? 2009年高考大纲要求考生根据题示进行书面表达。 考生应能： ? （1）准确使用语法和词汇。 ? （2）使用一定的句型、词汇，清楚、连贯地表达 自己的思想。 ? 要求考生根据所给情景，用英语写一篇100个单词 左右的短文。 ? 情景包括目的、对象、时间、地点、内容等；提 供情景的形式
有图画、图表、提纲等。 ? 本部分满分30分，所需时间约为30分钟。
? 书面表达：高考英语作文的关键在于通顺流畅。 写作过程中，要处理好三个问题： ? 1. 遣词造句：始终选用自己最熟悉的词语和句型 以及自己最有把握的表达形式。 ? 2. 变换句式：如强调句、倒装句、被动句、非限 制性定语从句和固定句型等。 ? 3. 过渡自然：在句与句、段与段之间恰当使用一 些过渡词会使文章增色。 ? 文章写成后，要通读全文，仔细检查语言是否通 畅，有无遗漏要点等。 ? 在书面表达中，一定要做到：切中题义；中心明 确，避免画蛇添足；语言通顺，表达流畅；书写 规范，卷面干净。
2008年全国二卷书面表达 ? 假定你是李华, 你的英国朋友Peter来信向你咨询如何才能 学好中文. 请你根据下列要点写回信. ? 要点: 1. 参加中文学习班; 2. 看中文书刊、电视； ? 3. 学唱中文歌曲； 4. 交中国朋友。 ? 注意：1.词数100左右； 2. 可适当增加细节，以使行文 连贯； ? 3. 开头语已为你写好。 ? June 8, 2008 ? Dear Peter, ? I'm glad to receive your letter asking for my advice on how to learn Chinese well. ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ________ ? Best wishes, ? Li Hua
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2008年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试2卷 一、评分原则 1.本题总分为30分，按5个档次给分。 2.评分时，先根据文章的内容和语言初步确定其所属档次，然后以档该 档次的要求来衡量，确定或调整档次，最后给分。 3.词数少于80或多于120的，从总分中减去2分。 4.评分时，应注意的主要内容为：内容要点，应用词汇和语法结构的数 量和准确性及上下文的连贯性。 5.拼写与标点符号是语言准确性的一个方面。评分时，应视其对交际的 影响成度予以考虑。英、美拼写及词汇用法均可接受。 6.如书写较差，以至影响交际，将分数降低一个档次。 二、内容要点： 1.参加中文学习班； 2.看中文书刊，电视； 3.学唱中文歌曲；
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4.交中国朋友 5.合适的结尾。 三、各档次的给分范围和要求
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第五档：（25-30分） 完全完成了试题规定的任务。 — 覆盖所有内容要点。 — 应用了较多的语法结构和词汇。 — 词法结构或词汇方面有些许错误，但为尽 力使用较复杂结构或较高级词汇所致。 ? — 有效地使用了语句间的连接成分，使全文 结构紧凑。 ? 完全达到了预期的写作目的。
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第四档：(19-24分) 完成了试题规定的任务。 — 虽漏掉了一两个次重点，但覆盖所有主要内容。 — 应用的语法结构和词汇能满足任务的要求。 — 语法结构和词汇方面应用基本准确，些许错误 主要是因尝试较复杂语法机构或词汇 ? 所致。 ? — 应用简单的语句间的连接成分，使全文结构紧 凑。 ? 达到了预期的写作目的。
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第三档（（13-18分） 基本完成了试题规定的任务。 — 虽漏掉一些内容，但覆盖所有主要内容。 — 应用的语法结构和词汇能满足任务的要 求。 ? — 有一些语法结构或词汇方面的错误，但 不影响理解。 ? — 应用简单的词语间连接成分，使全文内 容连贯。 ? 整体而言，基本达到了预期的写作目的。
? 第二档（7-12分） ? 未恰当完成试题规定任务。 ? — 漏掉或未描述清楚一些主要内容，写了 一些无关内容。 ? — 语法结构单调，词汇知识有限。 ? — 有一些语法结构或词汇方面的错误，影 响了对写作内容的理解。 ? — 较少使用语句间的连接成分，内容缺少 连贯性。 ? 信息未能清楚地传达给读者。
? 第一档：（1-6分） ? 未完成试题规定的任务。 ? — 明显遗漏主要内容，写了一些无关内容， 原因可能是不理解试题要求。 ? — 语法结构单调，词汇知识有限。 ? — 较多语法结构或词汇方面的错误，影响对 写作内容的理解。 ? — 缺乏语句间的连接成分，内容不连贯。 ? 信息未能传达给读者。 ? 0分 ? 未能传达给读者任何信息：内容太少，无法评判; 写的内容均与所要求内容无关或所写 ? 内容无法看清。
? One Possible Version: ? June 8, 2008 ? Dear Peter, ? I’m glad to receive your letter asking for my advice on how to learn Chinese well. ? Here are a few suggestions. First, it is important to take a Chinese course, as you’ll be able to learn from the teacher and practice with your fellow students. Then, it also helps to watch TV and read books, newspapers and magazines in Chinese whenever possible. ? Besides, it should be a good idea to learn and sing Chinese songs, because by doing so you’ll learn and remember Chinese words more easily. You can also make more Chinese friends. They will tell you a lot about China and help you learn Chinese. ? Try and write me in Chinese next time. ? Best wishes ? Li Hua
