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高中英语语法-虚拟语气全总结


虚拟语气在非真实条件句中 从句 与现在事 实相反的 假设

高中英语总结 --虚拟语气
主句 主 语 + should/would/could/might +动词原形 例句 If I had time, I would attend the meeting. If I were you, I should seize the opportunity

to go abroad. If you had taken my advice, you would not have failed in the exam. If you came tomorrow, we would have the meeting. If it were to rain tomorrow, we would put off the sports meeting. If he should not come tomorrow, we should put off the meeting till next Monday. If + 主语+助动词 的 过 去 式 ( were, did, had)

与过去事 实相反的 假设 与将来事 实相反的 假设

If + 主 语 +had+ 过 去分词 ① If+ 主语 + 动词 过去式 ② If+ 主 语 +were to+动词原形 ③ If+ 主 语 +should+ 动 词 原形(注意不 能是 would)

主 语 +should/would/could/migh t +have+过去分词 主 语 + should/would/could/might +动词原形

①错综时间条件句: 当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,被称为错综时间条件句,动 词的形式要根据它表示的时间作出相应的调整。如: If you had followed my advice just now, you would be better now. If you had studied hard before, you would be a college student now.

②if 省略句 在条件句中可以省略 if, 把 were, had, should 提到句首,变成倒装句式。如: If I were at school again, I would study harder. →Were I at school again, I would study harder. 如果我还有上学的机会,我会更加努力学习。 If you had come earlier, you would catch the bus. →Had you come earlier, you would catch the bus. 如果你来得早点,你就能赶上公共汽车。 If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing. →Should it rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing. 如果明天下雨的话,我们就不能登山去了。

③用介词代替条件状语从句 常用的介词有 with, without, but for。如: What would you do with a million dollars? (=if you had a million dollars) 如果你有 100 万元,你会做什么? We couldn?t have finished the work ahead of time without your help. (=if we hadn?t got your help) 没有你的帮助,我们不可能提前完成这项工作。 Without your help, we couldn?t have finished the work ahead of time. = But for your help, ? = If it had not been for your help, ? = Had it not been for you help, ? 没有你的帮助,我们不可能提前完成这项工作。

④含蓄条件句 有时在虚拟语气中并不总是出现 if 引导的条件句,而是通过其他手段来代替条件句。如: I was ill that day. Otherwise, I would have taken part in the sports meeting. (副词) He telephoned to inform me of your birthday, or I would have known nothing about it. (连词) A man who stopped drinking water would be dead in about seven days. (定语从句) I might have given you more help, but I was too busy. (连词) Everything taken into consideration, they would have raised their output quickly. (独立主格结构)

⑤even if, even though 也可用于虚拟语气,其形式与 if 从句在虚拟语气中的形式相同。

习题 1. If my lawyer___here last Saturday, he___me from going. A. had been, would have prevented B. had been, would prevent C. were, would prevent D. were, would have prevented 2. If it___for the snow, we___the mountain yesterday. A. were not, could have climbed B. were not, could climb C. had not been, could have climbed D. had not been, could climb

3. Without electricity(电) human life___quite difficult today. A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be 4. I didn?t see your sister at the meeting, if she___, she would have met my brother. A. has come B. did come C. came D. had come 5. When the pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it___. A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken 6. He hesitated(犹豫) for a moment before kicking(踢) the ball. Otherwise he___a goal. A. had scored B. scored C. would score D. would have scored 7. ___right now, she would get there on Sunday. A. Would she leave B. If she leaves C. Were she to leave D. If she had left 8. Had he worked harder, he___the exam. A. must have got through B. would have got through C. would get through D. could get through 9. He must have had an accident, or he___then. A. would have been here B. had to be here C. should be here D. would be here 10. A. B. C. D. ___for my illness I would have lent him a helping hand. Not being Had it not been Without being Not having been

11. We didn?t know his telephone number, otherwise we___him. A. would have called B. must have telephoned C. would telephone D. had telephoned

虚拟语气(1)复习题 1.He ___ you more help, even though he was very busy. A. might have given B. might give C. may have given

D. may give

2.___ for your laziness(懒惰), you could have finished the assignment(任务) by now. A. Had it not been B. It were not C. weren?t it D. Had not it been 3.If I hadn?t stood under the ladder(梯子) to catch you when you fell, you ___ now. A. wouldn?t be smiling B. couldn?t have smiled C. won?t smile D. didn?t smile 4.If it ___ Professor Johnson?s recommendation(推荐), I wouldn?t have been admitted to the graduate school(研究生学院). A. were not for B. had not been for C. were not D. had it not been 5.If we do not develop a new kind of car, air pollution ___ even more dangerous. A. should have become B. will become C. would have become D. must have become 6.But for the stormy weather, we ___ earlier. A. should arrive B. shall arrive C. should have arrived

