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语言学导论(本科生)


An Introduction to Linguistics 语言学导论
Wu Gang 吴刚 2010年9月

Course Introductory Remarks
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Course requirements:
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Come to

class in time. Read the course book. Participate in class discussions. Do the exercises. Fulfill assignments. Pass the exam.

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Course objectives
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To have a general understanding of the theoretical linguistics To find an interesting topic for a further or lifelong study

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Course contents:
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Introduction (1-19) Part 1 Sounds (25)
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1 Introduction (27-28) 2 Sounds and suprasegmentals (31-49) 5 Phonemes, syllables and phonological processes (84-101)

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Part 2 Words
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8 Introduction (145-146) 9 Word classes (147-160) 10 Building words (162-177) 11 Morphology across languages (180-190) 12 Word meaning (193-207) 17 Introduction (277-278) 18 Basic terminology (282-290)

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Part 3 Sentence
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19 Sentence structure (292-302) 20 Empty categories (304-318) 21 Movement (321-336)

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Contact me
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Telephone: 87114610 Email: flgwu@scut.edu.cn Blog: http://gangwu1955.blog.163.com/

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Q: What is the use of doing linguistics? A: No use at all. Q: What do you study linguistics for? A: For nothing.
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Practical use Nothing practical

References:
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Chomsky, N. 1986. Knowledge of language: Its Nature, Origin and Use . New York: Praeger. Chomsky, N. 1988. Language and Problems of Knowledge: The Managua Lectures. Cambridge: MIT Press. 赵元任:《语言问题》,北京:商务印书馆,1980 年。 赵元任:《汉语口语语法》,北京:商务印书馆, 1979 年。 Fromkin, V., R. Rodman & N. Hyams. 2004. An Introduction to Language (《语言导论》),北京: 北京大学出版社。

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赵元任:《从家乡到美国》,上海:学 林出版社,1997年。 杨步伟:《杂记赵家》,沈阳:辽宁教 育出版社,1998年。 马悦然【瑞典】:《另一种乡愁》,北 京:三联书店,2004年。

王力:“返照句,纲目句,在西文罕 见。” ? 赵元任:“删附言!未熟读某文,断不 可定其无某文法。言有易,言无难。” 王了一:《龙虫并雕斋琐语》,北京:中 国社会科学出版社,1993年。
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钱存训:《书于竹帛》,上海:上海书 店出版社,2002年。 唐兰:《中国文字学》,上海:上海古 籍出版社,2001年。 桥本万太郎:《语言地理类型学》,北 京:世界图书出版公司,2008年。 吴刚:《生成语法研究》,上海:上海 外语教育出版社,2006年。

1. Introduction
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“folk linguistics” (民间语言学)
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The Tower of Babel “昔者仓颉作书,而天雨粟,鬼夜哭。” 《淮南子 · 本经训》

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Philology(语文学) 小学:音韵学;训诂学;文字学 Linguistic science(语言科学) What is linguistics? (the philosophy of linguistics)
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Linguistics is the scientific study of language.

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Philology is the study of words, especially the history and development of the words in a language or languages. Sinology: the study of Chinese language, history, customs and politics. (汉学) Sinologist(汉学家)

Linguistics as a science
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The purpose of explanation Define the object of study Abstraction Idealization Theoretical model Universal (普适性,普遍性的) Formalized(形式化的)

Research questions:
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What is the nature of the cognitive system which we identify with knowing a language? (linguistics) How do we acquire such a system? (developmental linguistics) How is this system used in our production and comprehension of speech? (psycholinguistics) How is this system represented in the brain? (neurolinguistics)

Biolinguistics: the study of language and biology as proposed by Chomsky
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What constitutes knowledge of language? (Humboldt?s problem) How is this knowledge acquired? (Plato?s problem) How is this knowledge put to use? (Descartes? problem) What are the relevant brain mechanisms? How does this knowledge evolve (in the species)?

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If the whole world consisted of people who looked identical, it would be a pretty boring world. If the whole world consisted of people who were mentally identical, it would be intolerable. Noam Chomsky

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The Scope of Linguistics
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General linguistics(普通语言学) Phonetics(语音学) Phonology(音系学) Morphology(形态学) Syntax(句法学) Semantics(语义学) Pragmatics(语用学) Sociolinguistics(社会语言学) Psycholinguistics(心理语言学)

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Some important distinctions in linguistics
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Prescriptive vs. descriptive (规定和描写)
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This is the sort of English up with which I will never put. This is the sort of English I will never put up with. 文字改革了我们怎么说话?

