 shall 只用于第一人称,如用于第二、第三人称, 就失去助动词的意义,已变为情态动词,试比较: He shall come. 他必须来。 (shall 有命令的意味。 ) He will come. 他要来。 (will 只与动词原形构成一般将来时。 ) 5.7 助动词 should,would 的用法 1)should 无词义,只是 shall 的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,只用于第一人称, 例如: I telephoned him yesterday to ask what I should do next week. 我昨天给他打电话,问他我下周干什么。 比较: "What shall I do next week?" I asked. "我下周干什么?"我问道。 (可以说,shall 变成间接引语时,变成了 should。 )

2) would 也无词义,是 will 的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,用于第二、第三人 称,例如: He said he would come. 他说他要来。 比较: "I will go," he said. 他说:"我要去那儿。" 变成间接引语,就成了: He said he would come. 原来的 will 变成 would,go 变成了 come.。 5.8 短语动词 动词加小品构成的起动词作用的短语叫短语动词(Phrasal Verb) 。例如: Turn off the radio. 把收音机关上。 (turn off 是短语动词) 短语动词的构成基本有下列几种: 1)动词+副词,如:black out; 2)动词+介词,如:look into; 3)动词+副词+介词,如:look forward to。构成短语动词的副词和介词都统称为小品词 (Particle) 。

5.9 非谓语动词 在句子中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。 非谓语动词分为三种 形式:不定式,动名词,和分词(分词包括现在分词和过去分词)。 1)不定式 时态\语态 一般式 完成式 2)动名词 时态\语态 一般式 完成式 3)分词 时态\语态 一般式 完成式

主动 to do to have done

被动 to be done to have been done

主动 doing having done

被动 being done having been done

主动 doing having done

被动 being done having been done

否定形式: not +不定式, not + 动名词, not + 现在分词 6. 动名词

6.1 动名词作主语、宾语和表语 1)作主语 Fighting broke out between the South and the North. 南方与北方开战了。 2)作宾语 a. 动词后加动名词 doing 作宾语 V. + doing sth admit 承认 appreciate 感激,赞赏 avoid 避免 complete 完成 consider 认为 delay 耽误 deny 否认 detest 讨厌 endure 忍受 enjoy 喜欢 escape 逃脱 prevent 阻止 fancy 想象 finish 完成 imagine 想象 mind 介意 miss 想念 postpone 推 迟 practise 训 练 recall 回 忆 resent 讨 厌 resist 抵抗 resume 继续 risk 冒险 suggest 建 议 face 面 对 include 包 括 stand 忍 受 understand 理解 forgive 宽恕 keep 继续 举例: (1) Would you mind turning down your radio a little, please? (2) The squirrel was lucky that it just missed being caught. b. 词组后接 doing admit to prefer?to object to stick to busy

be used to lead to look forward to(to 为介词)

devote oneself to

no good, no use, It's worth?, as well as, can't help, It's no use /good be tired of be fond of be capable of be afraid of be proud of think of / about hold off put off keep on insist on count on / upon set about be successful in good at take up give up burst out prevent ? from? 3)作表语 Her job is washing,cleaning and taking care of the children. 6.1 动名词作主语、宾语和表语 1)作主语 Fighting broke out between the South and the North. 南方与北方开战了。 2)作宾语 a. 动词后加动名词 doing 作宾语 V. + doing sth

admit 承认 appreciate 感激,赞赏 avoid 避免 complete 完成 consider 认为 delay 耽误 deny 否认 detest 讨厌 endure 忍受 enjoy 喜欢 escape 逃脱 prevent 阻止 fancy 想象 finish 完成 imagine 想象 mind 介意 miss 想念 postpone 推 迟 practise 训 练 recall 回 忆 resent 讨 厌 resist 抵抗 resume 继续 risk 冒险 suggest 建 议 face 面 对 include 包 括 stand 忍 受 understand 理解 forgive 宽恕 keep 继续 举例: (1) Would you mind turning down your radio a little, please? (2) The squirrel was lucky that it just missed being caught. b. 词组后接 doing admit to prefer?to object to stick to

be used to lead to devote oneself to be busy look forward to to 为介词)

no good, no use, It's worth?, as well as, can't help, It's no use /good be tired of be fond of be capable of be afraid of be proud of think of / about hold off put off keep on insist on count on / upon set about be successful in good at take up give up burst out prevent ? from?

3)作表语 Her job is washing,cleaning and taking care of the children. 6.2 worth 的用法 worth,worthy,worth-while 都为 adj. 意为"值得"。 1. worth: be worth + n. 当名词为金钱时,表示"??值得??" be worth doing sth. "??某事值得被做" The question is not worth discussing again and again. 2. worthy:be worthy of +n. 当名词为抽象名词时表示"??值得??" be worthy to be done "某事值得被做" The question is not worthy to be discussed againand again. 3. worth-while: be worth-while to do sth "值得做某事" worth while: It is worth while doing sth It is worth while sb to do sth. 典型例题 It is not ____ to discuss the question again and again. A.worth B.worthy C.worth-while D.worth while

答案 C. 由 worth 的用法可知,此句只适合词组 be worth-while to do sth.。因此选 C。 7.1 不定式作宾语 1) 动词+ 不定式 afford aim appear agree arrange ask be decide bother care choose come dare demand desire determine expect elect endeavor hope fail happen help hesitate learn long mean manage offer ought plan prepare pretend promise refuse seem tend wait wish undertake 举例: The driver failed to see the other car in time. 司机没能及时看见另一辆车。 I happen to know the answer to your question. 我碰巧知道你那道问题的答案。 2)动词+不定式; 动词+宾语+不定式 ask, beg, choose, expect , hate, help intend like, love, need prefer, prepare, promise, want, wish… I like to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢每件东西都保持整洁。 I like you to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢你年使每件东西都保持整洁。 I want to speak to Tom. 我想和汤姆谈话。 I want you to speak to Tom. 我想让你和汤姆谈话。 3)动词+疑问词+ to decide, know, consider forget, learn, remember, show, understand, see, wonder, hear, find out, explain, tell Please show us how to do that. 请演示给我们如何去做。 There are so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that I can't make up my mind which to buy.有这么多的录音机,我都拿不定主意买哪一种。 注意:疑问词带不定式在句中作成分时,谓语动词用单数。 The question is how to put it into practice. 问题是怎样把它付诸实施。 7.2 不定式作补语 1) 动词+宾语+不定式(to do) advise allow appoint believe cause challenge command consider declare drive enable encourage find forbid guess hire imagine impel induce inform instruct judge know like order permit persuade report request require select send state suppose think train trust understand urge warn 例句: a. Father will not allow us to play on the street.

compel force invite remind tell

父亲不让我们在街上玩耍。 b. We believe him to be guilty. 我们相信他是有罪的。 Find 的特殊用法: Find 后可用分词做宾补,或先加形式宾语,再加形容词,最后加带 to 的动词不定式。 find 后也可带一个从句。此类动词还有 get,have。 I found him lying on the ground. I found it important to learn. I found that to learn English is important. 典型例题: The next morning she found the man ___ in bed,dead. A. lying B. lie C. lay D. laying 答案:A.find 的宾语后面,用分词或分词短语,起宾语补足语作用。现在分词表达主动,也 表达正在进行,过去分词表达被动。 2) to + be 的不定式结构,作补语的动词。 Acknowledge, believe, consider, think, declare(声称), discover, fancy(设想), feel find, guess, judge, imagine, know, prove, see( 理 解 ), show, suppose, take(以为), understand We consider Tom to be one of the best students in our class. 我们认为汤姆是班上最好的学生之一。 典型例题 Charles Babbage is generally considered ___ the first computer. A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented 答案:A. 由 consider to do sth. 排除 B、D。. 此句只说明发明这一个事实,不定式后用原形 即可。而 C 为现在完成时,发明为点动词一般不用完成时,且此处也不强调对现在的影响, 因此不选 C。 3) to be +形容词 Seem, appear, be said, known, be reported, hope, wish, mean? The book is believed to be uninteresting. 人们认为这本书没什么意思。

be supposed, desire,

be believed, want,

be thought, be plan, expect,

4) there be+不定式 believe, expect, intend, like, love, mean, prefer, want, wish, undrstand We didn't expect there to be so many people there.我们没料到会有那么多人在哪里。 注意:有些动词需用 as 短语做补语,如 regard, think believe, take, consider. We regard Tom as our best teacher. 我们认为汤姆是我们最好的老师。

Mary took him as her father . 玛丽把他当作自己的父亲。 7.3 不定式主语 1) It's easy (for me) to do that.我做这事太容易了 easy, difficult, hard, important, possible, impossible, comfortable, necessary, better; the first, the next, the last, the best, too much, too little, not enough It's so nice to hear your voice. 听到你的声音真高兴。 It's necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it. 当你不用车的时候,锁车是有必要的。 2) It's very kind of you to help us. 他帮助我们,他真好。 Kind, nice, stupid, rude, clever, foolish, thoughtful,

thoughtless,

brave,

considerate(考虑周到的), silly, selfish(自私的) 例句: It was silly of us to believe him. 我们真愚蠢,竟然相信了他。 It seemed selfish of him not to give them anything. 他不给他们任何东西,这显得太自 私了。 注意:1) 其他系动词如,look,appear 等也可用于此句型 2) 不定式作为句子成分时,动词用单数形式。 3) 当不定式作主语的句子中又有一个不定式作表语时,不能用 It is? to?的句型 (对)To see is to believe. 百闻不如一见。 (错)It is to believe to see. 7.4 It's for sb.和 It's of sb. 1)for sb. 常用于表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如 easy, hard, difficult, interesting, impossible 等: It's very hard for him to study two languages. 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。 2) sb 的句型一般用表示人物的性格, of 品德, 表示主观感情或态度的形容词, good, kind, 如 nice, clever, foolish, right。 It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我,你真是太好了。 for 与 of 的辨别方法: 用介词后面的代词作主语,用介词前边的形容词作表语,造个句子。如果道理上通顺用 of,不通则用 for。如: You are nice. (通顺,所以应用 of)。 He is hard. (人是困难的,不通,因此应用 for。)

7.5 不定式作表语

不定式可放在 be 动词后面,形成表语。例如: My work is to clean the room every day. His dream is to be a doctor.

7.6 不定式作定语 不定式做定语通常要放在被修饰的词后。例如: I have a lot of work to do. So he made some candles to give light.

7.7 不定式作状语 1)目的状语 To? only to (仅仅为了), in order to, so as to, so(such)? as to? (如此??以便??) He ran so fast as to catch the first bus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。 I come here only to say good-bye to you. 我来仅仅是向你告别。 2)作结果状语,表事先没有预料到的,要放在句子后面。 What have I said to make you angry. He searched the room only to find nothing. 3) 表原因 I'm glad to see you. 典型例题 The chair looks rather hard, but in fact it is very comfortable to ___. A. sit B. sit on C. be seat D. be sat on 答案:B. 如果不定式为不及物动词,其后应有必要的介词。当动词与介词连用时,常位于 "形容词+动词不定式"结构的末尾。 7.8 用作介词的 to to 有两种用法:一为不定式+动词原形;一为介词+名词/动名词, to 在下面的用法中是 第二种,即 to+ 名词/动名词: admit to 承认, confess to 承认, be accustomed to 习惯于, be used to 习惯于, stick to 坚持, turn to 开 始,着手于, devote oneself to 献身于, be devoted to 致力于, look forward to 盼望, pay attention to 注意

7.9 省 to 的动词不定式

1)情态动词 ( 除 ought 外,ought to): 2)使役动词 let, have, make: 3)感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice , observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后作宾补, 省略 to。 注意:在被动语态中则 to 不能省掉。 I saw him dance. =He was seen to dance. The boss made them work the whole night. =They were made to work the whole night. 4) would rather,had better: 5) Why? / why not?: 6) help 可带 to,也可不带 to, help sb (to) do sth: 7) but 和 except:but 前是动词 do 时,后面出现的动词用不带 to 的动词不定式。 8)由 and, or 和 than 连接的两个不定式,第二个 to 可以省去: 9)通常在 discover, imagine, suppose, think, understand 等词后,可以省去 to be: He is supposed (to be) nice. 他应该是个好人。 举例: He wants to move to France and marry the girl. He wants to do nothing but go out. 比较: He wants to do nothing but go out. He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine.

