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【语法专题】第六讲高中语法非谓语动词学案


第六讲-非谓语动词
适用学科 适用区域 知识点 学习目标 学习重点 学习难点
英语 通用 非谓语动词的用法 掌握非谓语动词的用法; 非谓语动词的理解和运用 能够灵活运用所学的非谓语动词

适用年级 课时时长(分钟)

高三 1 课时/60 分钟

学习过程
一、复习预习
教师引导

学生复习上节课所学的语法(以提问、回顾的形式进行) ,针对上节课的作业进行讲评、订正、 答疑。

二、知识讲解
知识点 1:非谓语动词的句法功能 语 名称 主语 不定式 动名词 现在分词 过去分词 √ √ 宾语 √ √ √ √ 宾语补足语 √ 表语 √ √ √ √ 定语 √ √ √ √ √ √ 状语 √ 法 功 能

知识点 2:动词不定式复习中应注意的几个问题 (1)不定式作表语与―be + to do sth.‖的异同。不定式作表语说明主语的内容或性质。 His job is to guard.(说明内容) be + to do sth.(表示按计划要做的事) (2)带不定式作宾语的词语。 下列词语常不定式作宾语:afford、promise、refuse、expect、hope、learn、offer、wish、want、fail、plan、 agree、forget、like、prefer、decide、manage、try、arrange、determine、desire 等。 下列动词后可接疑问词+不定式:teach、decide、wonder、show、learn、forget、ask、find、out、advise、 discuss 等。 (3)如何理解和使用不定式作宾补。 ①动词 see、watch、notice、hear、listen to、observe、feel、taste、smell、make、let、have 等的宾补用

动词原形,变被动时要加 to,此时的不定式就是主语补足语。 ②常用带不定式作宾补的几种情况: 主语 + ask / require / tell / order / force / get / want / like + sb.to do sth. ③主语 + think / judge / suppose / believe / consider /imagine/ consider / feel + sb. + to be/ to have done ④主语 + call on / upon / depend on / wait for / ask for + sb.+ to do sth. (4)不定式作定语的特殊用法。 ①下列词语后常接不定式作定语:chance、wish、right、courage、need、promise、time、opportunity、 way、the first、the second、the last、the only 等。 ②不定式作定语和所修饰的名词在逻辑上有主谓关系。 There is no one to look after her.

③不定式与被修饰的名词在逻辑上有动宾关系。 She is now look ing for a room to live in. (5)不定式作状语的用法。 不定式作状语,修饰动词,在句中表示行为目的、结果、原因。only to do 表示出人意料的结果。 We hurried to the classroom only to find none there . in order(not)to,so as(not)to 用来引导目的状语,enough,too, so… as to do, such + 名词… as to do 作结果状 语,如:The girl was so kind as to help the old man off the bus. I’m not such a fool as to believe that. (6)不定式的完成时的特殊用法。 ①表示不定式中谓语动词发生的动作先于主句的谓语动词发出的动作。 The novel was said to have been published.

I regret to have been with you for so many years. seem、appear、be said、be supposed、be believed、be thought、be known、be reported 等动词常用于上面 句型。 此外,glad、happy、satisfied、sorry、surprised、disappointed 后也接完成时,但要注意与一般时的区别。 I’m sorry to keep you waiting for a minute.对不起,请稍等。 (说话时还未等) I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.对不起,让你久等了。 (说话时已等了很久) ②不定式的完成时还可表示―过去本想做某事但未做‖的虚拟语气。 (A)should like to / would like to / would love to + 不定式的完成时。 (B)was / were to + 不定式的完成时,表示该做某事或想做但未实现。 (C)expect / hope / mean / promise / suppose / think / want/ wish + 不定式完成时,表示过去未曾实现的 愿望。 (7)不定式的省略。

①同一结构并列由 and 或 or 连接。 I want to finish my homework and go home. I’m really puzzled what to think or say. 特例:To be or not to be,this is a question. He is better to laugh than to cry.(表示对比) ②不定式作表语,其前面的主语从句中含有 do 时,后面的 to 省略。 What he did was lose the game. ③句中含有动词 do 时,but、except、besides、such as 等后面 to 可省略。即―前有 do,后省 to‖。 Don’t do anything silly, such as marry him. ④主句含有不定式,后面有 rather than, rather than 后省 to。 ⑤Why not、had better、would rather、can’t but 等词后省 to。如:

He could not but walk home. (8)不定式的替代。 多用在同一句或联系紧密的对话中,为了避免重复,作宾语或主补,宾补的不定式再次出现时,to 后的 内容常承前省略(只保留 to 即可) 。但如果承前省略的不定式有助动用的 have 或 be 任何形式,后应该 保留原形 be 或 have。如: Susan is not what she used to be. —You came late last night. You ought to have finished your homework. —I know I ought to have. 常见的有:I’d like / love / be happy to.