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Speech and writing
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Traditional grammar and modern linguistics (传统语法和现代语言学)

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Ferdinand de Saussure(索绪尔)
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Course of General Linguistics(《普通语言学教 程》) Diachronic and synchronic(历时/历史和共时/描 写) Langue and parole(语言和言语) Social and individual(社会和个体) Socio-psychological(社会心理的)

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Noam Chomsky
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realism (实在论) Competence and performance(语言能力和语言表现) Ideal speaker/hearer(理想的说话人和听话人) Linguistics studies the competence of an ideal speaker/hearer in a homogeneous speech community. Knowledge and ability The theoretical model of competence Mental and biological(心智和生物的)

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language faculty (语言机能)
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initial state steady states

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language acquisition device (LAD) (语言获得机制) universal grammar(普遍语法) primary linguistic data (PLD) triggering experience poverty of the stimulus principles and parameters Mental computations and representations

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What is language? (the philosophy of language)
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Definitions of language
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Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. Sociopolitical(社会政治的) normative-teleological(规范和目的论的) Definitions of external language
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The commonsense concept
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scientific approaches
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A language is a collection of actions, or utterances, or

linguistic forms (words, sentences) paired with meanings. ? A language is a system of linguistic forms or events. ? A language is a system of sounds and an associated system of concepts. (Saussure) ? A language is the totality of utterances that can be found in a speech community. (Bloomfield)
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Definition of internal language
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Language is the assumed state of the language faculty in the mind/brain of a person. (Chomsky)

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The design features of language
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arbitrariness (任意性)
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There is no natural connection between symbol and object. The relationship between sound and meaning is arbitrary. onomatopeia(拟声) sound symbolism (语音象征)

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productivity (能产性)

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duality(双重性)
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two levels of structure a system of sounds a system of meaning

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displacement (位移性)

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Questions:
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Can the study of language be regarded as scientific without a clear definition of the object, language?

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I have never met a person who is not interested in language.
---Steven Pinker---

Principles and Levels of Analysis
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Type and token(类型和标记)
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The number of text tokens(文内标记数) The number of text types(文内标记类型数) The Type-Token Ratio(类型与标记的比率)
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(1) She asked the visitor to come into the hall.

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Principles of classification
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求同存异
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Consonant phonemes
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safe /seif/ /f/ voiceless save /seiv/ /v/ voiced

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Noun phrase
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She is pretty.

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The girl is pretty. Flowers are pretty

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Dimensions of analysis
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Syntagmatic relationship(组合关系)
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pet /pet/; dig /dig/ (combination) pet /pet/ pit i pat ? (association)

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Paradigmatic relationship(聚合关系)
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Levels of analysis
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Graphology: the study of how letters are pronounced (字音学)

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Phonology: the study of speech sounds system (音系学) Morphology: the study of internal structure of words and words formation (形态学) Semantics:the study of meaning (语义学) Syntax: the study of grammatical structure larger than words (句法学) Pragmatics: the study of meaning in use (语用 学)

2. Sounds: phonetics and phonology
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The phonic medium of language
Speech sounds: spoken utterance

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Phonetics
What is phonetics?
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Phonetics is the study of speech sounds in general. Articulatory phonetics(发声语音学): The study of the physiological properties of speech sounds;or how speech sounds are produced? Acoustic phonetics(声学语音学):The study of the physical properties of speech sounds.
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Pitch: the degree of height Intensity: the degree of loudness

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Length: the duration ? Quality: the special character Auditory phonetics(听觉语音学):The study of the psychological properties of speech sounds.
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Organs of speech
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The pharyngeal cavity The oral cavity The nasal cavity

LL: Lips TT: Teeth TR: Alveolar ridge, convex part of the mouth, immediately behind the teeth H: Hard palate, concave part of the roof of the mouth S: Soft palate in lowered position U: Uvula, the loose hanging end of the soft palate P: Pharynx BL: Blade of the tongue, including the tip, the part opposite the teeth ridge F: Front of the tongue, the part opposite the hard palate B: Back of the tongue, the part opposite the soft palate E: Epiglottis; this is drawn over the windpipe when swallowing W: Windpipe FP: Food passage V: Vocal cords or vocal lips Larynx: The upper extremity of the windpipe (Adam’s apple) which contains and protects the vocal cords

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Orthographic representation of speech sounds
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International Phonetic Association/Alphabet (IPA) Broad transcription Phonemic transcription
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/p/

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Narrow transcription Phonetic transcription
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[p?i:k] [spi:k]

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Classification of speech sounds

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Sounds segments Phonetic descriptions and classifications Consonants
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Manner of articulation(发音方式:构成阻碍和克服阻碍的方 式,也可以说是哪种性质的阻碍) ? Plosives(爆破音/塞音): [p b t d g] ? Fricatives(擦音): [f vθ?s z ? h ? ? ] ? Affricates(塞擦音): [d? ts t? ? ] ? nasal (鼻音)[m n ?]

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Place of articulation (发音部位:就是发音器官的哪一 部分发生阻碍。) ? Biliabial (双唇音): [p b m] ? Alveolar(齿龈音): [t d n] ? Velar (软腭音): [k g ?] ? Interdental (齿间音): [θ?] ? Labiodental(唇齿音): [ f v] ? Palatal (硬腭音): [j] ? Glottal (声门音): [h]

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Vowels
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Tongue height ? High vowel (高元音): [i u] ? Mid vowel (中元音): [ε ^ ? ] ? Low vowel (低元音): [a A ɑ ] Tongue fronting ? Front vowel (前元音): [i y ] ? Central vowel (央元音): [? ? A ] ? Back vowel(后元音): [γ ? ] Shape of the lips ? Rounded vowel(圆唇元音): [u y ?] ? Unrounded/Spreaded (不圆唇、展唇元音): [E e ? ]

