1.dress up vi
盛装打扮，化装打扮 Children love dressing up
2.turn up 1) vi 出现；到场 I’m very happy you turned up so early. 2) vt 把(收音机等)音量开大一些,其反
义短语 是turn down. Turn up the radio a little, as I can hardly hear the program.
4. look up (1)向上看 vi Look up! There is a fly on the ceiling. （2）vt（在词典、书等中）查找 Please the new words in the dictionary.
? 5.blow up vt (1)使爆炸 Some terrorists(恐怖分子） blew up the police station last week. (2)使充气 This tyre is flat. You’d better blow it up.
6.make up (1)化妆 vi/vt She spent an hour making (herself) up before the party. （2）编造 vt make up a story/ an excuse(借口） （3)组成 vt 11 players make up a football team. A football team is made up of 11players. （4）弥补 vt You must make up the time you wasted this afternoon by working late tonight.
? 7.pack up vt 把东西打包 ? He packed up his things and left. ? Would you please pack the gifts up for me? 8. Put up vt (1)举起；升起 (2)建造或搭建 （3）张贴
put up a flag/your hand put up a memorial(纪念碑） /a tent put up a notice/a poster（海报） /some pictures
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9. off (1) vi 动身；出发 set off for a place 动身去某地 If you want to catch the train,you’d better set off 出发，动身）(for the station) immediately.(立即） ? （2）vt 使某物爆炸 ? set off fireworks 燃放烟花
10.get off (1) vi/vt（从…)离开 I usually get off (work) at 5:30. 我通常5：30 下班。 He got off the bus/the train just now. (2)从…移去某物 get her ring off her finger
? 11.take on vt ? (1)承担（任务、职责）take on a job/ a task/ a duty ? （2）呈现（特征或面貌） ? Our city has taken a new look. ? （3）聘用 This company doesn’t take on women.
12. take off (1) 起飞 vi When will the plane take off? 飞机何时起飞？ (2)脱下 vt 反义词为 put on Put on your clothes. Don’t take them off.
? (3)(观念、产品等)突然大受欢迎；事业腾飞 vi ? 1)The new dictionary has really taken off.这部 新词典极受欢迎。 ? 2)This was the moment when Spielberg’s career really took off.这就是斯比尔伯格事业腾 飞的契机。 ? (4)(某段时间)休假、请假、休息 vt/vi ? 1)I’m taking the next week off.我下周要休假。 ? 2)When his wife was sick, he took off from work.他妻子生病的时候，他休假了。
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13.put on vt (1)穿上, 戴上 He put on his best clothes for the party. 为参加晚会他穿上了最好的衣服。 The trees have put on their new coats of green. 树木披上了新绿。 (2)上演, 演出; 展览 They are going to put on Hamlet. 他们将上演《哈姆雷特》。 We are going to put on an exhibition of cultural relics next Tuesday. 我们下周二要举办一个文物展览。
（3）增加 vt ? He has put on weight during the last two months. 他上两个月里体重增加了。 ? Extra buses are put on during rush hours. ? 高峰期间增开公共汽车。 14. put off (1)脱下 vt I put off my sweater after coming into the room . (2)推迟 ;延期 vt The meeting will be put off till next week . You might as well put the party off for two days. (3) 关闭;熄灭 vt Please put off all the lights as you leave the room.
15. break up (1) 撞毁 vi The ship broke up on the rocks. (2) 拆散 vt The little boy broke up the radio to see what was wrong with it.
(3) 结束，破裂 vi The meeting broke up at 11 O’ clock. Their marriage has broken up. (4) 强行驱散 vt Police came to break up the crowd.
16.break down (1) 毁掉;打破 vt ? The police broke the door down.警察破门而入. ? (2)坏了;出毛病(尤指发动机、机器等) vi ? The car broke down on the way to the airport. 车子在去机场的路上抛锚了. ? The lift broke down, so we had to walk up the stairs.电梯坏了,我们只好走上楼去. ? (3)失败(指无结果中断计划、谈判等) vi ? I expect the plan to break down soon. 我 预计划不久就会中断.
(4) (身体、精神)垮了 Your health will break down if you work too hard. 太劳累的话,你身体会垮的. ? (5)分解(化学上） ? Water can be broken down into hydrogen and oxygen. 水可以分解为氢和氧. 17.bring up (1)教育,培养 vt Her parents died when she was a baby and she was brought up by her aunt. 她出生后不久父母双亡，是由姑母抚养大的。 (2)提出 vt These are the matters that you can bring up at the meeting. 这些问题你可在会上
? 18.bring down ? 使…落下/倒下/下降 vt ? Can you get them to bring down the price a little? 你能使他们把价格降低一些吗？ ? He aimed , fired and brought down the antelope. 他瞄准羚羊射击，把它打倒了。 ? The government is determined to bring down inflation. 政府决心把通货膨胀率降低。
? 19.put out ? (1)伸出 vt It’s dangerous to put out your hand now. (2) 熄灭 vt Put out the fire before going to bed. (3) 出版；发表；公布 vt Most people didn’t accept the theory （理论） when it was first put out.