典型例题 1) ---- I usually go there by train. ---- Why not ___ by boat for a change? A. to try going B. trying to go C. to try and go D. 答案:D. why not 后面接不带 to 的不定式,因此选 D。

try going

2) Paul doesn't have to be made ___. He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning 答案:B. make 后接不带 to 的动词不定式,当其用于被动时,to 不可省略。 7.11 不定式的特殊句型 too?to? 1)too?to 太?以至于? He is too excited to speak. 他太激动了,说不出话来。 ---- Can I help you ? 需要我帮忙吗? ---- Well, I'm afraid the box is too heavy for you to carry it, but thank you all the same. 了。这箱子太重,恐怕你搬不动。谢谢您。

不用

2) 如在 too 前有否定词, 则整个句子用否定词表达肯定,too 后那个词表达一种委婉含义,

意为"不太"。 It's never too late to mend. 改过不嫌晚。

(谚语)

3) 当 too 前面有 only, all, but 时,意思是:非常?等于 very。 I'm only too pleased to be able to help you. 我非常高兴能帮助你。 He was but too eager to get home. 他非常想回家。

7.12 不定式的特殊句型 so as to 1)表示目的;它的否定式是 so as not to do。 Tom kept quiet about the accident so as not to lose his job. 汤姆对事故保持沉默是为了不丢掉他的工作。 Go in quietly so as not to wake the baby. 轻点进去,别惊醒了婴儿。 2) so kind as to ---劳驾 Would you be so kind as to tell me the time? 劳驾,现在几点了。

7.13 不定式的特殊句型 Why not "Why not +动词原形"表达向某人提出建议,翻译为:"为什么不???" "干吗不???" 例如: Why not take a holiday? 干吗不去度假? 7.14 不定式的时态和语态 时态\语态 主动 被动 一般式 to do to be done 进行式 to be doing 完成式 to have done to have been done 完成进行式 to have been doing 1) 现在时:一般现在时表示的动词,有时与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生,有时发生在谓 语动词的动作之后。 He seems to know this. I hope to see you again. = I hope that I'll see you again. 我希望再见到你。 2) 完成时:表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。 I'm sorry to have given you so much trouble. He seems to have caught a cold.

3) 进行时:表示动作正在进行,与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。 He seems to be eating something. 4) 完成进行时: She is known to have been wreaking on the problem for many years. 7.15 动名词与不定式 1)动名词与不定式的区别: 动名词表达的是:状态,性质,心境,抽象,经常性,已发生的 不定式表达的是:目的,结果,原因,具体,一次性,将发生的 2)接不定式或动名词,意义相同。 3)动名词与不定式语义不同的有 11 组: 1 stop to do stop doing 2 forget to do forget doing 3 remember to do remember doing 4 regret to do regret doing 5 cease to do cease doing 6 try to do try doing 7 go on to do go on doing 8 afraid to do afraid doing 9 interested to do interested doing 10 mean to do mean doing 11 begin/ start to do begin/ start doing 8.1 stop doing/to do stop to do 停止,中断做某事后去做另一件事。 stop doing 停止做某事。 They stop to smoke a cigarette. 他们停下来,抽了根烟。 I must stop smoking.. 我必须戒烟了。 典型例题 She reached the top of the hill and stopped ___ on a big rock by the side of the path. A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest 答案:C。由题意可知, 她到了山顶, 停下来在一个路边的大石头上休息。因此,应选择"stop to do sth. 停下来去做另一件事"。而不仅仅是爬山动作的终止,所以 stop doing sth.不正确。

8.2 forget doing/to do forget to do 忘记要去做某事。 (未做) forget doing 忘记做过某事。 (已做)

The light in the office is stil on. He forgot to turn it off. 办公室的灯还在亮着,它忘记关了。(没有做关灯的动作) He forgot turning the light off. 他忘记他已经关了灯了。 Don't forget to come tomorrow. 别忘了明天来。 典型例题 ---- The light in the office is still on. ---- Oh,I forgot___. A. turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off ( 已做过关灯的动作) (to come 动作未做)

答案: 由 the light is still on 可知灯亮着, C。 即关灯的动作没有发生, 因此用 forget to do sth. 而 forget doing sth 表示灯已经关上了,而自己忘记了这一事实。此处不符合题意。 8.3 remember doing/to do remember to do 记得去做某事 remember doing 记得做过某事 (未做) (已做)

Remember to go to the post office after school. 记着放学后去趟邮局。 Don't you remember seeing the man before? 你不记得以前见过那个人吗?

8.4 regret doing/to do regret to do 对要做的事遗憾。 (未做) regret doing 对做过的事遗憾、后悔。 (已做) I regret to have to do this, but I have no choice. 我很遗憾必须这样去做,我实在没有办法。 I don't regret telling her what I thought. 我不为告诉她我的想法而后悔。 典型例题 ---You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting. ---Well, now I regret ___ that. A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done 答案:D。regret having done sth. 对已发生的事感到遗憾。regret to do sth. 对将要做的事感 到遗憾。本题为对已说的话感到后悔,因此选 D。 8.5 cease doing/to do cease to do 长时间,甚至永远停做某事。 cease doing 短时停止做某事,以后还会接着做。

That department has ceased to exist forever. 那个部门已不复存在。 The girls ceased chatting for a moment when their teacher passed by. 姑娘们在老师走过时,停了会聊天。

8.6 try doing/to do try to do 努力,企图做某事。 try doing 试验,试着做某事。 You must try to be more careful. 你可要多加小心。 I tried gardening but didn't succeed. 我试着种果木花卉,但未成功。

8.7 go on doing/to do go on to do 做了一件事后,接着做另一件事。 go on doing 继续做原来做的事。 After he had finished his maths,he went on to do his physics. 做完数学后,他接着去做物理。 Go on doing the other exercise after you have finished this one. 作完这个练习后,接着做其他的练习 8.8 be afraid doing/to do be afraid to do 不敢,胆怯去做某事,是主观上的原因不去做,意为"怕"; be afraid of doing 担心出现 doing 的状况、结果。 doing 是客观上造成的,意为"生怕,恐 怕"。 She was afraid to step further in grass because she was afraid of being bitten by a snake. 她生怕被蛇咬着,而不敢在草丛中再走一步。 She was afraid to wake her husband. 她不敢去叫醒她丈夫。 She was afraid of waking her husband. 她生怕吵醒她丈夫。

8.9 be interested doing/to do interested to do 对做某事感兴趣,想了解某事。 interested in doing 对某种想法感兴趣,doing 通常为想法。

I shall be interested to know what happens. 我很想知道发生了什么事。 (想了解) I'm interested in working in Switzerland. Do you have any idea about that? 我对在瑞士工作感兴趣。你想过这事吗? 8.10 mean to doing/to do mean to do 打算、想 mean doing 意味着 I mean to go, but my father would not allow me to. 我想去,但是我父亲不肯让我去。 To raise wage means increasing purchasing power. 赠加工资意味着增加购买力。 (一种想法)

8.11 begin(start) doing/to do begin / start to do sth begin / start doing sth. 1) 谈及一项长期活动或开始一种习惯时,使用 doing. How old were you when you first started playing the piano? 你几岁时开始弹钢琴? 2) begin, start 用进行时时,后面动词用不定式 to do I was beginning to get angry。 我开始生起气来。 3) 在 attempt, intend, begin, start 后接 know, understand, realize 这类动词时, 常用不定式 to do。 I begin to understand the truth。 我开始明白真相。 4) 物作主语时 It began to melt. 8.12 感官动词 + doing/to do 感官动词 see, watch, observe, notice, look at, hear, listen to, smell, taste, feel + do 动作的完整性,真实性;+doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性 I saw him work in the garden yesterday. 昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强调"我看见了"这个事实) I saw him working in the garden yesterday.(强调"我见他正干活"这个动作) 昨天我见他正在花园里干活。 典型例题 1)They knew her very well. They had seen her ___ up from childhood. A. grow B. grew C. was growing D. to grow

表示

答案:A。因题意为,他们看着她长大,因此强调的是成长的过程,而非正在长的动作, 因此用 see sb do sth 的句型。 2)The missing boy was last seen ___ near the river. A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. to play 答案 A. 本题强调其动作,正在河边玩,应此用 see sb. doing sth 句型。 9.1 分词作定语 分词前置 We can see the rising sun. 我们可以看到东升的旭日 He is a retired worker. 他是位退休的工人 分词后置 (i 分词词组;ii 个别分词如 given, left; iii 修饰不定代词 something 等) There was a girl sitting there. 有个女孩坐在那里 This is the question given. 这是所给的问题 There is nothing interesting. 没有有趣的东西 过去分词作定语 与其修饰的词是被动关系,相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。 Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists. Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa. 典型例题 1) The first textbook ___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. have written B. to be written C. being written D. written 答案 D. 书与写作是被动关系, 应用过去分词做定语表被动, 相当于定语从句 which is written 2)What's the language ____ in Germany? A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken

D. to speak

答案 B. 主语 language 与谓语动词之间有被动的含义。 spoken 是动词 speak 的过去分词形式,在句中作定语,修饰主语 language, spoken 与 language 有被动关系。该句可以理解为: What's the language (which is) spoken in German? 9.2 分词作状语 As I didn't receive any letter from him, I gave him a call. -> Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call. 由于没有收到他的信,我给他打了电话。 If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better. -> Given more attention,the trees could have grown better. 假如多给些照顾,那些树会长得更好。 典型例题

1)_____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army. A. Followed B. Followed by C. Being followed D. Having been followed 答案 B. Napoleon 与 follow 之间有被动的含义。being followed 除表达被动之外,还有动 作 正 在 进 行 之 意 。 followed by ( 被 ? 跟 随 )。 本 题 可 改 为 : With some officials following, Napoleon inspected his army. 2)There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light. A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed 答案 B. 由于声音在闪电后,因此为声跟随着光,声音为跟随的发出者,为主动。用现在 分词。 3)_______, liquids can be changed into gases. A. Heating B. To be heated C. Heated D. Heat 答案 C. 本题要选一分词作为状语。现在分词表主动,正在进行的;过去分词表被动的, 已经完成的。对于液体来说是加热的受动者,是被动的,因而选 C。它相当于一个状语从句 When it is heated,? 注意: 选择现在分词还是过去分词, 关键看主句的主语。 如分词的动作是主句的主语发出, 分词就选用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。 (Being ) used for a long time, the book looks old. 由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧。 Using the book, I find it useful. 在使用的过程中, 我发现这本书很有用。 9.3 连词+分词(短语) 有时为使分词短语与主句关系更清楚,可在分词前加连词。连词有: when,while,if though,after, before, as. 但分词的主语和主句的主语必须为同一个,如: While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building. waiting 和 saw 的主语相同。

9.4 分词作补语 通常在感官动词和使役动词之后,如: I found my car missing. 我发现我的车不见了。 I'll have my watch repaired. 我想把我的手表修一下。

9.5 分词作表语 现在分词:表示主动,正在进行 过去分词:表示被动,已经完成 She looked tired with cooking. 她由于忙着做饭,看上去有些疲倦。 He remained standing beside the table. 他依然站在桌旁。

9.6 分词作插入语 其结构是固定的,意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。 generally speaking 一般说来 talking of (speaking of) 说道 strictly speaking 严格的说 judging from 从?判断 all things considered 从整体来看 taking all things into consideration 全面看来 Judging from his face, he must be ill. 从他的脸色看,他一定是病了。 Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs. 总的来说, 狗比猪跑得快。 (speaking 并 不是 dogs 的动作) 9.7 分词的时态 1)与主语动词同时, Hearing the news, he jumped with joy. 听到这一消息,他高兴得手舞足蹈。 Arriving there, they found the boy dead. 刚一到那儿,他们就发现那男孩死了。 典型例题 The secretary worked late into the night, ___a long speech for the president. A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing 答案 B. 此处没有连词,不能选 D,否则出现了两个谓语动词 worked 和 was preparing。 只能在 B, 中选一个。 C 又因前后两个动作同时发生, 且与主语为主动关系, 应用现在分词。 2)先于主动词 While walking in the garden,he hurt his leg. 在花园里散步时他伤了腿。 分词作时间状语,如果先与主动词的动作,且强调先后,要用 having done。 Having finished his homework, he went out. =As he had finished his homework, he went out. 做完作业后,他出去了。 典型例题 ___ a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received 答案 C. 本题考查分词的时态与分词的否定式。根据题意判断,分词的动作(接信)发生 在谓语动词的动作(决心再写信)之前,因此用分词的完成式。分词的否定式的构成为 not +分词,故选 C。该句可理解为:Because he had not received a reply, he decided to write again. 9.8 分词的语态 1)通常,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动,例如: He is the man giving you the money. (= who gave you?) 他就是给你钱的那个人。

He is the man stopped by the car. 他就是那个被车拦住的人。

( = who was stopped by?)