辅音和元音举例说明
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汉语普通话:
b [p] 双唇不送气清塞音:把、不、表 p [ph] 双唇送气清塞音: 怕、盘、片 d [t] 舌尖不送气清塞音:读、带、到 t [th]舌尖送气清塞音:土、太、谈 zh[t?]卷舌不送气塞擦音:找、只、正 ch[t?h] 卷舌送气塞擦音:吃、朝、车 j [?]舌面不送气塞擦音:几、见、接 q [?h] 舌面送气塞擦音:起、切、请 x [?] 舌面清擦音:写、下、许 g [k] 舌根不送气清塞音:古、跟、高 k [kh] 舌根送气清塞音:哭、可、宽 h [x] 舌根塞擦音:湖、和、换 ng [?] 舌根浊鼻音:动、光、长

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汉语方言:
[θ] 齿间擦音。莒县“叔”:[θu] [pf] 唇齿塞擦音。西安“猪”:[pfu] [?] 舌根鼻音。广州“牙”:[?a]

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其他语言 [Φ]双唇颤音。圣乍彝语 [t Φy](管辖) [r]舌尖颤音。拉萨藏语 [ra](羊) [R]小舌颤音。法语 [paRi](巴黎)

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汉语方言元音: [E]前、中、不圆唇。苏州 “三” [sE] [?] 前、次低、苏州“毛” [m?] [?] 前、半低、圆唇。广州“靴” [??] [A] 央、低、不圆唇。北京“妈” [mA] [?] 央、次低、不圆唇。广州“民” [m?n] [? 前、半高、圆唇。苏州“南” [n? ] ] [?] 后、高、不圆唇。合肥“楼” [n ?] [y] 前、高、北京“鱼” [y] [γ] 后、半高、不圆唇。北京 “鹅” [γ] [?] 后、半低、圆唇。 广州“火” [f ?]

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Phonation(发音)
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Voicing: voiced/voiceless +voiced/-voiced Aspiration: aspirated/unaspirated (送气)
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爸 ba [pA] 怕 pa [phA] peak [phi:k] Speak [spi:k]

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双峰话
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巴 [po]——爬 [bo] 刀 [t?]——桃 [d?] 高 [k?]——搅 [g?] 闭 [pi] ——弊 [bi] 搭 [ta] ——达 [da] 街 [ka] ——茄 [ga]

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温州话
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罗常培 王均:《普通语音学纲要》,北 京:商务印书馆,1981年。 唐作藩:《音韵学教程》,北京:北京 大学出版社,1991年。 林焘 王理嘉:《语音学教程》,北京: 北京大学出版社,1992。 王理嘉:《音系学基础》,北京:语文 出版社,1991年。

王力:《广东人怎样学习普通话》,北京:北京大学 出版社,1997年。 ? 欧阳觉亚:《普通话与广州话的比较与学习》,北京: 中国社会科学出版社,1993年。 ? 徐世荣:《普通话语音常识》,北京:语文出版社, 1993年。 ? 周殿福:《国际音标自学手册》,北京:商务印书馆, 1985年。 【捷】伊· 克拉姆斯基:《音位学概论》,上海:上海译 文出版社,1993年。 ? 张大春:《认得几个字》,上海:上海人民出版社, 2009年。
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Assignments
1. 完成并上交: Page 49: Exercises 1 and 2 2. 学习和熟悉现代汉语普通话的:
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元音和辅音 拼音方案 国际音标注音 音节结构

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Phonology: the study of speech sound system
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Phonology and phonetics
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Phone: a phonetic unit or segment Phonemes: the smallest sound unit which can distinguish meaning (音位) Allophones: the different phonetic realizations of the same phoneme (音位变体) /t/: table, stone, certain, little, apartment, twice, eighth, train Segmental phonemes (音段音位/音质音位)

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/t/
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(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

table: [th] aspirated (送气的) stone: [t] unaspirated (不送气的) certain: [tn] nasal release (鼻腔爆破的) little:[tl] lateral release (舌侧爆破的) apartment:[t] no audible release (不破裂的) twice: [tw] labialized (唇化的) eighth: [t] dental (齿化的) train: [t] retroflex (卷舌的)

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Four schools of the phoneme theory
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Psychological school : Phonemes are psychological images. Phonemes are something imagined or the imagined sound system. (Baudouin de Courtenay (博杜恩 ); E. Sapir (萨丕 尔 )) Physical school : A phoneme is a class of sounds which are related and occur in different contexts. (Daniel Jones(琼斯) ) Functional school : Phonemes are social; phones or sounds are individual. Phonemes are the smallest sound units which can distinguish meaning. Phonemes are the class of distinctive features. (de Saussure (索绪尔); Prince Nikolai Trubetzkoy(特鲁别茨柯依)) Abstract school : Phonemes are the abstract units suggested for the purpose of the description of speech sounds. (Hjelmslev(叶姆斯列夫))

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Supersegmental phonemes(超音段音位)
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Stress
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Free stress language (English) Fixed stress language (French)
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Phonetics [f?u'netiks] “明· 白” m? ng-bai

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Tone
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“他吃鸡”

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Intonation

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Variation (音位变体)
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Conditional variation (条件变体) Free variation (自由变体)
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peak, speak [phi:k] / [spi:k]

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湖北孝感话
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“脑”,“老” [nau] [lau] [?] [?h] [?] [ts][tsh] [s] “杀” [xa] [kha] “桥” [xo] [kho]

