? （1）完成情况 ①是否涵盖题目要求 ②观点是否切题
Nowadays,it is difficult for newly-graduated university students to get a satisfactory job.Discuss the causes and give some possible
solutions to it.
（3）结构+逻辑 考生观点是否合乎逻辑， 句子和段落之间连接是否有效和流畅
? ? ? ? ? ? 1）导致 cause/generate lead to result in bring about be responsible for sth contribute to sth
2)因为 ? as,since,for ? as a result of ? due to ? thanks to ? owing to
? therefore/thus/hence ? as a result/as a consequence， ? in this way， ? accordingly/consequently，
? for instance ? take...as an example ? such as/including ? ranging from...to ? a case in point is that... ? it is often the case that... ? I want to cite a story that...
? A number of aftershocks have also been recorded, ranging from magnitude 5.9 to 4.2. ? 地震之后还发生了几次余震，震级从5.9 到4.2不等。
? to begin with, in addition,last but not least ? what is more ? besides 6)并列 ? meanwhile ? in the meantime ? for one thing, for another
? 7）让步 ? although/even though ? despite+句子/名词 ? despite the fact that... ? in spite of sth ? It is true that...
? 8)转折 ? but/while/whereas/whilst ? on the contrary完全相反 ? instead相反 ? instead of/ rather than而不是 ? conversely
? while ? Compared with... ? By contrast, ? In comparison, ? Chinese parents prefer to teach,while western parents tend to guid.
? 专家级 ? 优秀 ? 良好 ? 及格 ? 不及格
7' 6' 5'
? 雅思议论文结构 第一段：①引言②表观点 第二段：①主题句②拓展句③拓展句④拓展句 第三段：①主题句②拓展句③拓展句④拓展句 第四段：总结①-②句话即可
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 第一段包括两句话：引言；表观点 一：“引言”的写法，共6种方式： ①改写题干式 ②背景交代式 ③下定义式 ④问句式 ⑤故事式 ⑥引语式
eg. Now,the international tourism is becoming increasingly common. But whether the tourists should follow the hostcountries' customs is in heated debate. What's your opinion？ 改写： In recent 20 years, the international tourism is getting increasingly popular and affordable.However,whether the tourists should obey the customs of the destination countries has sparked stiff dispute.
Fast food is now universally available in most countries and is becoming increasingly popular. Some feel that this is a positive trend, while others do not. What is your opinion?
There appears to be diverse voices on the issue of the increasing popularity of fast food.Some insist it is a positive tendency while others stand on the opposite side.
?Nowadays international tourism is more and more common.What's your opinion about this trend？ 添加背景：分3步走--过去……随着……现在…… Before the Reform and Opening-up Policy,almost nobody in China knew what international tourism was,but today,with the booming in economy and the progress of means of transport,global travel has been a good choice for increasing number of ordinary citizens to entertain and relax when they are available.
题干：Nowadays many people live in a society where consumer goods are relatively cheap to buy. Do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages? 背景： 30 years ago, a watch, a bicycle, and a TV set were luxuries for every ordinary Chinese family. But nowadays, with the improvement of living standards, all the commodities have become common and affordable.
题干：The Internet has dramatically altered our lives over the past few decades. Although some of these changes have been negative, the overall effects of this technology have been positive. What are your opinions on this? 定义：The Internet is generally referred to as an effective approach which motives the majority of ordinary citizens to obtain information of various regions throughout the entire world.
题干：Some people believe that history has little to tell us, other people believe that people must have knowledge of history in order to understand the present. Discuss both point of view and give your own opinion. 定义：History is generally referred to as the knowledge passed down by our elderly generations, and also the precious experience and lessons which teach us to tell right from wrong.
? 问句式：一般疑问句提问+是或否+答原因 Some people think environmental protection of globalization plays an important role.However,others think it is a waste of valuable resources.What is your opinion? 问句式：Is there anybody that can be exempt from the environmental pollution in the world？ Obviously,the answer is negative,because we all human beings are living on the same planet. 注意：回答的原因不要超过一句话
题干：At present ,science is developing quickly, but some people still have a high opinion of artists. What can the arts tell us of life that science cannot? 问句式开头: Can you imagine a world without art?Obviously,the answer is negative, because materials feed our body，while arts beautify and enrich both material and mental world.
? 题干：It is generally believed that some people are born with certain talents, for instance for sport or music, and others are not.However,it is sometimes claimed that any child can be taught to become a good sports person of musician. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
? Deng Yaping, the great table tennis player, was once considered to be unsuitable to play table tennis for the so-called lack of talent--tall and strong build, but with her diligence and hardship which is beyond the wildest imagination, she has shocked the world by getting 22 world-championships. ? 注：只讲述故事梗概，不要细节
An old saying goes like this: when in Rome,do as Romans do.
All men are created equal. The world is a book, and those who do not travel read only a page.