2)不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生 gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned 例: a well-read person. 一个读过许多书的人 a much-travelled may 一个去过许多地方的人 a burnt-out match 烧完了的火柴 10.1 独立主格 (一) :独立主格结构的构成: 名词(代词)+现在分词、过去分词; 名词(代词)+形容词; 名词(代词)+副词; 名词(代词)+不定式; 名词(代词) +介词短语构成。 (二)独立主格结构的特点: 1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。 2)名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定式,介词等是主谓关系。 3)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。 举例: The test finished, we began our holiday. = When the test was finished, we began our holiday. 考试结束了,我们开始放假。 The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow. = After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow. 总统被谋杀了,举国上下沉浸在悲哀之中。 Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow. 如果天气允许,我们明天去看你。 This done, we went home. 工作完成后,我们才回家。 The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier. 会议结束后,每个人都想早点回家。 He came into the room, his ears red with cold. 他回到了房子里,耳朵冻坏了。 He came out of the library, a large book under his arm. 他夹着本厚书,走出了图书馆

10.2 With 的复合结构作独立主格 表伴随时,既可用分词的独立结构,也可用 with 的复合结构。 with +名词(代词)+现在分词/过去分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语 举例: He stood there, his hand raised. = He stood there, with his hand raise. 典型例题 The murder was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back。 A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied 答案 D. with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构。当分词表示伴随状况时,其主语常常 用 with 来引导。由于本句中名词"手"与分词"绑"是被动关系,因此用过去分词,选 D. 注意: 1) 独立主格结构使用介词的问题: 当介词是 in 时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词) ,也不用复数。 但 with 的复合结构不受此限制 A robber burst into the room, knife in hand. ( hand 前不能加 his)。 2) 当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分词,不及物动词用过去分词。 He lay there, his teeth set, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up. 典型例题: Weather___, we'll go out for a walk. A permitted B permitting C permits D for permitting 答案 B. 本题中没有连词, 它不是复合句, 也不是并列句。 句中使用了逗号, we 小写, 且 可知其不是两个简单句。能够这样使用的只有独立主格或 with 的复合结构。据此判断,本 句中使用的是独立结构,其结构为:名词+分词。由于 permit 在这里翻译为'天气允许',表 主动,应用现在分词,故选 B。 如果不会判断独立结构作状语的形式,不妨将句子改为条件句,例如本句改为 If weather permits, we'll go out for a walk. 然后将 if 去掉,再将谓语动词改为非谓语动词即可。 11.1 一般现在时的用法 1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用。 时间状语: every?, sometimes, at?, on Sunday I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。 The earth moves around the sun. Shanghai lies in the east of China. 3) 表示格言或警句中。 Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。 例:Columbus proved that the earth is round.. 4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。 I don't want so much. Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well. 比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup. I am doing my homework now. 第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。 再如: Now watch me, I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的 now 是进行时的标志, 表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般现在时。11.2 一般过去时的用法 1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。 时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982 等。 Where did you go just now? 2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。 When I was a child, I often played football in the street. Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome. 3)句型: It is time for sb. to do sth "到??时间了" "该??了" It is time sb. did sth. "时间已迟了" "早该??了" It is time for you to go to bed. 你该睡觉了。 It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了。 would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事' I'd rather you came tomorrow. 4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等。 I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。 比较: 一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。 Christine was an invalid all her life. (含义:她已不在人间。) Christine has been an invalid all her life. (含义:她现在还活着) Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。) Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years. ( 含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)

注意:用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。 1)动词 want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。 Did you want anything else? I wondered if you could help me. 2)情态动词 could, would. Could you lend me your bike? 11.3 used to / be used to used to + do:"过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在。 Mother used not to be so forgetful. Scarf used to take a walk. (过去常常散步)

be used to + doing: 对??已感到习惯, 或"习惯于", 是介词, to 后需加名词或动名词。 He is used to a vegetarian diet. Scarf is used to taking a walk.(现在习惯于散步) 典型例题 ---- Your phone number again? I ___ quite catch it. ---- It's 69568442. A. didn't B. couldn't C. don't D. can't 答案 A. 本句虽没有明确的时间状语,但从语意上看出,在听的时候没有听懂这个动作 发生在过去,因此应用过去时。

11.6 be to 和 be going to be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事。 be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。 I am to play football tomorrow afternoon. (客观安排) I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon. (主观安排) 11.7 一般现在时表将来 1)下列动词:come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return 的一般现在时表将来。这主要用来表 示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。

The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. 2)倒装句,表示动作正在进行,如: Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming. There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing. 3)在时间或条件句中。 When Bill comes (不是 will come), ask him to wait for me. I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there. 4)在动词 hope, take care that, make sure that 等后。 I hope they have a nice time next week. Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room.

11.9 现在完成时 现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状 态, 其结果的确和现在有联系。 动 作或状态发生在过去 但它的影响现在还存在; 也可表示持续到现在的动作或 状态。 其构 成: have (has) +过去分词。 11.10 比较过去时与现在完成时 1)过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过 去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。 2)过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时 间状语。 一般过去时的时间状语: yesterday, last week,?ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间状语 共同的时间状语: this morning, tonight,this April, now, once,before, already, recently,lately 现在完成时的时间状语

for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, 不确定的时间状语

till / until, up to now, in past years, always,

3) 现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态, 动词一般是延续性的, live, teach, learn, 如 work, study, know. 过去时常用的非持续性动词有 come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married 等。 举例: I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了。 ) I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。 ) Why did you get up so early? (强调起床的动作已发生过了。 ) Who hasn't handed in his paper? (强调有卷子,可能为不公平竞争。 ) She has returned from Paris. 她已从巴黎回来了。 She returned yesterday. 她是昨天回来了。 He has been in the League for three years. (在团内的状态可延续) He has been a League member for three years. (是团员的状态可持续) He joined the League three years ago. ( 三年前入团,joined 为短暂行为。) I have finished my homework now. ---Will somebody go and get Dr. White? ---He's already been sent for. 句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成 时,要用过去时。 (错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night. (对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night. 11.11 用于现在完成时的句型 1)It is the first / second time?. that?结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。 It is the first time that I have visited the city. It was the third time that the boy had been late. 2)This is the? that?结构,that 从句要用现在完成时. This is the best film that I've (ever) seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。 This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。

典型例题 (1) ---Do you know our town at all? ---No, this is the first time I ___ here. A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming 答案 B. This is the first time 后面所加从句应为现在完成时,故选 B。 (2) ---Have you ____ been to our town before? ---No, it's the first time I ___ here. A. even, come B. even, have come C. ever, come

D. ever, have come

答案 D. ever 意为曾经或无论何时, 反意词为 never, 此两词常用于完成时。This is the largest fish I have ever seen. It is / was the first time +that-clause 的句型中,从句要用完成时。 注意: 非延续性动词的否定形式可以与表示延续时间的状语连用。 即动作不发生的状态是 可以持续的。 (错)I have received his letter for a month. (对)I haven't received his letter for almost a month. 11.12 比较 since 和 for Since 用来说明动作起始时间,for 用来说明动作延续时间长度。 I have lived here for more than twenty years. I have lived here since I was born.. My aunt has worked in a clinic since 1949. Some new oilfields have been opened up since 1976. I have known Xiao Li since she was a little girl. My brother has been in the Youth League for two years. I have not heard from my uncle for a long time. 注意:并非有 for 作为时间状语的句子都用现在完成时。 I worked here for more than twenty years. (我现在已不在这里工作。) I have worked here for many years. (现在我仍在这里工作。) 小窍门: 当现在完成时+一段时间,这一结构中,我们用下面的公式转化,很容易就 能排除非延续动词在完成时中的误使。 1) (对) Tom has studied Russian for three years. = Tom began to study Russian three years ago, and is still studying it now. 2) (错) Harry has got married for six years. = Harry began to get married six years ago, and is still getting married now. 显然, 第二句不对, 它应改为 Harry got married six years ago. 或 Harry has been married for six years.

11.13 since 的四种用法 1) since +过去一个时间点 (如具体的年、 日期、 月、 钟点、 1980, last month, half past six)。 I have been here since 1989. 2) since +一段时间+ ago I have been here since five months ago. 3) since +从句 Great changes have taken place since you left. Considerable time has elapsed since we have been here. 4) It is +一段时间+ since 从句 It is two years since I became a postgraduate student. 11.14 延续动词与瞬间动词 1) 用于完成时的区别 延续动词表示经验、经历;瞬间动词表示行为的结果,不能与表示段的时间状语连用。 He has completed the work. 他已完成了那项工作。 (表结果) I've known him since then. 我从那时起就认识他了。(表经历) 2) 用于 till / until 从句的差异 延续动词用于肯定句,表示"做??直到??" 瞬间动词用于否定句,表示"到??, 才??" He didn't come back until ten o'clock. 他到 10 点才回来。 He slept until ten o'clock. 他一直睡到 10 点。 典型例题 1. You don't need to describe her. I ___ her several times. A. had met B. have met C. met D. meet 答案 B. 首先本题后句强调对现在的影响,我知道她的模样,你不用描述。再次,several times 告知为反复发生的动作,因此用现在完成时。 2.---I'm sorry to keep you waiting.

---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes. A. have been B. had been C. was D. will be 答案 A. 等待的动作由过去开始,持续到现在,应用现在完成时。 11.15 过去完成时 1)概念:表示过去的过去 ----|-------|-----|---->其构成是 had +过去分词构成。 那时以前 那时 现在 2)用法 a. 在 told, said, knew, heard, thought 等动词后的宾语从句。 She said (that) she had never been to Paris. b. 状语从句 在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去 时。 When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. c. 表示意向的动词,如 hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose 等,用过去完成时 表示"原本?,未能?" We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 3) 过去完成时的时间状语 before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。 He said that he had learned some English before. By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself. Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party. 典型例题 The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office. A. had written, left B,were writing, has left C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left 答案 D. "把书忘在办公室"发生在"去取书"这一过去的动作之前,因此"忘了书"这一动作发 生在过去的过去, 用过去完成时。 句中 when 表示的是时间的一点, 表示在"同学们正忙于?? "这一背景下,when 所引导的动作发生。因此 前一句应用过去进行时。 注意: had no ? when 还没等??就?? had no sooner? than 刚??就?? He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.

11.16 用一般过去时代替完成时 1) 两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用 then,and,but 等连词时,多用一般过 去时。 When she saw the mouse,she screamed.

My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it. 2 ) 两个动作相继发生, 可用一般过去时; 如第一个动作需要若干时间完成, 用过去完成时。 When I heard the news, I was very excited. 3) 叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时。 Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492. 11.17 将来完成时 1) 构成 will / be going to do sth. 2) 概念 a. 状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。 b. 动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前,已经完成的动作或一获得的 经验。 They will have been married for 20 years by then. You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow.

11.18 现在进行时 现在进行时的基本用法: a. 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。 We are waiting for you. b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。 Mr. Green is writing another novel. (说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。) She is learning piano under Mr. Smith. c. 表示渐变的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin 等。 The leaves are turning red. It's getting warmer and warmer. d. 与 always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往 带有说话人的主观色彩。 You are always changing your mind. 典型例题 My dictionary ___, I have looked for it everywhere but still___ it. A. has lost, don't find B. is missing, don't find C. has lost, haven't found D. is missing, haven't found. 答案 D. 前句是一个仍在持续的状态,应用进行时,由于没有找到,其影响仍然存在,应 用完成时,瞬间动词用于否定式时可用于完成时。

11.19 不用进行时的动词

1) 事实状态的动词 have, belong, possess, cost, owe, exist, include, contain, matter, weigh, measure, continue I have two brothers. This house belongs to my sister. 2) 心理状态的动词 Know, realize, think see, believe, suppose, imagine, agree, recognize, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate I need your help. He loves her very much. 3 ) 瞬间动词 accept, receive, complete, finish, give, allow, decide, refuse. I accept your advice. 4) 系动词 seem, remain, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, get, become, turn You seem a little tired. 11.20 过去进行时 1)概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。 2)过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动 作发生。 3) 常用的时间状语 this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. It was raining when they left the station. When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining. 典型例题 1) Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger. A. made B. is making C. was making D. makes 答案 C. 割伤手指是已发生的事情,应用过去时。同 时,when 表时间的同时性,"玛丽 在做衣服时"提供事情发生的背景,因此用过去进行时。 2) As she ___ the newspaper, Granny ___ asleep. read; was falling B. was reading; fell C. was reading; was falling D. read;fell 答案 B.句中的 as = when, while,意为"当??之时"。描述一件事发生的背景时,用过去进 行;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。句意为 "在她看报纸时,奶奶睡着了。" 句中的 fell (fall 的过去时),是系动词,后跟形容词,如:fall sick。

11.21 将来进行时 1) 概念:表示将来某时进行的状态或动作,或按预测将来会发生的事情。 She'll be coming soon. I'll be meeting him sometime in the future. 注意:将来进行时不用于表示"意志",不能说 I'll be having a talk with her. 2)常用的时间状语 Soon, tomorrow, this evening, Sunday, by this time, on tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach. 11.22 一般现在时代替将来时 时间状语从句,条件句中,从句用一般现在时代替将来时 When, while, before, after, till, once, as soon as, so long as, by the time, if, in case (that), unless, even if, whether, the moment, the minute, the day, the year, immediately He is going to visit her aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京,就去看他姨妈。 典型例题 (1)He said he________me a present unless I_______ in doing the experiment. A. had not given; had not succeeded B. would not give; succeed C. will not give; succeed D. would not give; will succeed. 答案 B. 在时间,条件或让步主语从句中一般不用将来时。本题有 He said,故为过去式。 主句用将来时,故选 B. 此处用一般过去式代替了过去将来时。 (2) 表示现在已安排好的未来事项,行程等活动。 The museum opens at ten tomorrow. 博物馆明天 10 点开门。(实际上每天如此。)

11.23 一般现在时代替过去时 1 )"书上说","报纸上说"等。 The newspaper says that it's going to be cold tomorrow. 报纸上说明天会很冷的。 2) 叙述往事,使其生动。 Napoleon's army now advances and the great battle begins.