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北京话
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傣语西双版纳话
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Identifying phonemes
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Meaning contrastive and minimal pair
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[pan55] 搬 / [phan55] 攀 bad [b?d] / bat [b?t]

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Complementary distribution
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peak [phi:k] / speak [spi:k] 厦门话 ? “马” [m?] —— “麻” [ba] ? /m/ [m] [b] ? “泥” [n?] —— “而” [li] ? /n / [n] [l] ? “雅” [??] —— “牙” [ga] ? /?/ [?] [g]

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Phonetic similarity
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/h/, /?/

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Tonic language (字调语言) 音 高

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时间

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55 35 214 Intonation language

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Some rules in phonology
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Sequential rules
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Assimilation rule
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blick [blik] *bilck [bilk]

progressive assimilation (顺同化)
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incomplete impossible Irregular

北京话: 啊 [a] ;你呀 [ia]; 看哪 [na] 广州话: “今日” [kam jat → k?m mat] 北京话: “面包” [mi?n pao → mi?m pao] 广州话: “门面” [mun min → mum min]

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regressive assimilation (逆同化 )
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Deletion rule

homo-organic

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Syllables
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/pit/ (CVC) 现代汉语音节结构 (C) + (V) V (V, N, P) 声 韵 韵 韵 头 腹 尾 母 ———————— 韵 母 汉语的四呼
开口呼 —— 没有韵头,韵腹又不是 [i] , [u], [y]的韵 母 如 [a], [ou] 等; 齐齿呼 —— 韵头或韵腹是[i]的韵母,如 [i], [ia], [iou] 等; 合口呼 ——韵头或韵腹是[u]的韵母, 如 [u], [ua], uan] 等; 撮口呼 ——韵头或韵腹是[y]的韵母, 如 [y], [yε ], [yn] 等。

2.Words
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Morphology(形态学): the study of the internal structure of words and rules for word formation ? Inflectional morphology (构形法) ? Inflectional endings ? Grammatical forms ? Derivational morphology(构词法) ? Word formation ? Wording building

Word classes
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Open and closed classes (开放和封闭) Traditional grammar: Part of speech (词类) Structural grammar: Form class (形类) Generative grammar: Category(语类)
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Lexical categories: N, V, A, P, Adv Functional categories: D, AUX, C

Words and Morpheme
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words ? work; worker; workers ? 工作;工作者;工作者们 Morphemes(语素/形位) ? Free morpheme: work/工作 ? Bound morpheme: -er/-者;-s/ -们 affixes/ bound morphemes ? derivational morphemes(构词词缀/语素) ? en-; in-; -or; -ment ? -子;-化;初-

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Hare :
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*fí ?head? *bé ?belly? *dzé ?heart?

sefí nebé ?edzé

?my head? ?your belly? ?someone? heart/a heart

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inflectional morphemes(构形词缀/语素) ? -s; -?s; -s; -ed; -ing; -en; -er; -est
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Conjugation (动词变位) Declension (名词变位)

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morpheme and allomorph ? Morpheme is a collective term for a family of linguistic forms that are semantically similar and in complementary distribution. ? An allomorph, then, is one of the member of a given morpheme.

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morphologically conditioned
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/e/: man/men /?n/: ox/oxen /? deer/deer (zero allomorph) /:

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morphophonemic studies phonologically conditioned
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{Z1}: /-s/, /-z/, /-iz/ /in/: /im/: impossible / i?/ :incomplete /i/ : irrelevant; illegible

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word and lexeme(词和词位)
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(1)a. cat b. cats (one lexeme) (2)a. cat b. dog (two lexemes) lexeme: CAT; DOG word form of one lexeme: cat; cats read and reader READ: read, read, reads, reading READER: reader, readers

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Morphology
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Derivational morphology(构词法)
Labelled bracketings
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Word formation
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Exercise: Draw binary tree diagrams for the above labelled bracketing.

[N cipher] [V de [N cipher]] [A [V de [N cipher]] able] [A in [A [V de [N cipher]] able]] [N [A in [A [V de [N cipher]] able]] ity]

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N A

A
V N in de cipher able ity

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Inflectional morphology(构形法)
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Grammatical forms and formal features
Verb: tense, aspect, voice, mood Noun: gender, number, case, person Adjective: degree Agreement suffix Latin:
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Affixation (附加法/词缀法)
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Singular nominative genitive dative accusative ablative

( 主格 ): puer ( the boy ) ( 属格 ): pueri ( of the boy ) ( 与格 ): puero ( to the boy ) ( 宾格 ): puerum ( the boy) ( 离格 ): puero (form the boy)

Italian: ? Io parlo “I speak” Noi parliamo “We speak” ? Tu parli “You (singular) speak” ? Voi parlate “You (plural) speak” ? Lui/Lei parla “He/She speaks” ? Loro parlono “They speak” French: ? Jean vient lundi “John is coming Monday” ? Jean viendra lundi “John will come Monday”

?

circumfix or confix(周边缀) German:
?

hab / ge-hab-t

?

Infix (中缀) Taglog:
? ? ?

base takbuh lakad

infixed form ?run? t-um-akbuh ?walk? l-umakad

?ran? ?walked?

?