知识点 3:动名词复习中应注意的几个问题 (1)动名词作宾语。 ①下列动词后只能接动名词:suggest, finish, avoid, stop, can’t help, mind , enjoy, require, practise, miss, escape, pardon, advise, consider, imagine, keep, appre ciate, eacape, permit。 ②下列动词短语接动名词:leave off, put off, give up, look forward to, feel like, have trouble / difficulty(in) doing sth. devote to, get used to, pay attention to, be fond of, be worth 。 ③介词后要接动名词。what about、how about、without、be fond of、be good at 等介词后接动名词。注 意 on / upon doing sth. = as soon as 引导的从中。作此意讲时 on / upon 后也可以接名词。如 on his arrival…。 ④动名词作宾语和动词不定式作宾语的区别: begin, start, continue, like, love, dislike, hate, prefer, can’t stand









1. It began to rain. It began raining. 1. 意思无差别,但谓语动词用进行时,后面只跟 2. It was beginning to snow. 不定式。 3. I love lying (to lie)on my back. 4. I like listening to music, but today I don’t like to. 5. I don’ t prefer to swim in the river now. remember, forget, regret, try 例 句 解 析 2. 表示一种倾向多接动名词作宾语,如果表示某 一特定的或具体的行动,多接不定式。

1. I remember to meet her at the station. I remember seeing her once somewhere.

1. remember to do sth.记住要做的事 remember doing sth.回顾过去发生的事

2. I forgot giving it to you yesterday. I forgot to tell you about it. Now here it is. 3. I regret not having working hard. I regret to hear of your sister’s death. 4. Try knocking at the back door. We must try to get everything ready. 5. That will mean flooding some land. I had meant to go on Monday.

2. forget to do sth.忘记要做的事 forget doing sth.忘记做过的事 3. regret to do sth.对将要做的事抱歉 regret doing sth.对发生过的事后悔 4. try to do sth.设法……,试图 try doing sth.试试看,试一试 5. mean to do sth.打算做……,想要 mean doing sth.意味着,就是

want, require, need 例 句 解 析

1. need doing 需要被做 These desks need repairing. These desks need to be repaired. The patient required examined The patient required to be examined. need to be done 需要被做 2. want doing want to be done 3. require doing require to be done

知识点 4:分词复习应注意的几个问题 (1)现在分词在句中作时间、原因、伴随、条件、结果等状语。 ①时间状语(分词作状语前面可加 when, while 等) Hearing the good news, he jumped with greatjoy. Not having finished her work in time, the boss fired her. ②原因状语 Seeing nobody at home, he decided to leave them a note ③伴随状语 The girls came in, following their parents. ④结果状语 The poor old man died, leaving nothing to his children.

注意:现在分词作状语的几个特性。①时间性。与谓语动词同时发生,用一般时,如发生在谓语动作之 前时则用完成式 having done。②语态性。与句子的主语之间的关系,是主谓关系或动宾关系。遵循的 规则―主动进行,被动完成‖。③人称一致性。分词的逻辑主语就是句子的主语。 (2)分词作表语。 S. + be + 动词-ed 表示被动,主语是人;S. + be + 动词-ing 表示主动,主语是物。分词作宾补不定式作 宾补的区别: 感官动词 S.+ 使役动词 动词原形→做了某事 + 宾语 + 现在分词→正在做某事 过去分词→做了或被做

5、复习过去分词应注意的几个问题 过去分词作状语,相当于一个状语从句,有来说明原因、时间、条件等。

(1)过去分词作原因状语 Tired by the trip, he soon feel asleep. = Because he was tired by the trip, he soon fell asleep. Lost in thought , he almost ran into a car. =As he was lost in thought, he almost ran into a car. (2)作时间状语 Seen from the hill, the city looks like a garden. =When the city is seen from the hill, it looks like a garden. (3)作条件状语 Given more time, I would have worked out the problem. =If I have been given more time, I would have worked out the problem.

(4)伴随状语 The teacher came in, followed by some students. =The teacher came in and was followed by some students. 分词短语作状语时,通常与主句中的主语在逻辑上一致,但有时它也 可以有自己独立的逻辑上的主语, 这种结构称为独立主格结构。如: Her grandfather being ill, she had to stay at home looking after him.

三、例题精析 【例题 1】 __________such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river.(NMET 2001) A.Having suffered B.Suffering C.To suffer D.Suffered

【答案】 :A 【解析】 :本题考查分词短语作状语的用法。分词作状语,其逻辑主语必须是句子的主语,而本句的主 语看似是 it,其实它为形式主语,真正的主语为不定式,而不定式省略了逻辑主语 for people,所以应用 现在分词,又因 already,应用完成时。

【例题 2】 One learns a language by making mistakes and _______ them.(2001 年春季高考) A.correct B.correcting C.corrects D.to correct

【答案】 :B 【解析】 :本题考查动名词作介词宾语的用法。介词 by 意为“通过??,凭??” ,后面常接动名词, 形成“by+ v. –ing ”结构,表示通过做某事而得到某种结果。本题中只有 correcting 符合。

【例题 3】 The picture _________ on the wall is painted by my nephew.(2000 年春季高考) A.having hung B.hanging C.hangs D.being hung

【答案】 :B 【解析】 :本题考查现在分词作定语的用法。根据句意“墙上挂的那幅画是我侄子画的” ,可知空白处所 填的动词形式在句中作定语,表说话时仍在进行的动作或所处的解题关键在于分析 picture 与 hang 之间 的逻辑关系。

课程小结


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