11.24 一般现在时代替完成时 1) 有些动词用一般现在时代替完成时: hear, tell, learn, write , understand, forget, know, find , say, remember. I hear (= have heard) he will go to London. I forget (=have forgotten) how old he is.

2) 句型 " It is ? since?"代替"It has been ? since ?" 3) It is (= has been) five years since we last met. 11.25 一般现在时代替进行时 1) 句型:Here comes?; There goes? Look, here comes Mr. Li. 11.26 现在进行时代替将来时 1) 表示即将发生的或预定中计划好的活动。 Are you staying with us this weekend? 这周和我们一起度周末吗? We are leaving soon. 我们马上就走。 2) 渐变动词,如:get, run, grow, become, begin 及 die。 He is dying. 11.27 时态一致 1) 如果从句所叙述的为真理或不变的事实,则永远用现在时。 At that time, people did not know that the earth moves. He told me last week that he is eighteen. 2) 宾语从句中的助动词 ought, need, must, dare 时态是不变的。 He thought that I need not tell you the truth.

11.28 时态与时间状语 时间状语 一般现在时 every ?, sometimes, at ?, on Sunday, 一般过去时 一般将来时 现在完成时 recently 过去完成时 yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982, just now next?, tomorrow, in+时间, for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years, always,

before, by, until, when, after, once, as soon as

过去进行时 this morning, the whole morning, all day, yesterday, from nine to ten last evening? when, while 将来进行时 soon, tomorrow, this evening, on Sunday, by this time, tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening 12. 动词的语态 语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。

主语是动作的发出者为主动语态;主语是动作的接受者为被动语态。 1)若宾语补足语是不带 to 的不定式,变为被动语态 时,该不定式前要加"to"。此类动 词为感官动词。 feel, hear, help, listen to, look at, make, observe, see, notice, watch The teacher made me go out of the classroom. --> I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher). We saw him play football on the playground. --> He was seen to play football on the playground. 2)情态动词+ be +过去分词,构成被动语态。 Coal can be used to produce electricity for agriculture and industry.

12.1 let 的用法 1)当 let 后只有一个单音节动词,变被动语态时,可用不带 to 的不定式。 They let the strange go.---> The strange was let go. 2)若 let 后宾补较长时,let 通常不用被动语态,而用 allow 或 permit 代替。 The nurse let me go to see my classmate in the hospital. ----> I was allowed / permitted to see my classmate in the hospital. 12.2 短语动词的被动语态 短语动词是一个整体,不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。 This is a photo of the power station that has been set up in my hometown. My sister will be taken care of by Grandma. Such a thing has never been heard of before..

12.3 表示"据说"或"相信" 的词组 believe, consider, declare, expect, feel , report, say, see, suppose, think, understand It is said that? 据说 It is reported that?据报道 It is believed that? 大家相信 It is hoped that? 大家希望 It is well known that?众所周知 It is thought that? 大家认为 It is suggested that? 据建议 It is taken granted that? 被视为当然 It has been decided that?大家决定 It must be remember that?务必记住的是

It is said that she will leave for Wuhan on Tuesday. 12.4 不用被动语态的情况 1) 不及物动词或动词短语无被动语态: appear, die disappear, end (vi. 结束), fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit, spread, stand break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place. After the fire, very little remained of my house. 比较: rise, fall, happen 是不及物动词;raise, seat 是及物动词。 (错) The price has been risen. (对) The price has risen. (错) The accident was happened last week. (对) The accident happened last week. (错) The price has raised. (对) The price has been raised. (错) Please seat. (对) Please be seated. 要想正确地使用被动语态,就须注意哪些动词是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特别是一词 多义的动词往往有两种用法。解决这一问题唯有在学习过程中多留意积累。 2) 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语: fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to This key just fits the lock. Your story agrees with what had already been heard. 3) 系动词无被动语态: appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn It sounds good. 4) 带同源宾语的及物动词,反身代词,相互代词,不能用于被动语态: die, death, dream, live, life She dreamed a bad dream last night. 5) 当宾语是不定式时,很少用于被动语态。 (对) She likes to swim. (错) To swim is liked by her. 12.5 主动形式表示被动意义 1)wash, clean, cook, iron, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell, drive? The book sells well. 这本书销路好。

This knife cuts easily. 这刀子很好用。

2)blame, let(出租), remain, keep, rent, build I was to blame for the accident. Much work remains.

3) 在 need, require, want, worth (形容词), deserve 后的动名词必须用主动形式。 The door needs repairing.= The door needs to be repaired. This room needs cleaning. 这房间应该打扫一下。 This book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。

4) 特殊结构:make sb. heard / understood (使别人能听见/理解自己),have sth. done ( 要 某人做某事)。

12.6 被动形式表示主动意义 be determined, be pleased, be graduated (from), be finished, be prepared (for), be occupied (in), get marries He is graduated from a famous university. 他毕业于一所有名的大学。 注意:表示同某人结婚,用 marry sb. 或 get married to sb. 都可。 He married a rich girl. He got married to a rich girl. 12.7 need/want/require/worth 注意:当 need, want, require, worth(形容词)后面接 doing 也可以表示被动。 Your hair wants cutting. 你的头发该理了。 The floor requires washing. 地板需要冲洗。 The book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。 典型例题 The library needs___, but it'll have to wait until Sunday. A. cleaning B. be cleaned C. clean D. being cleaned 答案 A. need (实意) +n /to do,need (情态)+ do,当为被动语态时,还可 need + doing. 本 题考最后一种用法,选 A。如有 to be clean 则也为正确答案。 典:done,"不可能已经"。must not do 不可以(用于一般现在时)。 13. 句子的种类 (一)按使用目的可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。 1)陈述句(Declarative Sentences) :说明一个事实或陈述一种看法。

Light travels faster than sound. 光比声速度快。 The film is rather boring. 这部电影很乏味。 (说明看法)

(说明事实)

2)疑问句(Interrogative Sentences) :提出问题。有以下四种: a. 一般疑问句(General Questions) : Can you finish the work in time? 你能按时完成工作吗? b. 特殊疑问句(W Questions; H Questions) : Where do you live? 你住那儿? How do you know that? 你怎么知道那件事? c. 选择疑问句(Alternative Questions) : Do you want tea or coffee? 你是要茶还是要咖啡? d. 反意疑问句(Tag-Questions) : He doesn't know her, does he? 他不认识她,对不对? 3)祈使句(Imperative Sentences) :提出请求,建议或发出命令,例如: Sit down, please. 请坐。 Don't be nervous! 别紧张! 4)感叹句(Exclamatory Sentences) :表示说话人惊奇、喜悦、愤怒等情绪,例如: What good news it is! 多好的消息啊! (二)句子按其结构可以分为以下三类: 1)简单句(Simple Sentences) :只包含一个主谓结构句子叫简单句,例如: She is fond of collecting stamps. 她喜欢集邮。 (主) (谓) 2)并列句(Compound Sentences) :包含两个或两个以上主谓结构的句子叫并列句,句与句 之间通常用并列连词或分号来连接,例如: The food was good, but he had little appetite. (主) (谓) (主)(谓) 食物很精美,但他却没什么胃口。 3)复合句(Complex Sentences) :包含一个主句从句和一个或几个从句的句子叫复合句,从 句由从属连词引导,例如: The film had begun when we got to the cinema. 主句 从句 我们到达电影院的时候,电影已经开演了。

(三)基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns) :英语中千变万化的句子归根结底都是由以下五 种基本句型组合、扩展、变化而来的: 1)主 + 动(SV)例如: I work. 我工作。 2)主 + 动 + 表(SVP)例如: John is busy. 约翰忙。 3)主 + 动 + 宾(SVO)例如: She studies English. 她学英语。 4)主 + 动 + 宾 + 补(SVOC)例如: Time would prove me right. 时间会证明我是对的。 5)主 + 动 + 间宾 + 直宾(SVOiOd)例如: My mother made me a new dress. 我母亲给我做了一件新衣裳。 13.1 祈使句结构 祈使句用以表达命令,要求,请求,劝告等。 1)祈使句有两种类型,一种是以动词原形开头,在动词原形之前加 do (但只限于省略第二 人称主语的句子)。 Take this seat. Do be careful. 否定结构: Don't move. Don't be late. 2)第二种祈使句以 let 开头。 Let 的反意疑问句 a. Let's 包括说话者 Let's have another try,shall we / shan't we? = Shall we have another try? b. Let us 不包括说话者 Let us have another try,will you / won't you? = Will you please let us have another try? 否定结构: Let's not talk of that matter. Let us not talk of that matter. 13.2 感叹句结构 感叹句通常有 what, how 引导,表示赞美、惊叹、喜悦、等感情。 what 修饰名词,how 修饰形容词,副词或动词,感叹句结构主要有以下几种: 掌握它的搭配,即掌握了感叹句的重点。 How +形容词+ a +名词+ 陈述语序

How+形容词或副词+ What +名词+ What+a+形容词+名词+ What+ 形容词+复数名词+ What+ 形容词+不可数名词+ How clever a boy he is! How lovely the baby is! What noise they are making! What a clever boy he is! What wonderful ideas (we have)! What cold weather it is! 感叹句的省略形式为: What a clever boy (he is)! 典型例题 1)___ food you've cooked! A. How a nice B. What a nice

陈述语序 陈述语序 陈述语序 陈述语序 陈述语序

C. How nice

D. What nice

答案 D. 由于 How 修饰形容词,副词;what 修饰名词。且 food 为不可数名词,因此 A, B 排除。C How + adj. 后面不能再加名词,因此只有 D 正确,其句型为 What + adj. +n. (不可 数) 2)___terrible weather we've been having these days! A. What B. What a C. How D. How a 答案 A. weather 为不可数名词,B,D 排除。C 为 how + adj. 后面不应有名词。只有 A,符 合句型 What +形容词+不可数名词。 3) --- _____ I had! --- You really suffered a lot. A. What a time B. What time

C. How a time

D. how time

答案 A. 感叹句分两类: 1:What + n.+主谓部分 2:How + adj. / adv. / v.+主谓部分。本题属第一种,但省略了 bad,相对于 What a bad time I had! 这是个习惯用语。 13.3 强调句结构 常考的强调句结构是 it 引导的句子。 It is (was) 被强调部分+ that (who) + 句子其他部分。 此结构强调的成分仅限于主语,宾语和状语。 It is from the sun that we get light and heat. It was not until I had read your letter that I understood the true state of affairs.

典型例题 1) It was last night ___ I see the comet. A. the time B. when C. that D. which 答案 C. 强调句的结构是: It +be +强调部分 + that (who) + 主谓句。 强调句的连词只有 两个,that 和 who。当强调的部分是人,且为句子的主语时,才用 "who",其余用 that。 原句: My father did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening. 强调主语: It was my father who did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening. 强调宾语: It was the experiment that my father did in the lab yesterday evening. 强调时间: It was yesterday evening that my father did the experiment in the lab. (注意不用 when) 强调地点: It was in the lab that my father did the experiment yesterday evening. 2)It is ten years ___ Miss Green returned to Canada. A. that B. when C. since D. as 答案 C. 考点是连词用法。本题易误选为 A. that. 其实本句不是强调句。若是,去掉 It be? that 还应是一个完整的句子。而本句去掉 'It is?that',只剩下 ten years Miss Green returned to Canada. 不成句。因此本句不是强调句。 It is /was +时间+ since? 其中 is<---> has been was <---> had been.