Arabic:
? ?

Katab kutib aktub uktb ?write? ?have been written ?be writing? ?being written?

?

Cliticization(附着)
?

English:
? ? ?

I’m leaving now. Mary’s going to succeed. They ’re here now.

?

French:
?
? ?

Suzanne les voit. Suzanne them-sees ?Suzanne sees them?

?

Internal change
?
?

Ablaut (元音交替法)
English: ? sing sang sung ? sink sank German ? apfl epfl

?

umlaut (曲音变化)
“apple”

?

Consonant mutation (辅音变换法)
DhoLuo: ? singular ? Kede “twig” ? got “hill”
plural kete gode “twigs” “hills”

?

Supersegmental (超音段音位)
?

Tone (声调法)
陕西方言
? ? ?

我 [?γ53];我们 [?γ21] 你 [ni53] ; 你们 [ni21] 他 [tha53]; 他们 [tha21]

?

stress (重音移动法 )
Russian
? ?

руки (手,单数、属格) руки (复数、主格)

?

reduplication(重叠法)
马来语
guru-guru (各位教师) ? sekolah-sekolah (许多学校) Taglog ? Verb stem future meaning ? sulat susulat “will write” ? basa babasa “will read” ? trabaho tatrabaho “will work”
?

?

suppletion(增补法/异干互补法)
English
? ? ?

good bad little

better best worse worst less least

?
?

Total suppletion: go/went Partial suppletion: bring/brought
English
? ? ?

?

外部形态(冠词、助动词)的运用 (分析法)
a book, the book I shall read. He will read.

?

Number(数)
?

Inuktitut:
? ? ?

iglu ?a house? igluk ?two houses? iglut ?three houses?

?

汉语普通话:
?
?

老师来了。 老师和学生都来了。

?

Noun class(名词类别)
?

SiSwati:
? ? ? ? ?

Prefix um(u)lis(i)in-

Class persons body parts, fruit instruments animals

Example um-fana li-dvolo si-ja in-ja

?boy? ?knee? ?plate? ?dog?

?

free

bases

?
? ?

Morphemes

?
? ?

1. simple, free morpheme 2. bound + bound 3. bound + free 4. free + free
prefixes derivations inflections

?
? ?

bound

affixes
suffixes

?

?

Isolating or analytic language(孤立语/分析语)
?

A language which is purely isolating or analytic would contain only words that consist of a single root morpheme. In such a language there would be no affixes, and categories such as number and tense would therefore have to be expressed by a separate word. ? 他吃了饭。 ? 他吃饭了。

?

Polysynthetic language/incorporation language(多式综 合语)
?

In a polysynthetic language, single words can consist of long strings of roots and affixes that often express meanings associated with entire sentences in other languages.

?

?

Inuktitut: ? Qasuiirsarvigssarsingitluinarnarpuq. ? Qasu -iir -sar -vig -ssar -si -ngit ? tired not cause-to-be place-for suitable find not ? -luinar -nar -puq ? completely someone 3/sg ? ? Someone did not find a completely suitable resting place.? The terms isolating and polysynthetic refer to two extremes: words consisting only of single morphemes versus words which can be complete sentence. Few if an languages are purely isolating or purely polysynthetic. Rather, the vast majority of languages are synthetic. In that they admit words containing several morphemes. Two types are distinguished.

?

Agglutinating language(黏着语)
?

?

An agglutinating language has words which can contain several morphemes, but the words are easily divided into their component parts (normally a root and affixes). In such languages, each affix is clearly identifiable and typically represents a single grammatical category or meaning. Turkish (土耳其语)
? ? ?

k? j ?village? k? j-ler ?villages? k? j-ler-in ?of the villages?

(plural) (plural, genitive)

?

Inflectional language(屈折语)
?

?

Fusional language (融合语)
?

?

Words in a fusional language can also consist of several morphemes. However, in contrast to agglutinating systems, the affixes in fusional languages often mark several grammatical categories simultaneously. Russian
? ? ?

mi vidjim ruk-u we see hand-fem/sg/Ac ?We see a/the hand.?

?

Mixed types
?

English
? ? ? ?

He smoked. I will see. re-en-act-ment him

?

Cumulation: 积累形式 表示多个语法范畴的形式。 ? 如拉丁语词尾-a在名词lingua(舌,语言)中代表单 数、阴性、主格或夺格。 ? Russian: ? kod-ov ? kod (stem) ? -ov: morphological class, number, case

?

?

Syncretism: the merging of different inflectional varieties of a word during the development of a language. (两个以 上不同变化形式的合并。) When a single form systematically realizes more than one inflectional form, we say it is an example of syncretism. ? English ? Walked ? Russian ? bl?uda

?

Inflectional allomorphy ? Russian ? bl?uda (of dishes) (Class IV nouns) ? kodov (of cods) (Class I nouns) ? oblakov (of clouds) (irregular nouns)

?

exponent(说明) ? partial exponent ? Italian: -sc? extended exponence ? Italian: fin-i-sc-i (you finish) finii (I finished) ? principal exponent ? Italian: fin-i-re

?

?

word-based inflection: English, German, etc. ? English ? walk, book (word) ? walking, books Stem-base inflection: Italian, Spanish, etc. ? Italian ? *parl, *cred, *fin (non-word)
?