20.take out (1)把…带出去 vt Please take the children out. Their noise is making my head ache.（疼痛）
（2）拿出；取出 He took out the money and paid for the book. （3）去掉；扣除 take out loans（贷款） 21.make out (1)理解；明白 It’s difficult to make out what he says. (2)看出；辨认出 I could just make out the outline(轮廓)of the house She changed a lot. It took me a long time to make her out in the crowd. （3）填写（表格）；开出（账单、支票） Please make out the form. I made a cheque out for 300 pounds. 我开出了一张300英镑的支票。
? 22.work out ? 1.（根据推理或计算）得出; 算出 vt — How much do I owe（欠） you? ? — I haven’t worked it out yet. 2. 想出；制订出 vt We must work out a way to have a cheap holiday. They must work out a plan as quickly as possible. 3. 锻炼；训练 (非正式用语) The famous actor keeps fit by working out for an hour every morning. 4. 有好结果 vi Try not to worry. I’m sure everything will work out in the end. 5. （情况等的）发展，进行 vi Everything has worked out according to the plan.
? 23.take in ? (1)接收,收留；拘留 vt ? The poor man had nowhere to live in, so we took him in. ? He was taken in because he killed a man on purpose. ? (2)摄取;吸收 vt ? Fish take in oxygen through their gills. ? 鱼通过鳃摄取氧。 ? On weekends the Smiths usually drive to the countryside and take in the fresh air there.
? (3)领会,理解 vt ? Before you translate a sentence, you should first take in the meaning of the words. ? I couldn’t take in why you were angry.
? (4)欺骗,蒙蔽 vt ? The salesmen(推销员)have taken in the old people and made them buy their goods(货物) of poor quality. (5)轻信 vt ? Don’t take in his words for he always tells a lie.
? 24.cut up vt ? 切开;切碎 ? Cut up the carrots before you put them into the pot. 把胡萝卜切碎后再放进锅内。 ? 25.cut down vt ? (1) 砍倒 They are cutting down trees. ? Some trees in our school have been cut down. ? (2)削减 ? We cut down our living expenses. 生活费用 ? His wages were cut down because he was often late. 他因为常迟到所以被减了薪水。
? cut down on sth 削减 ? 多用在生活习惯和经济方面，显得比较抽象， 后面可以加doing He tried to cut down on smoking but failed. 他 试图少抽烟,但没成功。 ? 2. 缩短 ? Please cut down the article. 请把文章缩短一些。 ? We might cut down the book to 100 pages. ? 我们可以把这本书缩短到100页。
? 26.pick up vt. ? (1)拿起；举起 ? He picked up the phone and dialed the number. ? (2)开车去接某人 ? I’ll pick you up at the station. ? (3) collect something 取回；收集 ? I’ll pick my things up later. ? (4)无意中看到、听到、学会 ? I picked up a few words of Greek when I was there last year.
? (5) 接收（信号、声音、图像） ? We are able to pick up the BBC World Service. ? (6)收拾；整理 Please pick up your toys. ? (7) 廉价地买到 ? He managed to pick up a few bargains ? at the supermarket. ? (8) 感染；得到 ? She picked up a terrible cold. ? I picked up ￡30 in tips(小费) today.
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27.pick out vt. (1)挑选 She picked out a blue dress. (2)recognize sb or sth 辨认出 She was able to pick out her father at the airport. 28.pick off vt. (1)去除；剪除 Some gardeners are picking the dead leaves off the trees. (2)（选择目标）射击 There were gunmen in some of the buildings who picked off our men as they went past.
? 29.cut off: vt 1)切断；断绝(联系，水电等的供应) A storm cut off power to the whole region. 暴风雨切断了整个地区电力供应。 2)切掉；砍掉 Her little finger was cut off in an accident at the factory.
We were cut off in the middle of our
4)cut sb/ sth off from sb/sth 使…与外界隔绝
He was in hospital for six months. He felt as if he was cut off from the outside world.
Exercise 3 of Learning about language
? S1: How did you help your mother last weekend？ ? S2: I picked up my clothes and hung them up. I picked out the bad fruit from the bowl so the rest were ready for cooking. I cut the fat off the meat and then cut it up ready for stir-frying. Then I picked the fruit off the trees for my mother to sell them in the city and before I went into the room for dinner I cut down the old lotus (莲藕)plants so we can eat the roots. ? My mother was very pleased with me.