主要内容： 内容要点； 词汇和语法的数量和准确性； 上下文的连贯； 有效地使 语言的得体性 语言地道， 用了语句
间的连接 成分 规范
应用了较多 的语法结构 和词汇
? 拼写和标点是语言准确性的一个方 面，评分时，应视其对交际的影响 程度予以考虑。
? 词数少于80和多于120的，从总分 中减去2分。 ? 如书写较差，以至影响交际，将分 数降低一个档次。
要 如何算是一篇好文章？ 点 1.覆盖了所有的要点 全 2. 应用了较多的语法结构 和词汇 词汇,句型 （高级）和 连 接 词
3. 有效地使用了语句间的 连接成分，使全文结构紧凑
文字信息 题材、人称、时态、要点 图画信息
2、以词及点：用一两个单词或短语写出每句 话的细节 要点。
五 个 步 骤 4 联句成文：
①主语和谓语 ②背景（适当增加时间、地点条件等） ③逻辑关系 ④开头与结尾 ⑤语篇衔接
给阅卷人以好的第一直观印象 1. Heading
整 体 三 部 分
词汇反映你知识贮存量的 多少，也是衡量英语水平 的一个重要标志。 运用得当的句子结构可以 给文章增色不少，从而使 整篇文章因此而生辉 。 使用恰当连接词，对写一 篇有“英语味”的文章很 重要，能使文章上下衔接 自然、紧凑。
1. Because the weather was good, our journey was comfortable. Thanks to the good weather, our journey was comfortable. 2.We all think he is a great man.
We all think highly of him .
3.Suddenly I thought out a good idea. A good idea occurred to me. / A good idea suddenly struck me. 4.The students there needn’t pay for their books.
Books are free for the students there.
5. As a result the plan was a failure. The plan turned out to be a failure.
6. When she heard he had died, she went pale with
At the news of his death, she went pale with sorrow. 7. She went to Austria in order to study music. She went to Austria for the purpose of studying music. 8. When he spoke, he felt more and more excited. The more he spoke, the more excited he felt. 9.In our school, there are twenty-six classrooms. Our school is made up of twenty–six classrooms. 10.You can find my house easily. You’ll have no trouble finding my house.
丰富的句式：(常用到的句型结构） 利用不同的句型来表达同一个意思， 能增加文章的文采。 1. 感叹句 e.g. How happy I was when I received your letter! What a kind boy he is! How disappointed he was ! 2. 强调句 e.g. It was this young boy that helped the old granny. I do hope you can come if possible.
3、 倒装句 e.g. Only in this way can you solve this problem. There comes the police car. Hardly had they got to the station when they met the young man. 4、 省略句 e.g. They read while walking or riding on a bus. Come to me if necessary. 5、 with短语 e.g. I saw a young lady walking slowly in the street with a handbag in her hand.
6、 定语从句 e.g. In my opinion, cyber cafes should be a place where we can find much useful information. Let’s come to the main teaching building, at the back of which stands the school library. 7、 各种名词性从句 e.g. That’s what I should do. We should do a favour to whoever needs help at present.