Japanese
?

送假名:愛する

Meaning and semantics
?

The meaning of “meaning”
?

The circular definition

? ? ?

Philosophical study of meaning: reference Linguistic study of meaning: sense Some theories of meaning:
? ? ? ?

Naming (Plato) The conceptualist view (Ogden and Richards) Contextualism (Firth; Malinowski; Wittgenstein) Behaviorism (Bloomfield)

?

?
? ? ?

? ?

What does “duress” mean?(表示……意思) I know the shop you mean.(意指,意谓) Cold cloudless evenings mean overnight frost. (意味着) I didn?t mean to offend you. (意欲,打算) This gift is meant for you. (指定,为……而 准备) I mean what I say. (说话算数) Your approval means a lot to me. (对……非 常重要)

?

Sense (intension) and reference (extension)
? ?

The evening star is the morning star. the president of the United States in 1962:John F. Kennedy
“Snow is white” is true iff snow is white.

?

?

?

A PREDICATE is any word (or sequence of words) which (in a given sense) can function as the predicator of a sentence. The DEGREE of a predicate is a number indicating the number of arguments it is normally understood to have in simple sentences.
?

Asleep is a predicate of degree one (often called a one-place
predicate) Love (verb) is a predicate of degree two ( a two-place predicate)

?

?

A REFERRING EXPRESSION is any expression used in an utterance to refer to something or someone (or a clearly delimited collection of things or people), i.e. used with a particular referent in mind.
?
?

Fred hit me. There is no Fred at this address.

?

Sense relations between words
? ?

general and specific terms semantic field
Paraphrase
? ?

?

Sense relations between sentences
?

a. The police chased the burglar. b. The burglar was chased by the police. a. Robin is a man. b. Robin is human. a. Charles is a bachelor. b. Charles is married.

?

Entailment
? ?

?

Contradiction
? ?

?

Semantic features/components and componential analysis
? ? ? ?

Semantic properties came: [come + past] George Orwell: 1984 Newspeak:
? ? ?

excellent: plusgood bad: ungood terrible: plusungood

? ?

go: [movement + there] come: [movement + here]

?

Participant roles
? ? ?

John opened the door. The key opened the door. The door opened.
? ? ? ? ? ?

John AGENT the door AFFECTED the key INSTRUMENT j OPEN d k K OPEN d D OPEN

?

Exercises:
?

Read the following dialogue and answer the questions:
“When I use a word,” Humpty Dumpty said, in rather a scornful tone, “it means just what I choose it to mean— neither more or less.” “The question is,” said Alice, “whether you can make words mean so many different things.” ? 1. Who is right, Humpty Dumpty or Alice? ? 2. Can you make words mean whatever you want them to mean?
?

?

A dictionary can be thought of as a list of the meanings of words, of what words mean. Could one make a list of what speakers mean?

?

Strip away referring expressions and the verb be (and possibly other elements) to identify the predicators in the following sentences:
?
? ? ?

?

I am hungry. Joe is in San Francisco. The Mayor is a crook. The man who lives at number 10 Lee Crescent is whimsical. The Royal Scottish Museum is behind Old College.

?

?

?

?

?
? ?

How many referring expressions are there in Your marble is under my chair? Is Your marble is under acceptable in normal usage? Is Your marble is under my chair the carpet acceptable in normal usage? So, of what degree is the predicate under? Of what degree is the predicate near? Is Dundee is between Aberdeen acceptable? Of what degree is the predicate between?

?

What information can you get form the following sentences:
? ?

(1) Have you stopped beating your wife? (2) He reported the crime. (1) Kings are monarchs. (2) Kings are rich. (3) Kings are female. (4) My uncle is a man.

?

How do you understand the following sentences?
? ? ? ?

?

What is the relationship between the following two sentence?
? ?

John boiled an egg. John cooked an egg.

?

Feedback:
? ? ? ?

?
?

Presupposition Analytic sentence Synthetic sentence contradiction Tautology Entailment

作业(2)
?

描写和分析所知语言(英语和汉语普通 话除外)或方言的构形特征。
?

?

? ?

动词的时、体、态、式 名词(冠词、形容词、代词等)的性、数、 格、人称 形容词的级别 一致关系(主谓、动宾等)

?

?

?

?

袁家骅等著:《汉语方言概要》,北京:文字 改革出版社,1989年。 北京大学中国语言文学系语言学教研室编: 《汉语方音字汇》,北京:文字改革出版社, 1989年。 中国社会科学院语言研究所:《方言调查字 表》,北京:商务印书馆,1988年。 李荣主编:现代汉语方言大词典》,江苏教育 出版社。

3. Sentences: the study of Syntax
?

Word order
? ?

(1) church gothic I live artist (2) artist live in gothic church (3) Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. (4) Furiously sleep ideas green colorless. (5) (6) (7) (8) artist lives in gothic church The artist lives in a gothic church. An artist lived in a gothic church. The artist is living in a gothic church.

?

Grammar and semantics
? ?

?

Grammatical systems
? ? ? ?

?

Word grammar
?

Linear orders of syntactic elements
?

?

(1) a. 张三打了李四。 1 2 3 b. 李四被张三打了 3 1 2 (2) a. 张三打了李四和王五。 1 2 3 4 5 b. *李四被张三打了和王五。 3 1 2 4 5 c. 李四和王五被张三打了。

?