The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated. The greatest danger in modern technology is not that machines begin to think like people, but that people begin to think like machines.
3种表达方式 （1）表观点如何开始？ in my opinion, from my point of view as for me, I personally believe as far as I am concerned I would argue that As what I have observed
? 有效的回答 eg.Some people think Smart is a beautiful girl,do you agree or disagree? 方式一：一边倒的回答: Smart 就是一个大美女! 方式二：两边倒的回答： Smart 在几个方面来说算是美女，但在另外几个 方面算不上美女。 方式三：斜着倒的回答： 尽管Smart个子比较矮，总的来说是个美女！
（1）There is someone arguing that history has no value to the modern people.To what extent do you agree or disagree? 一边倒--表观点 I insist that history is essential and helpful for everyone in the world. (2)Which is better place for the aged,home or nursing house? In my opinion,nursing house is undoubtedly a better choice,especially in the following 3 areas.
? Schools are no longer necessary,because children can get so much information available on line, and they can study as well at home.To what extent do you agree or disagree? ? 一边倒：Schools,as what I have observed,is and will be necessary.
(1)People think that old buildings should be knocked down and give way to the new buildings.Do you agree or disagree? As far as I am concerned,it depends on different situations whether the old buildings should be torn down.
(2)Some people think that a sense of competition in children should be encouraged.Others believe that children who are taught to co-operate rather than compete become more useful adults.Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. I personally believe that there is some element of truthy in both of the views.The reasons are as follows...
（3）It is generally believed that some people are born with certain talents,for instance for sport or music, and others are not.However, it is sometimes claimed that any child can be taught to become a good sports person of musician.Discuss both views and give your own opinion. From my point of view,these views are not mutually exclusive.
(1)The internet has dramatically altered our lives over the past few decades.Although some of these changes have been negative,the overall effects of this technology have been positive.What are your opinions on this ? 倒：Even though Internet poses some problems,it, as what I have observed,provides a series of strength for our lives,especially in the following 2 areas.
（2）Smoking is a major cause of serious illness and death throughout the world today.In the interest of public health,governments should ban cigarettes and other tobacco products.Do you agree or disagree? 倒：Even though cigarettes industry provides some benefits,cigarettes,as what I have observed,poses a series of problems.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2/3段落 结构：主题句+扩展信息 如何拓展思路呢？ 阐述事实 举例 解释 6条路 比较 假设 驳斥 反问
? A:First of all, it is indisputable that the internet has improved the way that we communicate. Although it may result in social isolation and indifference if we spend too much time on Internet instead of talking to real people,most of us have benefited a lot from e-mail and chatting programs like QQ.
B:To begin with, there are two objective factors leading to the difficulty in employment. Firstly, it is well known that a world-wide financial crisis has happened since last year. So more and more companies are broke, and fewer positions are available, which makes the job market more intense.
? Secondly, the current university education system also contributes to this problem. It is a sad truth that our universities always focus on teaching theoretical knowledge, thus students can not obtain the practical skills that are very helpful and necessary in their future jobs.
? 举例： ①几个单词 ②一个句子 ③一个完整的故事
? Lots of commodities are made of animals, such as sweaters, leathers and so on. ? A case in point is that the work which demands more physical fitness and endurance, such as mining and house-constructing, are better done by men.
? And it is a fact that the advancement in biological technology benefits all human beings, since the birth of hybrid rice,and the great improvement in the field of biological technology, it has made it possible to feed1.4 billion Chinese populations.
? As the development of science which has fundamentally revolutionized almost every aspect of our lives, arts tend to be ignored by many people, for it does not offer us more practical benefits which science often creates, for instance, the washing machine certainly makes housewives’ lives easier.
In order to uderstand the present,we all need to know how thing went yesterday.An interesting example I want to cite is a real story which happened in the Inner Mongolia in China,where foxes were all killed by the hunters.But later,they found it wrong because the number of rats increased dramatically without the threat from their enemies ---the fox.Thus,nowadays,we human beings devote ourselves to protect animals from extinction.
? 出现在主题句后，作为对主题句的进一步 阐述 ? To raise the price of petrol,in a way,is a good way to control the fast growth of the private cars.By that I mean,those who have got cars may drive less often due to the increase in the cost of transport ,while those who have planed to purchase a car may think twice or just give it up.
? ①过去+现在 ? First of all,it is indisputable that the Internet has improved the way that we communicate.It is well known that it took more than 1 month to send a letter to someone in America from China,but now,you just press the key of “send”,and then the email will arrive its destination in almost no time.
Although it may result in social isolation and indifference if we spend too much time on Internet instead of talking to real people,most of us have benefited a lot from e-mail and chatting programs like MSN Messager.With these useful and powerful tools of commucation,it is much faster,easier and cheaper to keep in touch with your friends and families who are far away from you.