8、 各种状语从句 e.g.
Time passed quickly before we knew it. The moment we reached the farm, we got down to harvesting. So long as we work harder at our lessons, we’ll catch up sooner or later. Do call me before hand so that I can meet you at the airport. They had to wait because the rain was getting more and more heavily.
1 When he arrives, please give me an e-mail.（使用V-ing形式）.
On his arriving, please give me an e-mail. 2. To his surprise, the little girl knows so many things.（使用名词 性从句）
What surprises him is that the little girl knows so many things.
3. Though I’m weak, I’ll make the effort. (使用倒装句) Weak as I am, I’ll make the effort. 4. He did not know what had happened until he had read the news in the newspaper.(使用强调句型) It was not until he had read the news in the newspaper that he knew what had happened. 5. I passed the physics exam because of your help.(用虚拟语气） I couldn’t have passed the physics exam but for your help.
6. She walked out of the lab and many students followed her. (使用 过去分词) Followed by many students, she walked out of the lab. 7. They sang and laughed as they went back to school.( 使用V-ing 形式) Singing and laughing, they went back to school. 8.I won’t believe what he says. （使用状语从句） No matter what he says, I won’t believe. 9.If you study hard, you will make rapid progress. （用并列句） Study hard and you’ll make rapid progress. 10．He had no sooner come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad. (使用倒装句) No sooner had he come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad.
1. 表示递进;在同一话题上补充内容 另外，还有：what is more; besides; also; moreover; in addition 2. 表示转折关系
但是， 然而， 相反：but;
however; yet; instead; on the other hand; on the contrary.
that; as; because (of ); so; thus; therefore; as a result; 4. 表示条件关系 如果，只要: if ;on condition ( that ); as long as 除非: unless=if …not… 否则: or else
5. 表示时间关系 当… 的时候 : when ; while 在…之后: after 在…之前: before 直到: until 一…就… : as soon as 后来， 然后: later; afterwards 不久: soon 近来: lately; recently 自从… :since 从那时起: from then on
6. 表示特定的顺序关系 首先， 最主要的: above all 其次: secondly 然后: then; next 最后: finally; in the end 7. 换一种方法表述 换句话说: in other words; that is to say;
8. 进行举例说明 例如，比如: for instance; for example; like; such as
9. 用于陈述事实 实际上: in fact; actually; as a matter of fact 跟你说实话 : to tell you the truth
on the whole; in short; all in all; in general; in a word 11. 其它常用到的副词 Therefore ; otherwise ; finally ; furthermore ;Thus ; namely ; although ; afterwards ; personally;
On one side of the road there is a new classroom building.On the other side,where the playground used to be now stands another new building—our library. (NMET1999 范文)
As far as I know, everyone is happy about this new arrangement of things.(NMET2001 范文)
What’s more, I can go to bed earlier. (NMET2001 范文)
1. Xiao Ming was walking in the street when he heard someone cry for help. ___________ in order that 2. He advised that I hire a car ____________ I could travel around in the west . 3. It was not long _______ before the police came . 4. As ___________he heard the cry for help, he soon as jumped into the water to save the girl.
5. Do you agree with my arrangement ? ________ If not/so , do write to me soon. 6. We can go downtown and do some shopping. __________, In addition we can pay a visit to some places of interest. 7. I shared the cost of the gas with my friends .___________, As a result I saved $80. 8. Eating sugar is bad for our teeth. ___________ What’s worse , it may make us fat.
联合国教科文组织某考察团正 在我国某乡村参观考察。假定你是 接待人员,请根据下列提示以发言稿 的形式简要介绍这个村的情况： 1)大小：近100户人家，约500 口人。 2)变化：过去很穷，78年后变 化很大。人们生活比以前好多了。 现已旧貌换新颜。 3)教育：原来的学校很小，现 已经过改建。新建的教学楼有4层， 是村里最美的建筑物。村所有学龄 儿童在此免费就读。 注意：1）要点齐全，前后连贯。 2）词数：100-120之间。
Ladies and gentlemen, Welcome to our school.This village is very small. It has nearly 100 families and about 500 people. It used to be very poor. It has changed a lot since 1978. People here are richer than before. Now it is taking on a new look. The school here was very small. Now it has been rebuilt. The newly built teaching building has 4 storeys . It is the most beautiful building in the village. All the school-age children can study here. They enjoy free education in it.