13.4 用助动词进行强调 强调句还有一种类型,就是用助动词 do (did,does) 强调谓语。 She does like this horse. 她的确喜欢这匹马。 Please do take care of yourself. 千万保重。 13.5 反意疑问句 1) 陈述部分的主语是 I,疑问部分要用 aren't I. I'm as tall as your sister,aren't I? 2) 陈述部分的谓语是 wish,疑问部分要用 may +主语。 I wish to have a word with you, may I? 3) 陈述部分用 no, nothing, nobody, never, few, seldom, hardly, rarely, little 等否定含义的词 时,疑问部分用肯定含义。 The Swede made no answer, did he / she? Some plants never blown (开花), do they ? 4) 含有 ought to 的反意疑问句,陈述部分是肯定的,疑问部分用 shouldn't / oughtn't +主 语。 He ought to know what to do, oughtn't he? / shouldn't he? 5) 陈述部分有 have to +v. (had to + v.),疑问部分常用 don't +主语(didn't +主语) 。 We have to get there at eight tomorrow, don't we? 6) 陈述部分的谓语是 used to 时,疑问部分用 didn't +主语或 usedn't +主语。 He used to take pictures there, didn't he? / usedn't he? 7) 陈述部分有 had better + v. 疑问句部分用 hadn't you?

You'd better read it by yourself, hadn't you? 8) 陈述部分有 would rather +v.,疑问部分多用 wouldn't +主语。 He would rather read it ten times than recite it, wouldn't he? 9) 陈述部分有 You'd like to +v. 疑问部分用 wouldn't +主语。 You'd like to go with me, wouldn't you? 10) 陈述部分有 must 的疑问句,疑问部分根据实际情况而定。 He must be a doctor, isn't he? You must have studied English for three years, haven't you? / didn't you? He must have finished it yesterday, didn't he? 11) 感叹句中,疑问部分用 be +主语。 What colours, aren't they? What a smell, isn't it? 12) 陈述部分由 neither? nor, either? or 连接的并列主语时,疑问部分根据其实际逻辑 意义而定。 Neither you nor I am engineer, are we? 13) 陈述部分主语是指示代词或不定代词 everything, that, nothing, this, 疑问部分主语用 it。 Everything is ready, isn't it? 14) 陈述部分为主语从句或并列复合句,疑问部分有三种情况: a. 并列复合句疑问部分,谓语动词根据邻近从句的谓语而定。 Mr. Smith had been to Beijing for several times, he should have been in China now, shouldn't he? b. 带有定语从句,宾语从句的主从复合句,疑问部分谓语根据主句的谓语而定: He is not the man who gave us a talk, is he? He said he wanted to visit Japan, didn't he? c. 上述部分主句谓语是 think, believe, expect, suppose, imagine 等引导的定语从句, 疑问部 分与宾语从句相对应构成反意疑问句。 I don't think he is bright, is he? We believe she can do it better, can't she? 15) 陈述部分主语是不定代词 everybody, anyone, somebody, nobody, no one 等,疑问部分常 用复数 they,有时也用单数 he。 Everyone knows the answer, don't they? (does he?) Nobody knows about it, do they? (does he?) 16) 带情态动词 dare 或 need 的反意疑问句,疑问部分常用 need (dare ) +主语。 We need not do it again, need we ? He dare not say so, dare you? 当 dare, need 为实义动词时,疑问部分用助动词 do + 主语。 She doesn't dare to go home alone, does she? 17) 省去主语的祈使句的反意疑问句,疑问部分用 will you。 Don't do that again, will you? Go with me, will you / won't you ?

注意: Let's 开头的祈使句,后用 shall we? Let us 开头的祈使句,后用 will you? Let's go and listen to the music, shall we? Let us wait for you in the reading-room, will you ? 18) 陈述部分是"there be"结构的,疑问部分用 there 省略主语代词。 There is something wrong with your watch, isn't there? There will not be any trouble, will there? 19) 否定前缀不能视为否定词,其反意疑问句仍用否定形式。 It is impossible, isn't it? He is not unkind to his classmates, is he? 20) must 在表"推测"时,根据其推测的情况来确定反意疑问句。 He must be there now, isn't he? It must be going to rain tomorrow, won't it?

快速记忆表 陈述部分的谓语 疑问部分 I aren't I Wish no,nothing,nobody,never, may +主语

few, seldom, hardly, 肯定含义 rarely, little 等否定 含义的词 ought to(肯定的) shouldn't/ oughtn't +主语 have to+v.(had to+v.) don't +主语(didn't +主语) used to didn't +主语或 usedn't +主语 had better + v. hadn't you would rather + v. wouldn't +主语 you'd like to + v. wouldn't +主语 must 根据实际情况而定 感叹句中 be +主语 Neither…nor, either?or 连接的根 据其实际逻辑意义而定 并列主语 指示代词或不定代词 everything,that, 主语用 it nothing,this 并列复合句 谓语根据邻近从句的谓语而定 定语从句,宾语从句的 主从复合句 根据主句的谓语而定 think,believe,expect, suppose,imagine 等引导 与宾语从句相对应的从句

everybody,anyone, somebody,nobody,no one 复数 they, 单数 he 情态动词 dare 或 need need (dare ) +主语 dare, need 为实义动词 do +主语 省去主语的祈使句 will you? Let's 开头的祈使句 Shall we? Let us 开头的祈使句 Will you? there be 相应的谓语动词+there(省略主语代词) 否定前缀不能视为否定词 仍用否定形式 must 表"推测" 根据其推测的情况来确定反意疑问句 14.1 倒装句之全部倒装 全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和 一般过去时。常见的结构有: 1) here, there, now, then, thus 等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run。 There goes the bell. Then came the chairman. Here is your letter. 2) 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。 Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. Ahead sat an old woman. 注意: 上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词, 如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。 Here he comes. Away they went. 14.2 倒装句之部分倒装 部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。 如果句中的谓语没有助动 词或情态动词,则需添加助动词 do, does 或 did,并将其置于主语之前。 1) 句首为否定或半否定的词语,如 no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until?等。 Never have I seen such a performance. Nowhere will you find the answer to this question. Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. 当 Not until 引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。 注意:如否定词不在句首不倒装。 I have never seen such a performance. The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep. 典型例题 1) Why can't I smoke here? At no time___ in the meeting-room A. is smoking permitted B. smoking is permitted

C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit 答案 A. 这是一个倒装问题。当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用倒装结 构。这些否定词包括 no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until 等。本题的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time. 2) Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is. A. man did know B. man know C. didn't man know D. did man know 答案 D. 看到 Not until?的句型,我们知道为一倒装句,答案在 C,D 中选一个。 改写为正常语序为,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现在将 not 提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否则意思就变了。 14.3 以否定词开头作部分倒装 如 Not only?but also, Hardly/Scarcely?when, No sooner? than Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender. Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her. No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her. 典型例题 No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily. A. the game began B. has the game begun C. did the game begin D. had the game begun 答案 D. 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句(谓语前置)。这类表示否定意 义的词有 never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及 not only?but (also), no sooner? than, hardly? when scarcely? when 等等。 注意:只有当 Not only? but also 连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于 句首的 Not only? but also 仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。 Not only you but also I am fond of music. 14.4 so, neither, nor 作部分倒装 表示"也"、"也不" 的句子要部分倒装。 Tom can speak French. So can Jack. If you won't go, neither will I. 典型例题 ---Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother? ---I don't know, _____. A. nor don't I care B. nor do I care C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also 答案: nor 为增补意思"也不关心", B. 因此句子应倒装。 错在用 don't 再次否定, C neither A 用法不对且缺乏连词。 D 缺乏连词。 注意:当 so 引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒装结构。意为"的确 如此"。 Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did.

---It's raining hard.

---So it is.

14.5 only 在句首要倒装的情况 Only in this way, can you learn English well. Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting. 如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装 Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed.

14.6 as, though 引导的倒装句 as / though 引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 (形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前) 。 注意: 1) 句首名词不能带任何冠词。 2) 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。 如果实义动词有宾语和状语, 随实义 动词一起放在主语之前。 Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. 注意: 让步状语从句中,有 though,although 时,后面的主句不能有 but,但是 though 和 yet 可连用。 14.7 其他部分倒装 1) so? that 句型中的 so 位于句首时,需倒装。 So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch. 2) 在某些表示祝愿的句型中: May you all be happy. 3) 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有 were, had, should 等词, 可将 if 省略, were, had, 把 should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。 Were I you, I would try it again. 典型例题: 1) Not until the early years of the 19th century___ what heat is A. man did know B. man knew C. didn't man know D. did man know 答案为 D. 否定词 Not 在句首,要求用部分倒装的句子结构。 2) Not until I began to work ___ how much time I had wasted. A. didn't I realize B. did I realize C. I didn't realize D. I realize 答案为 B。 3) Do you know Tom bought a new car?

I don't know, ___. A. nor don't I care B. nor do I care C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also 解析:答案为 B. 句中的 nor 引出部分倒装结构,表示"也不"。由 so, neither, nor 引导的 倒装句,表示前一情况的重复出现。其中, so 用于肯定句, 而 neither, nor 用在否定句中。 15. 主谓一致 主谓一致是指: 1)语法形式上要一致,即单复数形式与谓语要一致。 2)意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致。 3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最*近它的词语, 一般来说,不可数名词用动词单数,可数名词复数用动词复数。 There is much water in the thermos. 但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。 Ten thousand tons of coal were produced last year. 15.1 并列结构作主语时谓语用复数 Reading and writing are very important. 注意:当主语由 and 连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语 动词用单数,and 此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。 The iron and steel industry is very important to our life. 典型例题 The League secretary and monitor ___ asked to make a speech at the meeting. A. is B. was C. are D. were 答案 B. 注:先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除 A.,C.。本题易误 选 D,因为 The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人,但仔细辨别, monitor 前没有 the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用 and 相连。这 样本题主语为一个人,所以应选 B。 15.2 主谓一致中的*近原则 1)当 there be 句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。 There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk.. There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class. 2)当 either? or?与 neither? nor, 连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一 致。 如果句子是由 here, there 引导, 而主语又不止一个时, 谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。 Either you or she is to go. Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you. 15.3 谓语动词与前面的主语一致 当主语后面跟有 with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as 等词引起的短 语时,谓语动词与前面的主语一致。

The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory. He as well as I wants to go boating. 15.4 谓语需用单数 1)代词 each 和由 every, some, no, any 等构成的复合代词作主语,或主语中含有 each, every, 谓语需用单数。 Each of us has a tape-recorder. There is something wrong with my watch. 2)当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。 The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English. <<天方夜谭>>是英语爱好者熟悉的一本好书。 3)表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体, 谓语一般用单数。(用复数也可,意思不变。) Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations. 15.5 指代意义决定谓语的单复数 1) 在代词 what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all 等词的单复数由其指代的词的单 复数决定。 All is right. (一切顺利。) All are present. (所有人都到齐了。) 2)集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。如 family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee 等词后用复数形式时,意为这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时表 示该个集体。 His family isn't very large. 他家不是一个大家庭。 His family are music lovers. 他的家人都是音乐爱好者。 但集合名词 people, police, cattle, poultry 等在任何情况下都用复数形式。 Are there any police around? 3)有些名词,如 variety, number, population, proportion, majority 等有时看作单数,有时看 作复数。 A number of +名词复数+复数动词。 The number of +名词复数+单数动词。 A number of books have lent out. The majority of the students like English. 15.6 与后接名词或代词保持一致 1)用 half of, part of, most of, a portion of 等词引起主语时,动词通常与 of 后面的名词,代 词保持一致。 Most of his money is spent on books. Most of the students are taking an active part in sports.