Constituent structure
? ?

?
? ? ? ? ?

(20)张三喜欢那本书。 (21)*那本,张三喜欢书。 (22)那本书,张三喜欢。 (23)张三可能喜欢那本书。 (24)*张三喜欢可能那本书。 (25)张三打了李四和王五。 (26)*李四被张三打了和王五。 (27)李四和王五被张三打了。 S → NP VP NP → Det N VP → V NP

?

Phrase structure rules
? ? ?

?

?

? ?

The nature of the knowledge of language: the infinite use of finite means The finite means: a system of principles and rules represented in the mind/brain Principles and parameters The study of ungrammaticality

?

Category grammar
?

Phrase structure of syntactic elements
?

? ? ? ?

?

(3) a. [S [NP张三 [VP打了 [NP李四和王五]]] b. *张三打了也许李四和王五。 c. *张三打了李四也许和王五。 d. 也许张三打了李四和王五。 c. 张三也许打了李四和王五。 (4) John said that he was happy. (5) *He said that John was happy. (6) When he plays with his children, John is happy. (7) The people who saw him playing with his children said that John was happy. (8) His mother said that John was happy.

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

(9) a. 张三喜欢他自己。 b. 张三喜欢他。 c. 张三喜欢张三。 d. 李四说张三喜欢他。 e. 张三说张三喜欢张三。 (10) a. John likes himself. b. John likes him. c. John likes John. d. Bill said John likes him. e. Bill said Bill likes Bill.

?

structure dependent principle( 结构依存原则)
? ? ? ?

?
? ? ?

?

head parameter
? ? ?

(1)a. The man is clever. b. Is the man clever? (2)a. The man who is tall is clever. b. *Is the man who tall is clever? c. Is the man who is tall clever? (3)a.我打了张三和李四。 b. * 张三被我打了和李四。 c. 张三和李四被我打了。 (4)a. in the classroom b. 在教室 c. 教室に

?

Recursion
?

NP → NP (S)

?

Exercises:
?

?

Illustrate the above recursive rule by way of tree diagram and try to make an noun phrase as long as you wish it to be. Draw binary-branching labeled tree diagrams for the following sentences:
? ?

张三可能打了李四。 可能张三打了李四。

?

(9) The artist will live in a gothic church. Verb: tense, aspect, voice, mood Noun: case, person, gender Agreement
? ?

?

Grammatical forms and f-features
? ? ?

Inflectional: -s, -ing, -ed, -en Analytic: will do, is to do
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

(10) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19)

*He opened the door a key. He opened the door with a key. He has seen them. *I /*We/ *You/ *They has seem them. *Him has seen them. *He has seen they. *He has seen. *He has seeing them. *He has see them.

? ?

Labelled tree diagram S NP Det N V Det VP NP N

?

?

?

?

The

boy

hit

the

ball

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

(9) John said that [he was happy]. (10) *[He said that John was happy]. (11) When [he plays with his children], John is happy. (12) The people who saw [him playing with his children] said that John was happy. (13) [His mother] said that John was happy.

?

So, coreference is excluded when the name is in the domain of the pronoun.

?

NP NP NP NP NP NP S S S S

?

?

?

?

?

?

This is the farmer that kept the cook that waked the priest that married the man that kissed the maiden that milked the cow that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed that rat that ate the malt …

?

S NP AdvP V 张三 可能 打了 adjoin(嫁接) adjunct(外加语) VP VP NP 李四

?

?

?

?

? ?

?

S AdvP NP V 可能 张三 打了 S VP NP 李四

?

?

?

?

?
?

IC-analysis
The boys shyly touched the puppy

6. Pragmatics: meaning in use and context
?

Sentence meaning and speaker meaning
?

(1) The parson may object to it.
? ?

What does the Sentence mean? What dose John mean in saying the sentence?

?

Reference and referring expressions
? ? ? ?

(2) (3) (4) (5)

The parson is in the room. There is not a parson in the room. A parson was in the room. Jack is in the room.

?

Sentences, utterances and propositions
?

?

Can the same proposition be expressed by different sentences? Can the same sentences be realized by different utterances?. Words are used to do things. Speech acts theory: how to do things with words. (6) “Good evening.” (7) “Good night” (8) “Would you like a cup of coffee? illocutionary act: Offering

?

Illocution and illocutionary force
? ? ? ?

?

Perlocutionary effect
? ?

?

Perlocutionary act: (e.g) causing the hearer to think the speaker is more generous than he thought.
? ? ? ? ?

?

Maxims of conversation
Polonius: What do you read, my lord? Hamlet: Words, words, words. Polonius: What is the matter, my lord? Hamlet: Between who? Polonius: I mean, the matter that you read, my lord.

? ?

?

Name of Maxim: Description of Maxim Quantity Say neither more nor less the discourse requires.

? ? ? ? ?

Relevance Manner

Quality

Be relevant. Be brief and orderly; avoid ambiguity and obscurity. Do not lie; do not make unsupported claims.

?

Exercises:
?

Are the following utterances performative or constative ?
? ? ?

“I name this ship Hibernia” “I believe in the dictatorship of the Proletariat” “I admit I was hasty”

? ? ?