Ladies and gentlemen, Welcome to our school! ① This village is very small. It has nearly 100 families and about 500 people. It used to be very poor. ② It has changed a lot since 1978 ③. People here ④ are richer than before. Now it is taking on a new look. Ladies and gentlemen, Welcome to our school ! ① This village is a small one with/which has nearly 100 families and about 500 people. It used to be very poor.② However,
it has changed a lot since 1978 ③ and has been developing very fast.
People here ④ live a much better life than before . Now it is taking on a new look.
In the past, the school here was very small ⑤. ⑥ Now it has been rebuilt. ⑦ The newly built teaching building has 4 storeys ⑧. It is the most beautiful building in the village. All the school-age children can study here. ⑨ They enjoy free education in it.
⑩ Thank you.
In the past, the school here was very small ⑤ and most children couldn’t afford to go to school. ⑥ But now it has been rebuilt ⑦ and the newly built teaching building ⑧ which has 4 storeys is the most beautiful one in the village. All the school-age children can study here. ⑨ What’s more, they enjoy free education. ⑩ May you enjoy your stay here / May you have a pleasant time here! Thank you.
Ladies and gentlemen, Welcome to our school ! ① This village is a small one with/which has nearly 100 families and about 500 people. It used to be very poor. ② However, it has changed a lot since 1978 ③ and has been developing very fast. ④ People here live a much better life than before . Now it is taking on a new look. In the past, the school here was very small ⑤ and most children couldn’t afford to go to school. ⑥ But now it has been rebuilt ⑦ and the newly built teaching building ⑧ which has 4 storeys is the most beautiful one in the village. All the school-age children can study here. ⑨ What’s more, they enjoy free education. ⑩ May you enjoy your stay here / May you have a pleasant time here! Thank you.
17 分 给澳大利亚的朋友写一封信，谈谈减负给学生
的学习和生活带来的变化。 I will tell you the changes of my life. Before, we had many classes every day. I had to do a lot of homework after school. I went to bed at 11:30 in the evening. I had no time to play. I was very tired. Now I can visit museums. I can learn computer and drawing. In the evening, I can read books and newspapers and watch TV. I go to bed at 10:00 now.
I’m very pleased to tell you the changes in my life since our homework has reduced. Before that, learning during the day was very simple. Having class and doing homework was the only thing we should do. In the evening, we also had a lot of homework to do. We could not go to bed until 11:30. Nevertheless, since reducing the learning load, my life has become much more interesting. I often visit museums and computer rooms and draw pictures in my spare time. In the evening, I also have time to watch TV and read newspapers. I no longer stay up late; on the contrary, I go to bed at about 10 pm. In short, I am quite satisfied with my life now.
Thanks for your last letter.
I am writing just to inform you …… In reply to your last letter, I am writing to explain the two questions as follows: …… Looking forward to your reply/hearing from you! Thanks for your consideration. Do remember me to your parents!
It is quite obvious/clear that… ( 很显然……)
There is no doubt that… (毫无疑问……) Take …as an example. (以……为例）
On one hand,… on the other hand… (一方面，……另一方面)
Only in this way shall we… (只有这样我们才能……) As far as…is concerned, I prefer…(就……而言，我更……)
Measures/Action should be taken to…(必须采取措施去……)
For the reasons given above, I feel that…(鉴于以上原因，我觉得 What these people fail to consider is that…(这些人没有想到的是..) Undoubtedly there is a long way to go before…(毫无疑问要…… 还有很长的路要走）
Therefore, I strongly recommend that …(因此， 我强烈建议… All the facts show that…（所有的事实显示……)
I like …not only because… but also because…(我喜欢……
不仅因为……而且因为……) I am writing to you to inquire about…(我写信给你想询问……) I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with/at…(我给你 写信表示我对……的不满）
I apologize to you for…(我为……向你道歉）
I am grateful to you for…(我为……向你表示感谢） Mr. Green, my best friend, is teaching… Mr. Green, a favorite teacher from the USA, is teaching…