? 虚拟语气 ? ①对现在和对将来的虚拟 If nobody bought cars,the automobile manufacture and its relevant industries would be damaged disastrously.
? ②对过去的虚拟 ? These young criminals regretted that if they had learned the severe consequences of criminal acts, they would have not committed crimes.
驳斥分3步走，即：展示他人观点 +否定这个观点 +自己的解释 Although some people may insist that there is no difference between males and females,and men and women students are equally suitably accepted in every subject,I would argue that it is unscientific for universities to enroll equal number of men and women students in every subject,because the two genders have different characteristics and abilities.
? 反问的使用能增强文章的气势 Besides,if you think fast food malnourished,you should remember it is always you but not the fast food that decides a balanced diet.What's more,if you are too busy to cook today,why not just enjoy some easy,fast and delicious food at KFC?Then,what harms will it bring if you do not stick to such food every day?
? 末段：1-2句即可 （1）综上所述 All in all;To conclude; In conclusion; By way of conclusion; Consequently
? ①重申观点式 ? 首段表了什么样的观点，末段就换一种方式（改几 个词或句型）来复述这个观点 禁烟 首段表观点：From my point of view，it is absolutely necessary for people to give up smoking. 末段： All in all, I reaffirm my opinion that the government, the families and the individuals should forbid smoking in order to create a safe and clean environment.
? 把正文2个段中的2个主题句里的主题词复述一 遍 ? 网络 首段表观点：Generally, I think that the advantages of the Internet far outweigh its disadvantages. 末段：By way of conclusion, I restate my opinion that the Internet has a positive impact on modern life because of its influence on communication and the free information.
? 禁烟 ? By way of conclusion, I insist a government with enough predictability will not simply ban tobacco products, because there appear some better solutions such as imposing heavier taxes on this industry, prohibiting smoking in the public areas, and so on.
猎杀动物 ? In conclusion, I think that wild animals are a very important part of the ecosystem, so we should take effective measures, and call for every people to stop the hunting. (X) 可改为： ? In conclusion, I think that wild animals are a very important part of the ecosystem, so effective measures should be taken by governments to stop illegal hunting. (√)
? 快餐 ? Therefore, the growing trend of fast food is positive. Though it may still have some drawbacks, we can do our best to improve its shortcomings. (X) ? Therefore, the growing trend of fast food is positive.Though it may still have some drawbacks,I have to say all the flaws, in the long run,must be gradually improved if it is expected to survive the fierce market competition. (√)
? 工作满意/现实 However, we still have hope and the ability to create a happy and satisfactory future for ourselves by mastering more knowledge, skills and work experience to be more competitive when facing a good job opportunity.
? 旅游与风俗 ? To sum up,I,as a tourist, agree that we should follow the local customs, just like an old saying goes, "when in Roma do as Romans do”.
? 建筑：In summary, we have to admit people do like buildings that have aesthetic appeal, but it should not come at the cost of safety, the damage of environment, and the loss of functions. We wish designers could balance function and appearance at the same time.
? 贫富差距 ? Consequently, it will definitely lead to chaos and inequality if the descendants of the rich occupy the majority of the social wealth, while that of the poor struggle in poverty.
? 第1段： 引言 表观点
第2段 ①主题句 ②拓展句③拓展句④拓展句
第3段 ①主题句 ②拓展句③拓展句④拓展句
题型一：Discuss the Reasons or Effects, and Give Solutions 文章结构：只写引言，无需表观点 第二段：报告原因 第三段：报告方案 第四段：一句话结尾
? 写作要点 A：原因〉方案 B：几点原因----即几点方案 C：客观+主观 影响：积极+消极 D：至少回答一个深层次的原因或影响
（1）环境 ? Today, environmental pollution has been increasingly seriously. ? Discuss the reasons why environment is polluted and give some solutions to it. ? 提纲： 第一段：只写引言—背景式 第二段：主题句：人类活动造成污染 报告原因：客观① 工厂排污 ②生活垃圾-私家车尾气 主观：缺乏环保意识，比如：塑料袋的使用
? ? ? ? ?
第三段：报告方案： ①净化装置 ②控制车辆增加 ③提高环保意识 第四段：一句话结尾：建议式
? These days, it seems that an increasing number of people are leaving rural areas to live in the city. ? Discuss some of the effects of rural depopulation (migration from the country to the city) and suggest some ways in which this trend could be reversed.
? 提纲： ? 第一段：只写引言：背景式 ? 第二段：报告影响：积极 带来充沛劳动力 消极①过度拥堵：交通，环境，住房，就业 ②失业率上升---犯罪率增加 ③中国农村缺乏劳动力 第三段：方案：①解决农村就业：建厂 ②改善生活环境：基础设施、学校、医院…… 第四段：一句话结尾：美好展望式
? 重返犯罪道路 Recent research shows that the majority of criminals who were sent to prison continue to commit after they are set free.Why is this the case? What can be done to solve the problem?