“I think I was wrong” “I hereby inform you that you are sacked” “I give you supper every night” (1) apologize (2) authorize (3) argue (4) condemn (5) squeal

?

Are the following performative verbs, or not?
? ? ? ? ?

?

Answer the following questions by saying “Yes” or “No”.
?

?

Is the illocutionary act something the speaker intends to do in making the utterance? Is the perlocutionary act something the speaker intends to do in making the utterance?

?

?

?

?

Is it evident what illocutionary act has been performed (in the case of offering) as soon as the utterance is made? Is it evident what perlocutionary act has been performed (in the case of offering) as soon as the utterance is made? Is the illocutionary act performed something that is within the control of the speaker? Is the perlocutionary act performed something that is within the control of the speaker? (1) Is (2) Is (3) Is (4) Is a phonic act involved? a propositional act involved? an illocutionary act involved? a perlocutionary act involved?

?

A parrot says “Fire”
? ? ? ?

7 Language Change
?

Sound change
?

Great Vowel Shift
?

Regular sound correspondence Indo-European /p/
?
?

?

Ancestral Protolanguages
?

Latin /p/ Proto-Germanic /f/ French /p/ Spanish /p/ English /f/ German /f/

?

The Spelling Reform
?

night, light /x/

?

?

Historical and comparative linguistics (历史比 较语言学) Language typology (语言类型学)
?

?

When agreement is found in words in two languages, and so frequently that rules may be drawn up for the shift in letters from one to the other, then there is a fundamental relationship between the two languages. --- Rasmu Rask Sir William Jones
?

The study of Sanskrit (梵语)

? ?

Franz Bopp 徐通锵:《历史语言学》,北京:商务印书馆, 1991年。

8 Language and Society
?

Sociolinguistics: the study of the relationship between language and society
?

Language purists or prescriptive grammarians
?

?

“We set up as the best languages that which is found in the best writers, and count as the best writers those that best write the language. We are therefore no further advanced than before.” --- Otto Jespersen

?

Linguistic equality
?

All the languages are equal and all the dialects of a language are equal.

? ?

? ? ?

?

The Received Pronunciation (RP) General British (GB), General American (GA)) and general Chinese (GC) English and Englishes: variety of English Dialects and registers 陈原:《社会语言学》,上海:学林出版社,1983 年。 Baugh, A. C. 1978. A History of the English Language, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall.

9 Language and Culture
?

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
? ?

Language and thought Linguistic relativity
? ?

The strong hypothesis: determination The weak hypothesis: influence

?

?
?

The study of color words Linguistic imperialism Linguistic nationalism

10 Language Acquisition
?

Theories of child language acquisition
?

The behaviorist view
? ?

Imitation Reinforcement

? ?

B. F. Skinner: Verbal Behavior Noam Chomsky. 1959. Review of B. F. Skinner, Verbal Behavior. Language 35: 26-57.

?

The innatist view
? ? ?

LAD: language acquisition device UG: universal grammar Plato?s problem

?

The interactionaist view

?

?

Language environment and the critical period hypothesis Dan Isaac Slobin.1979. Psycholinguistics, second ed. Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company.

10. Linguistics and the related studies
?

The nature of theoretical linguistics
? ? ? ? ?

The study of langue or competence Feasibility and validity Formalist and functionalist Science and humanities 心智(mind)和心事(heart)

?

Some interdisciplines
?

Psycholinguistics
? ? ? ?

Production Perception Language acquisition Language and thought

?

Sociolinguistics
? ? ?

Speech communities Regional variations Dialects

?

The data of linguistics
? ?

More data, more problems Kinds of data
?
? ?

Introspection Elicitation Observation

?

The relevance of linguistics
? ? ?

?

Utility of linguistics Descriptive linguistics Applied linguistics Contrastive analysis and discourse analysis

?

Language learning and teaching
? ?

First language acquisition Second language acquisition

?

Language policies

Test for the course
? ?

?

?

1. Write out the definition for the following terms (20/30 points): 2. Read the following statements and make your judgment by choosing True or False (20/20 points): 3. Answer the following questions (5/30 points): 4. Analyze the linguistic data in the required way (6/20 points):

? ? ? ? ? ?

? ?

?

?
? ?

费孝通:《乡土中国 生育制度》,北京:北京大学出版社,1995年。 温铁军:《我们到底要什么?》,北京:华夏出版社,2004年。 黄宗智:《经验与理论》,北京:中国人民大学出版社,2007年。 吴毅:《小镇喧嚣》,北京:三联书店,2007年。 吴毅:《记述村庄的政治》,武汉:湖北人民出版社,2007年。 林耀华:《金翼——中国家族制度的社会学研究》,北京:三联书店, 1989. 曹锦请:《黄河边的中国》,上海:上海文艺出版社,2000年。 张静:《基层政权——乡村制度诸问题》,上海:上海人民出版社, 2007年。 李培林:《村落的终结》,北京:商务印书馆,2004年。 蓝宇蕴:《都市理的村庄》,北京:三联书店,2005年。 苏力:《送法下乡》,北京:中国政法大学出版社,2000年。 贺雪峰:《乡村研究的国情意识》,武汉:湖北人民出版社,2004年。


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