2)在一些短语,如 many a 或 more than one 所修饰的词作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形 式。但由 more than? of 作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。 Many a person has read the novel. 许多人都读过这本书。 More than 60 percent of the students are from the city.百分之六十多的学生都来自这个城 市。 16. 虚拟语气 1)概念 虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或与 事实相反。 2)在条件句中的应用 条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句,一类为非真实条件句。非真实条件句表示的是 假设的或实际可能性不大的情况,故采用虚拟语气。 16.1 真实条件句 真实条件句用于陈述语气,假设的情况可能发生,其中 if 是如果的意思。 时态关系 句型:条件从句 主句 一般现在时 shall/will + 动词原形 If he comes, he will bring his violin. 典型例题 The volleyball match will be put off if it ___. A. will rain B. rains C. rained D. is rained 答案 B。真实条件句主句为将来时,从句用一般现在时。 注意: 1)在真实条件句中,主句不能用 be going to 表示将来,该用 shall, will. (错) If you leave now, you are never going to regret it. (对) If you leave now, you will never regret it. 2)表示真理时,主句谓语动词便不用 shall (will) +动词原形,而直接用一般现在时的动词 形式。 16.2 非真实条件句 1)时态:可以表示过去,现在和将来的情况。它的基本特点是时态退后。 a. 同现在事实相反的假设。 句型:条件从句 主句 一般过去时 should( would) +动词原形 If they were here, they would help you. b. 表示于过去事实相反的假设。 句型:条件从句 主句 过去完成时 should(would) have+ 过去分词

If she had worked harder, she would have succeeded. The rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful. If my lawyer had been here last Saturday, he would have prevented me from going. If he had come yesterday, I should / would have told him about it. 含义:He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it. If he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress. 含义: He was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress. c. 表示对将来的假想 句型: 条件从句 主句 一般过去时 should+ 动词原形 were+ 不定式 would + 动词原形 should+ 动词原形 If you succeeded, everything would be all right. If you should succeed, everything would be all right. If you were to succeed, everything would be all right. 16.3 混合条件句 主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间, 这时主, 从句谓语动词的虚拟语气形式因时间不同 而不同,这叫做混合条件句。 If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now. (从句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实相反。 ) If it had rained last night (过去), it would be very cold today (现在). 16.4 虚拟条件句的倒装 虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有 were, should, 或 had, 可将 if 省略,再把 were, should 或 had 移到从句句首,实行倒装。 Were they here now, they could help us. =If they were here now, they could help us. Had you come earlier, you would have met him =If you had come earlier, you would have met him. Should it rain, the crops would be saved. =Were it to rain, the crops would be saved. 注意: 在虚拟语气的从句中,动词'be'的过去时态一律用"were",不用 was,即在从句中 be 用 were 代替。 If I were you, I would go to look for him. 如果我是你,就会去找他。 If he were here, everything would be all right. 如果他在这儿,一切都会好的。 典型例题

_____ to do the work, I should do it some other day. A. If were I B. I were C. Were I D. Was I 答案 C. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有 were, should, had 这三个词,通常将 if 省略,主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意,在虚拟条件状语从句中,省略连词的倒装 形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。 如我们可说 Were I not to do., 而不能说 Weren't I to do. 16.5 特殊的虚拟语气词:should 1) It is demanded / necessary / a pity + that?结构中的主语从句的谓语动词要用 should 加 动词原形, should 可省略。 句型: (1)suggested It is (2)important (3) a pity that?+ (should) do

(1)suggested, ordered, proposed, required, demanded, requested, insisted; + (should) do (2)important, necessary, natural, strange a pity, a shame, no wonder (3)It is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week. It is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow. 2)在宾语从句中的应用 在表示命令、建议、要求等一类动词后面的从句中。 order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week. He insisted that he (should ) be sent there. 注意: suggest, insist 不表示"建议" 或"坚持要某人做某事时", 如 即它们用于其本意"暗示、 表明"、"坚持认为"时,宾语从句用陈述语气。 The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules. 判断改错: (错) You pale face suggests that you (should) be ill. (对) Your pale face suggests that you are ill. (错) I insisted that you ( should) be wrong. (对) I insisted that you were wrong. 3)在表语从句,同位语从句中的应用 在 suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice 等名词后面的表语从句、 同位语从句中要 用虚拟语气,即(should)+动词原形。 My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference. I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

16.6 wish 的用法 1)用于 wish 后面的从句,表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望。其宾 语从句的动词形式为: 真实状况 wish 后 现在时 过去时

从句动作先于主句动词动作 (be 的过去式为 were) 从句动作与主句动作同时发生 过去时 过去完成时 (had + 过去分词) 将来不大可能实现的愿望 将来时 would/could + 动词原形 I wish I were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高。 He wished he hadn't said that. 他希望他没讲那样的话。 I wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。 2)Wish to do 表达法。 Wish sb / sth to do I wish to see the manager. = I want to see the manager. I wish the manager to be informed at once. (= I want the manager to be informed at once.) 16.7 比较 if only 与 only if only if 表示"只有";if only 则表示"如果??就好了"。If only 也可用于陈述语气。 I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了,我才会醒。 If only the alarm clock had rung. 当时闹钟响了,就好了。 If only he comes early. 但愿他早点回来。

16.8 It is (high) time that It is (high) time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用 should 加动词原形,但 should 不可省略。 It is time that the children went to bed. It is high time that the children should go to bed. 16.9 need "不必做"和"本不该做" didn't need to do 表示:过去不必做某事, 事实上也没做。. needn't have done 表示:过去不必做某事, 但事实上做了。 John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she didn't need to walk back home. 约 翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她不必步行回家了。 John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she needn't have walked back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽, 所以她本不必步行回家了。 (Mary 步行回家, 没有遇上 John 的车。 ) 典型例题

There was plenty of time. She ___. A. mustn't have hurried B. couldn't have hurried hurried

C. must not hurry

D. needn't have

答案 D。needn't have done. 意为"本不必",即已经做了某事,而时实际上不必要。 Mustn't have done 用法不正确, 对过去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为 couldn't have done, "不可能已经"。 must not do 不可以(用于一般现在时) 。 17. 名词性从句 在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从句 (Noun Clauses) 名词从句的功能相当于名词词 。 组, 它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同 的语法功能,名词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

17.1 引导名词性从句的连接词 引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类: 连接词:that,whether,if 不充当从句的任何成分) 连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which. 连接副词:when, where, how, why 不可省略的连词: 1. 介词后的连词 2. 引导主语从句和同位语从句的连词不可省略。 That she was chosen made us very happy. We heard the news that our team had won. 比较:whether 与 if 均为"是否"的意思。但在下列情况下,whether 不能被 if 取代: 1. whether 引导主语从句并在句首 2. 引导表语从句 3. whether 从句作介词宾语 4. 从句后有"or not" Whether he will come is not clear. 大部分连接词引导的主语从句都可以置于句末,用 it 充当形式主语。 It is not important who will go. It is still unknown which team will win the match. 17.2 名词性 that-从句 1)由从属连词 that 引导的从句叫做名词性 that-从句。 That 只起连接主句和从句的作用, 在从句中不担任任何成分,本身也没有词义。名词性 that-从句在句中能充当主语、宾语、 表语、同位语和形容词宾语,例如: 主语:That he is still alive is sheer luck. 他还活着全*运气。 宾语: John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 约翰说他星期三要到伦敦去。 表语:The fact is that he has not been seen recently. 事实是近来谁也没有见过他。 同位语:The fact that he has not been seen recently disturbs everyone in his office. 近来谁也没有见过他,这一事实令办公室所有的人不安。

形容词宾语:I am glad that you are satisfied with your job. 你对工作满意我感到很高兴。 2)That-从句作主语通常用 it 作先行词,而将 that-从句置于句末,例如: It is quite clear that the whole project is doomed to failure. 很清楚, 整个计划注定要失败。 It's a pity that you should have to leave. 你非走不可真是件憾事。 用 it 作形式主语的 that-从句有以下四种不同的搭配关系: a. It + be +形容词+ that-从句 It is necessary that? 有必要?? It is important that? 重要的是?? It is obvious that? 很明显?? b. It + be + -ed 分词+ that-从句 It is believed that? It is known to all that? It has been decided that?

人们相信?? 从所周知?? 已决定??

c. It + be +名词+ that-从句 It is common knowledge that? ??是常识 It is a surprise that? 令人惊奇的是?? It is a fact that? 事实是?? d. It +不及物动词+ that-分句 It appears that? It happens that? It occurred to me that?

似乎?? 碰巧?? 我突然想起??

17.3 名词性 wh-从句 1)由 wh-词引导的名词从句叫做名词性 wh-从句。Wh-词包括 who, whom,. whose, whoever, what, whatever, which, whichever 等连接代词和 where, when, how, why 等连接副词。 Wh-从句 的语法功能除了和 that-从句一样外,还可充当介词宾语、宾语补语和间接宾语等,例如: 主语: How the book will sell depends on its author. 书销售如何取决于作者本人。 直接宾语:In one's own home one can do what one likes. 间接宾语:The club will give whoever wins a prize. 俱乐部将给得胜者设奖。 表语: My question is who will take over president of the Foundation. 基金会主席职位。 我的问题是谁将接任该 在自己家里可以随心所欲。

宾语补足语:She will name him whatever she wants to. 她高兴给他起什么名字就取什么名字。

同位语: I have no idea when he will return. 我不知道他什么时候回来。 形容词宾语:I'm not sure why she refused their invitation. 我尚不能肯定她为什么拒绝他们 的邀请。 介词宾语: That depends on where we shall go. 那取决于我们去哪儿。 2)Wh-从句作主语也常用先行词 it 做形式主语,而将 wh-从句置于句末,例如: It is not yet decided who will do that job. 还没决定谁做这项工作。 It remains unknown when they are going to get married. 他们何时结婚依然不明。

17.4 if, whether 引导的名词从句 1)yes-no 型疑问从句 从属连词 if, whether 引导的名词从句是由一般疑问句或选择疑问转化而来的, 因此也分 别被称为 yes-no 型疑问句从句和选择型疑问从句,其功能和 wh-从句的功能相同,例如: 主语:Whether the plan is feasible remains to be proved. 这一计划是否可行还有等证实。 宾语: us know whether / if you can finish the article before Friday. 请让我们知道你是否 Let 能在星期五以前把文章写完。 表语:The point is whether we should lend him the money. 他。 问题在于我们是否应该借钱给

同位语:They are investigating the question whether the man is trustworthy. 否值得信赖。 形容词宾语: She's doubtful whether we shall be able to come.

他们调查他是

她怀疑我们是否能够前来。 我担心他

介词宾语: I worry about whether he can pass through the crisis of his illness. 是否能度过疾病的危险期。

2)选择性疑问从句 选择性疑问从句由关联词 if/whether?or 或 whethe?or not 构成,例如: Please tell me whether / if they are Swedish or Danish. 请告诉我他们是瑞典人还是丹麦人。 I don't care whether you like the plan or not.我不在乎你是否喜欢该计划。 17.5 否定转移 1) 将 think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine 等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到主句 中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。 I don't think I know you. 我想我并不认识你。

I don' t believe he will come. 我相信他不回来。 注意:若谓语动词为 hope,宾语从句中的否定词不能转移。 I hope you weren't ill. 我想你没有生病吧。 2) 将 seem, appear 等后的从句的否定转移到前面。 It doesn't seem that they know where to go. 看来他们不知道往哪去。 It doesn't appear that we'll have a sunny day tomorrow. 看来我们明天不会碰上好天气。 3) 有时将动名词,介词短语或整个从句的否定转变为对谓语动词的否定。 I don't remember having ever seen such a man. 我记得从未见过这样一个人。 (not 否定动名词短语 having?) It's not a place where anyone would expect to see strange characters on the street. 在这里,人们不会想到在街上会碰上陌生的人。 (anyone 作主语,从句中的谓语动词不能用否定形式。) 4) 有时状语或状语从句中否定可以转移到谓语动词前。 The ant is not gathering this for itself alone. (否定状语) 蚂蚁不只是为自己采食。 He was not ready to believe something just because Aristotle said so. (否定 because 状语) 他 并不因亚里斯多德说过如何如何,就轻信此事。 She had not been married many weeks when that man's younger brother saw her and was struck by her beauty. (否定状语 many weeks) 她结婚还不到几个月,这个人的弟弟就看见 她了,并对她的美貌着了迷。 18. 定语从句 定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词, 词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词) 引出。 关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which 等。 关系副词有:when, where, why 等。

18.1 关系代词引导的定语从句 关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成 分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。 1)who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下: Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that 在从句中作主语) He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。 (whom/that 在从句中作宾语)

2) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同 of which 互换), 例如: They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过 去帮忙。 Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。 3)which, that 它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如: A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现 了前所未有的繁荣。 (which / that 在句中作宾语) The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。 (which / that 在句中作宾语) 18.2 关系副词引导的定语从句 关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。 1)when, where, why 关系副词 when, where, why 的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which" 结构交替使用,例如: There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。 Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。 Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由 吗? 2)that 代替关系副词 that 可以用于表示时间、 地点、 方式、 理由的名词后取代 when, where, why 和"介词+ which" 引导的定语从句,在口语中 that 常被省略,例如: His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。 He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能 找到他四十年前居住过的地方。 18.3 判断关系代词与关系副词 方法一: 用关系代词, 还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。 及物动词后面无宾语, 就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如: This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you. 判断改错(注:先显示题,再显示答案,横线;用不同的颜色表示出。 ) (错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year. (错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. (对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. (对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when 联系在一起。此两题错在关 系词的误用上。