D. shall have arrived

7.If we ___ their terms(条款,条件), we would go bankrupt(破产). A. accept B. should accept C. had accepted D. are to accept 8.John would never have gone to the hospital ___ that Tom would be there, too. A. he did not know B. if had he known C. had he known D. he would have known 9.Had he been more careful, he ___ that accident. A. would avoid B. would have avoided C. avoided

D. should avoid

10.But that he came to help me, I ___ there earlier. A. could not arrive B. could not have arrived C. did not arrive arrive

D. can not

11.She could look more attractive(有魅力的, 吸引人的) but she ___ no attention to her clothes. A. pays B. was paying C. paid D. had paid 12.If I ___ in his place, I would do that, too. A. was B. were C. am D. had been

虚拟语气(2)——虚拟语气在名词从句中 1.在由 suggest, demand, require, request, insist, order, command, propose 等表示建议、请求、命 令、 愿望等动词或其同根词引出的名词从句中, 名词从句虚拟句的谓语变化的形式只有一条 规律——名词从句虚拟句无论其主句的谓语动词时何种形式,从句的谓语形式均为 should+ 动词原形,其中 should 可以省去。 (特别提醒:不是用 would,而是用 should。 ) 常见的这类动词有 : ask 要求 , advise, beg, suggest 建议, command 命令, demand 要求, request 请求, insist, require 要求, order 下令, propose, advice, recommend, intend, prefer 宁 愿 , permit, persuade, expect, decide 决 定 , instruct, object, determine, urge, appoint 等等 在 It is/was +上述动词的-ed 形式+that 从句中 当上述动词以其名词形式出现,并且被用作 主语,引导一个表语从句或者同位语从句时 Our teacher suggested that we (should) not leave the classroom. 老师建议我们不要离开 教室。 He insisted that she do it right now. 他坚持她 马上就做。 It is suggested by the doctor that I should give up smoking. 医生建议我戒烟。 My suggestion is that we (should) set out tomorrow morning. 我建议我们明早动身。 The suggestion that the sports meeting (should) put off It is necessary that you should attend the meeting. 你有必要参加会议。 It is imperative that you arrive there in time. 你 必须按时到达那儿。 It is a pity that you fail the exam. It is no wonder he be late for class.

2. 在 It is /was necessary, important 等形容词 +that 从句中, 常见的这类形容词有:necessary, important, essential, vital, advisable, urgent, desirable, natural, strange, imperative 等 在 It is a pity (a shame, no wonder)+that 从句中

练习题

1.I insist that a doctor ___ immediately. A. has been sent for B. sends for C. will be sent for

D. be sent for

2.The manager of the hotel requests(要求) that their guests(客人们) ___ after 11:00 p.m.. A. not to play loud music B. shouldn?t play loud music C. don?t play loud music D. couldn?t play loud music 3.Mike?s uncle insists ___ in this hotel. A. staying not B. not to stay C. that he would not stay

D. that he not stay

4.It was essential(重要的) that the application forms(申请表) ___ back before the headline(截止日期). A. must be sent B. would be sent C. be sent D. were sent

5.It is necessary ___ the dictionary immediately. A. that he will return B. that he returned C. that he return return

D. that he has to

6.It is proposed(建议) that the matter(事情,事件) ___ discussed at the next meeting. A. will be B. was C. would be D. be 7.It is politely requested by the hotel manager that radios ___ after 11 o?clock at night. A. were not played B. not be played C. not to play D. did not play 8.We are all for your proposal that the discussion ___. A. be put off B. was put off C. should put off D. is to put off 9.I don?t think it advisable(明智的,可取的,适当的) that Tom ___ to the job since he has no experience. A. is assigned B. will be assigned C. be assigned D. has been assigned 10.It is essential(必要的, 重要的) that the books you borrowed from the library __ _ back before the deadline(截止日期). A. be sent B. would be sent C. were sent D. must be sent 11.He insisted that his father ___ with them. A. go B. will go C. will be going D. went 12.The workers demanded() that their wages() ___ by 20 percent. A. raised B. raise C. should have been raised D. be raised 13.At the meeting everybody was against his suggestion that a new bridge ___ over the river. A. be built B. must be built C. was to be built D. had to be built
虚拟语气(3)——虚拟语气的其他用法 对现在的虚拟, 从句的谓语动 词用过去时 对过去的虚拟, 从句的谓语动 词用过去完成时 (had done) 或 “ would/could+ 现 在 完 成 时” 对将来的虚拟, 从句的谓语用 “would/could+动词原形” 表示“但愿” , “要是??就 I wish I were a little younger. 我希望我能够年轻一点。 I wish I had been there. 我真 希望我当时在那里。 I wish I had not attended that party. 我真希望我当时没参 加那个聚会。 I wish he could explain what he means. If only the rain would stop.

在 wish 后面的宾语从句中

在 if only 感叹句中

好了” 用法和 wish 基本相同, (对将来的虚拟)但愿雨能停。 只是比 wish 具有更强烈的感 If only I were taller. (对现在 情色彩。 的虚拟)我的个子要是能高一 点就好了。 If only I had followed your advice! ( 对过去的虚拟 ) 要是 我听从了你的建议就好了! 表示与现在事实相反或对现 在情况有所怀疑,谓语用过 去时 I really don?t like the way you are speaking to me. It seems as if you were my father. 我真的 非常讨厌你和我说话的方式。 你听起来就好像是我爸爸。 He kept telling us what had happened as if he had been there himself. 他不停地和我 们讲发生的事情, 好像他当时 在场一样。 It is becoming dark. It looks as if it?s going to rain. 天变黑 了,似乎就要下雨了。 It seems as if he had been to America. 他好像去过美国。 I would rather go there tomorrow. 我想明天去那里。 He would rather not stay at home tonight. 他今晚不想在 家呆着。 She would rather not have gone to the party. 她觉得真是 不该去参加那个晚会。 Don?t come tomorrow. I?d rather you came next weekend. 明天就别来了,我 希望你下周末过来。 I would rather you had returned the book yesterday. 我真希望你昨天把这本书还 了。 It is high time that we began to work. 咱们应该开始干活了。

表示与过去事实相反, 谓语用 过去完成时 在 as if/as though 引导的从句 中 有时也用陈述语气,这时表 示较大的真实性或可能性

would rather do sth. 表示将来 或现在的事件, “主语宁愿自 己做某事”

在 would rather 结构中

would rather have done sth. 表示过去的事件, “主语宁愿 自己过去做了某事,但实际 上没有做” would rather sb. Did 表示的 是将来或现在的事件, “主语 宁愿让另外一个人做某事” would rather sb. had done 表 示过去的事件, “主语宁愿别 人过去做了某事, 但实际上没 有做”

在 It is (about, time+(that)从句中

high)

从句中用过去时,表示早该 做而未做的事, 并含有建议的 意味。

练习题

1.I wish I ___ you yesterday. A. seen B. did see C. had seen

D. were to see

2.If only he ___ quietly as the doctor instructed, he wouldn?t suffer(忍受痛苦) so much now. A. lies B. lay C. had lain D. shouldn?t lie 3.How I wish every family ___ a large house with a beautiful garden! A. has B. had C. will have D. had had 4.Look at the terrible situation I am in! if only I ___ your advice. A. follow B. had followed C. would follow D. have followed 5.He didn?t go to the party, but he does wish he ___ there. A. had been B. has been C. would have been D. would be 6.I wish I ___ longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class. A. could have slept B. slept C. might have slept D. have slept 7.Jack wishes that he ___ business instead of history when he was in university. A. had studied B. study C. studied D. had been studying 8.It?s already five o?clock now. Do you think it?s about time ___ ? A. we are going home B. we go home C. we went home D. we can go home 9.“You are very selfish(自私). It ?s high time you ___ that you are not the most important person in the world,” Jim said to his boss angrily. A. realized B. have realized C. realize D. should realize 10.You don?t have to be in such a hurry. I would rather you ___ on business first. A. would go B. will go C. went D. have gone 11.I?d rather you ___ make any comment(评论) on the issue(问题) for the time being(目前) A. don?t B. wouldn?t C. didn?t D. shouldn?t 12.Wouldn?t you rather your children ___ to bed early. A. go B. went C. would go D. does 13.The manager(经理) would rather his daughter ___ in the same office. A. had not worked B. not to work C. dose not work D. did not work 14.If only the committee(委员会) ___ the regulations(章程, 规则, 条例) and put them into effect(使生效) as soon as possible.

A. approve

B. will approve

C. can approve

D. would approve

15.I am sure she would rather you __ _ the bad news and _ __ your sorrow(痛苦 with her. A. will tell; share B. tell; share C. has told; shared D. had told; shared 16.It is high time that you ___ a bath(洗澡,沐浴). A. will take B. took C. had taken D. would take 17.She said that she would rather not ___ the problem in the presence(在场) of so many strangers(陌生人). A. to discuss B. discuss C. discussing D. discussion 18.I would rather you ___ those important documents(文件) with you. A. do not take B. did not take C. will not take D. not take


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