方法二:准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关 系代词/关系副词。 例 1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 例 2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held. A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 答案:例 1 D,例 2 A 例 1 变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago. 例 2 变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held. 在句 1 中,所缺部分为宾语,而 where, that, on which 都不能起到宾语的作用,只有 the one 既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选 D。 而句 2 中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词 where,又因 in the museum 词组,可用介词 in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词 on 用的不对,所 以选 A。 关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系 代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose);先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。 18.4 限制性和非限制性定语从句 1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它 主句意思往往不明确; 非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明, 去掉了也不会影响主句的意 思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如: This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。 (限制性) The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买 的。 (非限制性) 2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性 的,例如: Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理?史密斯去年退休了, 他曾经是我的老师。 My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的的那幢房子带 着个漂亮的花园。 This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读 了三遍。 3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用 第三人称单数,例如: He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我 的意思,这使我心烦。 Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做 蒸发。

说明:关系代词 that 和关系副词 why 不能引导非限制性定语从句。 18.5 介词+关系词 1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。 2)that 前不能有介词。 3)某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词 when 和 where 互换。 This is the house in which I lived two years ago. This is the house where I lived two years ago. Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? Do you remember the day when you joined our club? 18.6 as, which 非限定性定语从句 由 as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as 和 which 可代整个主句,相当于 and this 或 and that。As 一般放在句首,which 在句中。 As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. 典型例题 1)Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise. A. it B. that C. which D. he 答案 C. 此为非限定性从句, 不能用 that 修饰, 而用 which., 和 he 都使后句成为句子, it 两个独立的句子不能单以逗号连接。况且选 he 句意不通。 2)The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it 答案 B。which 可代替句子,用于非限定性定语从句,而 what 不可。That 不能用于非限 定性定语从句,it 不为连词,使由逗号连接的两个句子并在一起在英语语法上行不通。 3)It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park.. A. that B. which C. as D. it 答案 B. as 和 which 在引导非限制性定语从句时, 这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思, 且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点: (1) as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而 which 不可。 (2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行 为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用 which.。 在本题中,prevent 由于是行为动词,所以正确选项应为 B。 As 的用法 例 1. the same? as;such?as 中的 as 是一种固定结构, 和??一样??。 I have got into the same trouble as he (has). 例 2. as 可引导非限制性从句,常带有'正如'。 As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.

As is know, smoking is harmful to one's health. As 是关系代词。 1 中的 as 作 know 的宾语; 2 中, 例 例 它充当从句的主语, 谓语动词 know 要用被动式。 18.8 what/whatever;that/what; who/whoever 1)what = the thing which;whatever = anything What you want has been sent here. Whatever you want makes no difference to me. 2) who= the person that whoever= anyone who (错)Who breaks the law will be punished. (错)Whoever robbed the bank is not clear. (对)Whoever breaks the law will be punished. (对)Who robbed the bank is not clear. 3) that 和 what 当 that 引导定语从句时,通常用作关系代词,而引导名词性从句时,是个不充当任何 成分的连接词。宾语从句和表语从句中的 that 常可省略。What 只能引导名词性从 句,用 作连接代词,作从句的具体成分,且不能省略。 I think (that) you will like the stamps. What we need is more practice. 18.9 关系代词 that 的用法 1)不用 that 的情况 a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时。 (错) The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here. b) 介词后不能用。 We depend on the land from which we get our food. We depend on the land that/which we get our food from. 2) 只能用 that 作为定语从句的关系代词的情况 a) 在 there be 句型中,只用 that,不用 which。 b) 在不定代词, anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little 等作先行词时, 如: 只用 that,不用 which。 c) 先行词有 the only, the very 修饰时,只用 that。 d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用 that。. e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。 举例: All that is needed is a supply of oil. 所需的只是供油问题。 Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察 19.1 地点状语从句 地点状语从句通常由 where, wherever 引导。

Where I live there are plenty of trees. 我住的地方树很多。 Wherever I am I will be thinking of you. 不管我在哪里我都会想到你。 19.2 方式状语从句 方式状语从句通常由 as, (just) as?so?, as if, as though 引导。 1) as, (just) as?so?引导的方式状语从句通常位于主句后,但在(just) as?so?结构中位于 句首,这时 as 从句带有比喻的含义,意思是"正如?","就像",多用于正式文体,例如: Always do to the others as you would be done by. 你希望人家怎样待你,你就要怎样待人。 As water is to fish, so air is to man. 我们离不开空气,犹如鱼儿离不开水。 Just as we sweep our rooms, so we should sweep backward ideas from our minds. 正如打扫房屋一样,我们也要扫除我们头脑中落后的东西。 2) as if, as though 两者的意义和用法相同,引出的状语从句谓语多用虚拟语气,表示与事实相反,有时也用 陈述语气, 表示所说情况是事实或实现的可能性较大。 汉译常作"仿佛??似的", "好像?? 似的",例如: They completely ignore these facts as if (as though) they never existed. 他们完全忽略了这些事实,就仿佛它不存在似的。 (与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。 ) He looks as if (as though) he had been hit by lighting. 他那样子就像被雷击了似的。 (与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。 ) It looks as if the weather may pick up very soon. 看来天气很快就会好起来。 (实现的可能性较大,谓语用陈述语气。 ) 说明:as if / as though 也可以引导一个分词短语、不定式短语或无动词短语,例如: He stared at me as if seeing me for first time. 他目不转睛地看着我,就像第一次看见我似的。 He cleared his throat as if to say something. 他清了清嗓子,像要说什么似的。 The waves dashed on the rocks as if in anger. 波涛冲击着岩石,好像很愤怒。

19.3 原因状语从句 比较:because, since, as 和 for 1) because 语势最强,用来说明人所不知的原因,回答 why 提出的问题。当原因是显而 易见的或已为人们所知,就用 as 或 since。 I didn't go, because I was afraid. Since /As the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey. 2) 由 because 引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗号,则可以用 for 来代替。但如果不 是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用 for。 He is absent today, because / for he is ill. He must be ill, for he is absent today. 19.4 目的状语从句 表示目的状语的从句可以由 that, so that, in order that, lest, for fear that, in case 等词引导, 例如: You must speak louder so that /in order that you can be heard by all. He wrote the name down for fear that(lest) he should forget it. Better take more clothes in case the weather is cold. 19.5 结果状语从句 结果状语从句常由 so? that 或 such?that 引导,掌握这两个句型,首先要了解 so 和 such 与其后的词的搭配规律。 比较:so 和 such 其规律由 so 与 such 的不同词性决定。 such 是形容词, 修饰名词或名词词组, 是副词, so 只能修饰形容词或副词。 so 还可与表示数量的形容词 many, few, much, little 连用,形成固 定搭配。 so foolish such a fool so nice a flower such a nice flower so many / few flowers such nice flowers so much / little money. such rapid progress so many people such a lot of people ( so many 已成固定搭配,a lot of 虽相当于 many,但 a lot of 为名词性的,只能用 such 搭配。 ) so?that 与 such?that 之间的转换既为 so 与 such 之间的转换。 The boy is so young that he can't go to school. He is such a young boy that he can't go to school 19.6 条件状语从句 连接词主要有 if, unless, as/so long as, on condition that 等。.

if 引导的条件句有真实条件句和非真实条件句两种。 非真实条件句已在虚拟语气中阐述。 unless = if not. Let's go out for a walk unless you are too tired. If you are not too tied, let's go out for a walk. 典型例题 You will be late ___ you leave immediately. A. unless B. until C. if D. or 答案 A。 句意: 除非你立即走, 否则你就回迟到的。 可转化为 If you dong leave immediately, you will be late. B、 句意不对, 表转折, D or 句子如为 You leave immediately or you will be late. 19.7 让步状语从句 though, although 注意:当有 though, although 时,后面的从句不能有 but,但是 though 和 yet 可连用 Although it's raining, they are still working in the field. 虽然在下雨,但他们仍在地里干活。 He is very old, but he still works very hard. 虽然他很老,但仍然努力地工作。 Though the sore be healed, yet a scar may remain. 伤口虽愈合,但伤疤留下了。 (谚语) 典型例题 1) ___she is young, she knows quite a lot. A. When B. However C. Although D. Unless 答案:C。意为虽然她很年轻,却知道许多。 2) as, though 引导的倒装句 as / though 引导的让步从句必须表语或状语提前 (形容词、 副词、 分词、 实义动词提前) 。 Child as /though he was, he knew what was the right thing to do. = Though he was a small child, he knew what was the right thing to do. 注意: a. 句首名词不能带任何冠词。 b. 句首是实义动词,其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实 义动词一起放在主语之前。 Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. = Though he tries hard, he never seems? 虽然他尽了努力,但他的工作总做的不尽人意。 3) ever if, even though. 即使 We'll make a trip even though the weather is bad. 4) whether?or- 不管??都 Whether you believe it or not, it is true.

5) "no matter +疑问词" 或"疑问词+后缀 ever" No matter what happened, he would not mind. Whatever happened, he would not mind. 替换:no matter what = whatever no matter who = whoever no matter when = whenever no matter where = wherever no matter which = whichever no matter how = however 注意:no matter 不能引导主语从句和宾语从句。 (错)No matter what you say is of no use now. (对)Whatever you say is of no use now. 你现在说什么也没用了。(Whatever you say 是主语从句) (错)Prisoners have to eat no matter what they're given, (对)Prisoners have to eat whatever they're given. 囚犯们只能给什么吃什么。 19.8 比较 while, when, as 1)as, when 引导短暂性动作的动词。 Just as / Just when / When I stopped my car, a man came up to me. 2)当从句的动作发生于主句动作之前,只能用 when 引导这个从句,不可用 as 或 while。 When you have finished your work, you may have a rest. 3)从句表示"随时间推移"连词能用 as,不用 when 或 while。 As the day went on, the weather got worse. 日子一天天过去,天气越变越坏。

19.9 比较 until 和 till 此两个连词意义相同。 肯定形式表示的意思是"做某事直至某时", 动词必须是延续性的。 否定形式表达的意思是"直至某时才做某事"。动词为延续性或非延续性都可 以。正确使用 这两个连词的关键之一就在于判断句中的动词该用肯定式还是否定式。 肯定句: I slept until midnight. 我一直睡到半夜时醒了。 Wait till I call you. 等着我叫你。 (在肯定句中可用 before 代替 Let's get in the wheat before the sun sets.) 否定句: She didn't arrive until 6 o'clock. 她直到 6 点才到。 Don't get off the bus until it has stopped. 公共汽车停稳后再下车。 I didn't manage to do it until you had explained how. 直到你教我后,我才会做。

1)Until 可用于句首,而 till 通常不用于句首。 Until you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened. 直到你告诉我以前,出了什么事我一点也不知道。 2)Until when 疑问句中,until 要放在句首。 ---Until when are you staying? 你呆到什么时候? --- Until next Monday. 呆到下周一。 注意:否定句可用另外两种句式表示。 (1)Not until ?在句首,主句用倒装。 Not until the early years of the 19th century did man know what heat is. 直到 19 世纪初,人类才知道热能是什么。 Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted. 直到我开始工作,我才认识到了我已蹉跎了几多岁月。 (2) It is not until? that? 19.10 表示"一?就?"的结构 hardly/scarcely?when/before, no sooner?than 和 as soon as 都可以表示"一?就?"的意 思,例: I had hardly / scarcely got home when it began to rain. I had no sooner got home than it began to rain. As soon as I got home, it began to rain. 注意:如果 hardly, scarcely 或 no sooner 置于句首,句子必须用倒装结构: Hardly / Scarcely had I got home when it began to rain. No sooner had I got home than it began to rain. 20. 连词 连词是一种虚词, 它不能独立担任句子成分而只起连接词与词, 短语与短语以及句与句 的作用。连词主要可分为两类:并列连词和从属连词。并列连词用来连接平行的词、词组和 分句。如:and, but, or, nor, so, therefore, yet, however, for, hence, as well as, both?and, not only?but also, either?or, neither?nor, (and)then 等等。 20.1 并列连词与并列结构 并列连词引导两个并列的句子。 1) and 与 or 判断改错: (错) They sat down and talk about something. (错) They started to dance and sang. (错) I saw two men sitting behind and whisper there. (对) They sat down and talked about something. (对) They started to dance and sing. (对)I saw two men sitting behind and whispering there.

解析: 第一句: and 连接两个并列的谓语,所以 talk 应改为 talked。 第二句:and 连接两个并列的动词不定式,第二个不定式往往省略 to,因此 sang 应改为 sing。 第三句:and 连接感观动词 saw 后面的用作的宾补的两个并列分词结构,因此 whisper 应改为 whispering。 注意:and 还可以和祈使句或名词词组连用表示条件。 (or 也有此用法) Make up your mind, and you'll get the chance. = If you make up your mind, you'll get the chance. One more effort, and you'll succeed. = If you make one more effort, you'll succeed. 2) both ?and 两者都 She plays (both) the piano and the guitar. 3) not only?but (also), as well as 不但?而且) She plays not only the piano, but (also) the guitar. 注意: not only? but also 关联两个分句时,一个分句因有否定词 not 而必须倒装。 Not only does he like reading stories, but also he can even write some. 4) neithe?nor 意思为"既不??也不??"谓语动词采用就近原则, nor 后的词保持一 与 致。 Neither you nor he is to blame. 20.2 比较 and 和 or 1) 并列结构中,or 通常用于否定句,and 用于肯定句。 2) 但有时 and 也可用于否定句。请注意其不同特点: There is no air or water in the moon. There is no air and no water on the moon. 在否定中并列结构用 or 连接,但含有两个否定词的句子实际被看作是肯定结构,因此要 用 and。 典型例题 ---I don't like chicken ___ fish. ---I don't like chicken, ___ I like fish very much. A. and; and B. and; but C. or; but D. or;and 答案 C。否定句中表并列用 or, but 表转折。 判断改错: (错) We will die without air and water. (错) We can't live without air or water.

(对) We will die without air or water. (对) We can't live without air and water. 20.3 表示选择的并列结构 1) or 意思为"否则"。 I must work hard, or I'll fail in the exam. 2) either?or 意思为"或者??或者??"。注意谓语动词采用就近原则。 Either you or I am right.

20.4 表示转折或对比 1) but 表示转折,while 表示对比。 Some people love cats, while others hate them. 典型例题 --- Would you like to come to dinner tonight? --- I'd like to, ___ I'm too busy. A. and B. so C. as D. but 答案 D。but 与前面形成转折,符合语意。而表并列的 and,结果的 so,原因的 as 都不符 合句意。 2) not?but?意思为"不是??而是??" not 和 but 后面的用词要遵循一致原则。 They were not the bones of an animal, but (the bones) of a human being. 20.5 表原因关系 1) for 判断改错: (错) For he is ill, he is absent today. (对) He is absent today, for he is ill. for 是并列连词,不能置于含两个并列分句的句子的句首,只能将其放在两个分句中间。 2) so, therefore He hurt his leg, so he couldn't play in the game. 注意: a. 两个并列连词不能连用,但 therefore, then, yet.可以和并列连词连用。 You can watch TV, and or you can go to bed. He hurt his leg, and so / and therefore he couldn't play in the game. b. although? yet?,但 although 不与 but 连用。 (错) Although he was weak, but he tried his best to do the work..

(对) Although he was weak, yet he tried his best to do the work.

20.6 比较 so 和 such 其规律由 so 与 such 的不同词性决定。 such 是形容词, 修饰名词或名词词组, 是副词, so 只能修饰形容词或副 词。so 还可与表示数量的形容词 many,few,much, little 连用,形成固定搭配。 so + adj. so + adj. + a(n) + n. so + adj. + n. (pl.) so + adj. + n. [不可数] so foolish so nice a flower so many/ few flowers so much/little money. so many people such + a(n) + n. such + n. (pl.) such +n. (pl.) such +n. [不可数] such a fool such a nice flower such nice flowers such rapid progress such a lot of people

so many 已成固定搭配,a lot of 虽相当于 many,但 a lot of 为名词性的,只能用 such 搭配。 so?that 与 such?that 之间的转换既为 so 与 such 之间的转换。 21.1 情态动词的语法特征 1)情态动词不能表示正在发生或已经发生的事情,只表示期待或估计某事的发生。 2)情态动词除 ought 和 have 外,后面只能接不带 to 的不定式。 3)情态动词没有人称,数的变化,即情态动词第三人称单数不加-s。 4)情态动词没有非谓语形式,即没有不定式,分词,等形式。

21.2 比较 can 和 be able to 1)can could 表示能力;可能 (过去时用 could), 只用于现在式和过去式(could)。be able to 可以用于各种时态。 They will be able to tell you the news soon. 他很快就能告诉你消息了。 2)只用 be able to a. 位于助动词后。 b. 情态动词后。 c. 表示过去某时刻动作时。 d. 用于句首表示条件。 e. 表示成功地做了某事时,只能用 was/were able to,不能用 could。 He was able to flee Europe before the war broke out. = He managed to flee Europe before the war broke out.

注意:could 不表示时态 1)提出委婉的请求, (注意在回答中不可用 could) 。 --- Could I have the television on? --- Yes, you can. / No, you can't. 2)在否定,疑问句中表示推测或怀疑。 He couldn't be a bad man. 他不大可能是坏人。 21.3 比较 may 和 might 1)表示允许或请求;表示没有把握的推测;may 放在句首,表示祝愿。 May God bless you! He might be at home. 注意: might 表示推测时,不表示时态。只是可能性比 may 小。 2)成语: may/might as well,后面接不带 to 的不定式,意为"不妨"。 If that is the case, we may as well try. 典型例题 Peter ___come with us tonight, but he isn't very sure yet. A. must B. may C. can D. will 答案 B. 表可能性只能用 may. 此句意可从后半句推出。

21.4 比较 have to 和 must 1) 两词都是'必须'的意思,have to 表示客观的需要, must 表示说话人主观上的看法,既 主观上的必要。 My brother was very ill, so I had to call the doctor in the middle of the night. 我弟弟病得 很厉害,我只得半夜里把医生请来。(客观上需要做这件事) He said that they must work hard. 他说他们必须努力工作。 (主观上要做这件事) 2) have to 有人称、数、时态的变化,而 must 只有一种形式。但 must 可用于间接引语中 表示过去的必要或义务。 He had to look after his sister yesterday. 3)在否定结构中: don't have to 表示"不必" mustn't 表示"禁止", You don't have to tell him about it. 你不一定要把此事告诉他。 You mustn't tell him about it. 你一定不要把这件事告诉他。 21.5 must 表示推测 1) must 用在肯定句中表示较有把握的推测,意为"一定"。

2) must 表对现在的状态或现在正发生的事情的推测时, must 后面通常接系动词 be 的 原形或行为动词的进行式。 You have worked hard all day.You must be tired. 你辛苦干一整天,一定累了。 (对现在 情况的推测判断) He must be working in his office. 他一定在办公室工作呢。 比较: He must be staying there. 他现在肯定呆在那里。 He must stay there. 他必须呆在那。 3) must 表示对已发生的事情的推测时,must 要接完成式。 I didn't hear the phone. I must have been asleep. 我刚才没有听到电话,我想必是睡着 了。 4) must 表示对过去某时正发生的事情的推测,must 后面要接不定式的完成进行式。 ---Why didn't you answer my phone call? ---Well, I must have been sleeping, so I didn't hear it. 5) 否定推测用 can't。 If Tom didn't leave here until five o'clock, he can't be home yet. 儿,他此时一定还未到家。 21.6 表示推测的用法 can, could, may, might, must 皆可表示推测,其用法如下: 1)情态动词+动词原形。 表示对现在或将来的情况的推测,此时动词通常为系动词。 I don't know where she is, she may be in Wuhan. 2)情态动词+动词现在进行时。 表示对现在或将来正在进行的情况进行推测。 At this moment, our teacher must be correcting our exam papers. 这时,我们老师想必在批改试卷。 3)情态动词+动词完成时。 表示对过去情况的推测。 We would have finished this work by the end of next December. 明年十二月底前我们很可能已完成这项工作了。 The road is wet. It must have rained last night. 地是湿的,昨天晚上一定下雨了。 4)情态动词+动词的现在完成进行时。 表示对过去正在发生事情的推测。 Your mother must have been looking for you.

如果汤姆五点才离开这

你妈妈一定一直在找你。 5)推测的否定形式,疑问形式用 can't, couldn't 表示。 Mike can't have found his car, for he came to work by bus this morning. 迈克一定还没有找回他的车,因为早上他是坐公共汽车来上班的。 注意:could, might 表示推测时不表示时态,其推测的程度不如 can, may。 21.7 情态动词+ have +过去分词 1) may(might) have + done sth, can (could) have + done sth 表示过去, 推测过去时间里可能发 生的事情。 Philip may (might) have been hurt seriously in the car accident. Philip can (could) have been hurt seriously in the car accident. 2) must have +done sth,对过去时间里可能发生的事情的推测,语气较强,具有"肯定"," 谅必"的意思。 ---Linda has gone to work, but her bicycle is still here. ---She must have gone by bus. 3) ought to have done sth, should have done sth 本应该做某事,而事实上并没有做。否定句表示"不该做某事而做了"。 You ought to (should) have been more careful in this experiment. He ought not to have thrown the old clothes away.(事实上已扔了。 ) ought to 在语气上比 should 要强。 4) needn't have done sth 本没必要做某事 I dressed very warmly for the trip, but I needn't have done so. The weather was hot. 5) would like to have done sth 本打算做某事 I would like to have read the article, but I was very busy then. 21.8 should 和 ought to should 和 ought to 都为"应该"的意思,可用于各种人称。 ---Ought he to go? ---Yes. I think he ought to. 表示要求,命令时,语气由 should(应该) 、had better 最好) 、must(必须)渐强。

21.9 had better 表示"最好" had better 相当于一个助动词,它只有一种形式,它后面要跟动词原形。 had better do sth had better not do sth It is pretty cold. You'd better put on my coat.

She'd better not play with the dog. had better have done sth 表示与事实相反的结果,意为"本来最好"。 You had better have come earlier.

21.10 would rather 表示"宁愿" would rather do would rather not do would rather? than? 宁愿??而不愿。 还有 would sooner, had rather, had sooner 都表示"宁愿"、"宁可"的意思。 If I have a choice, I had sooner not continue my studies at this school. I would rather stay here than go home. = I would stay here rather than go home.

典型例题 ----Shall we go skating or stay at home? ----Which ___ do? A. do you rather B. would you rather

C. will you rather

D. should you rather

答案 B。 本题考查情态动词 rather 的用法, would rather +do sth 意为"宁愿", 本题为疑问句, would 提前,所以选 B。 21.11 will 和 would 注意: 1)would like; Would like to do = want to 想要,为固定搭配。 Would you like to go with me? 2) you?? Would you like?? 表示肯定含义的请求劝说时, Will 疑问句中一般用 some, 而 不是 any。 Would you like some cake? 3)否定结构中用 will,一般不用 would, won't you 是一种委婉语气。 Won't you sit down?

21.12 情态动词的回答方式 问句 肯定回答 Need you?? Yes, I must. Must you??

否定回答 No,I needn't /don't have to.

典型例题 1)---Could I borrow your dictionary?

---Yes, of course, you____. A. might B. will C. can

D. should

答案 C.could 表示委婉的语气,并不为时态。答语中 of course,表示肯定的语气,允许某 人做某事时,用 can 和 may 来表达,不能用 could 或 might。复习: will 与 you 连用,用 来提出要求或下命令。should 与 you 连用,用来提出劝告。 2)---Shall I tell John about it? ---No, you ___. I've told him already. A. needn't B. wouldn't C. mustn't

D. shouldn't

答案 A。needn't 不必,不用。 wouldn't 将不, 不会的。 mustn't 禁止、不能。 shouldn't 不应该。本题为不需要,不必的意思,应用 needn't。 3)---Don't forget to come to my birthday party tomorrow. ---______. A. I don't B. I won't C. I can't D. I haven't 答案 B. will 既可当作情态动词,表请求、建议、也可作为实义动词表"意愿、意志、 决心",本题表示决心,选 B。 21.13 带 to 的情态动词 带 to 的情态动词有四个:ought to, have to, used to, be to, 如加上 have got to ,(=must), be able to,为六个。它们的疑问,否定形式应予以注意: Do they have to pay their bill before the end of the month? She didn't use to play tennis before she was fourteen. You ought not to have told her all about it. Ought he to see a heart specialist at once.? ought to 本身作为情态动词使用。其他的词作为实义动词使用,变疑问,否定时,须有 do 等助动词协助。 典型例题 Tom ought not to ___ me your secret, but he meant no harm. A.have told B.tell C.be telling D. having told 答案 A。由于后句为过去时,告诉秘密的动作又发生在其前因,此地应用过去完成时,但 它在情态动词 ought to 后,所以用 have。

21.14 比较 need 和 dare 这两词既可做实义动词用,又可做情态动词用。作为情态动词,两者都只能用于疑问句, 否定句和条件句。 need 作实义动词时后面的不定式必须带 to, dare 作实义动词用时, 后 而 面的 to 时常可以被省略。 1) 实义动词: need (需要, 要求) need + n. / to do sth 2) 情态动词: need,只用原形 need 后加 do,否定形式为 need not。 Need you go yet?

Yes, I must. / No, I needn't. 3) need 的被动含义:need, want, require, worth(形容词)后面接 doing 也可以表示被动: need doing = need to be done


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